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1.  Mean CD4 cell count changes in patients failing a first-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:147.
Changes in CD4 cell counts are poorly documented in individuals with low or moderate-level viremia while on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings. We assessed the impact of on-going HIV-RNA replication on CD4 cell count slopes in patients treated with a first-line combination ART.
Naïve patients on a first-line ART regimen with at least two measures of HIV-RNA available after ART initiation were included in the study. The relationships between mean CD4 cell count change and HIV-RNA at 6 and 12 months after ART initiation (M6 and M12) were assessed by linear mixed models adjusted for gender, age, clinical stage and year of starting ART.
3,338 patients were included (14 cohorts, 64% female) and the group had the following characteristics: a median follow-up time of 1.6 years, a median age of 34 years, and a median CD4 cell count at ART initiation of 107 cells/μL. All patients with suppressed HIV-RNA at M12 had a continuous increase in CD4 cell count up to 18 months after treatment initiation. By contrast, any degree of HIV-RNA replication both at M6 and M12 was associated with a flat or a decreasing CD4 cell count slope. Multivariable analysis using HIV-RNA thresholds of 10,000 and 5,000 copies confirmed the significant effect of HIV-RNA on CD4 cell counts both at M6 and M12.
In routinely monitored patients on an NNRTI-based first-line ART, on-going low-level HIV-RNA replication was associated with a poor immune outcome in patients who had detectable levels of the virus after one year of ART.
PMCID: PMC3573925  PMID: 22742573
HIV-1; CD4 count; CD4 slope; HIV-RNA threshold; Resource limited settings
2.  Diverse and High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Associated with a Significant High Rate of Cervical Dysplasia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Women in Johannesburg, South Africa 
Acta cytologica  2009;53(1):10-17.
To evaluate the epidemiology of the human papillomavirus (HPV) type and correlate it with the Papanicolaou smears in human immunodeficiency virus–seropositive women in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Study Design
In a cohort of 148 women, HPV DNA testing was performed with the Roche HPV genotyping test (Branchburg, New Jersey, U.S.A.). Papanicolaou smears were performed by standard cytology utilizing 2001 Bethesda reporting guidelines.
The average age and CD4 count of the participants was 35 years and 255 cells per mm3, respectively. Fifty-four percent had abnormal Papanicolaou smears; 66% of the abnormal cytology was low grade changes, with 33% assessed as having high grade changes. HPV DNA was found in 95% of the 148 subjects assessed, with 83% having 1 or more HPV oncogenic types. Common oncogenic types were 16, 35, 53 and 18. When HPV results were stratified by CD4, there was a significant risk of an oncogenic HPV type in women with CD4 <200. Significant odds ratios for high grade lesions were seen in HPV types 16, 35, 51, 66, 69 and 73.
The results of HPV typing illustrate the diverse range of oncogenic HPV and high prevalence of oncogenic type. These results highlight the need for improved access to Papanicolaou smear screening for this population.
PMCID: PMC2922752  PMID: 19248549
cervical dysplasia; HIV; human papillomavirus type 16; uterine cervical diseases

Results 1-2 (2)