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1.  Genomic Analysis Identifies Targets of Convergent Positive Selection in Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Nature genetics  2013;45(10):10.1038/ng.2747.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is successfully evolving antibiotic resistance, threatening attempts at tuberculosis epidemic control. Mechanisms of resistance, including the genetic changes favored by selection in resistant isolates, are incompletely understood. Using 116 newly and 7 previously sequenced M. tuberculosis genomes, we identified genomewide signatures of positive selection specific to the 47 resistant genomes. By searching for convergent evolution, the independent fixation of mutations at the same nucleotide site or gene, we recovered 100% of a set of known resistance markers. We also found evidence of positive selection in an additional 39 genomic regions in resistant isolates. These regions encode pathways of cell wall biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. Mutations in these regions could directly confer resistance or compensate for fitness costs associated with resistance. Functional genetic analysis of mutations in one gene, ponA1, demonstrated an in vitro growth advantage in the presence of the drug rifampicin.
doi:10.1038/ng.2747
PMCID: PMC3887553  PMID: 23995135
2.  Computational prediction and validation of C/D, H/ACA and Eh_U3 snoRNAs of Entamoeba histolytica 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:390.
Background
Small nucleolar RNAs are a highly conserved group of small RNAs found in eukaryotic cells. Genes encoding these RNAs are diversely located throughout the genome. They are functionally conserved, performing post transcriptional modification (methylation and pseudouridylation) of rRNA and other nuclear RNAs. They belong to two major categories: the C/D box and H/ACA box containing snoRNAs. U3 snoRNA is an exceptional member of C/D box snoRNAs and is involved in early processing of pre-rRNA. An antisense sequence is present in each snoRNA which guides the modification or processing of target RNA. However, some snoRNAs lack this sequence and often they are called orphan snoRNAs.
Results
We have searched snoRNAs of Entamoeba histolytica from the genome sequence using computational programmes (snoscan and snoSeeker) and we obtained 99 snoRNAs (C/D and H/ACA box snoRNAs) along with 5 copies of Eh_U3 snoRNAs. These are located diversely in the genome, mostly in intergenic regions, while some are found in ORFs of protein coding genes, intron and UTRs. The computationally predicted snoRNAs were validated by RT-PCR and northern blotting. The expected sizes were in agreement with the observed sizes for all C/D box snoRNAs tested, while for some of the H/ACA box there was indication of processing to generate shorter products.
Conclusion
Our results showed the presence of snoRNAs in E. histolytica, an early branching eukaryote, and the structural features of E. histolytica snoRNAs were well conserved when compared with yeast and human snoRNAs. This study will help in understanding the evolution of these conserved RNAs in diverse phylogenetic groups.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-390
PMCID: PMC3542256  PMID: 22892049
U3 snoRNA; Guide/ orphan snoRNAs; Entamoeba histolytica
3.  Chemical modification of L-glutamine to alpha-amino glutarimide on autoclaving facilitates Agrobacterium infection of host and non-host plants: A new use of a known compound 
BMC Chemical Biology  2011;11:1.
Background
Accidental autoclaving of L-glutamine was found to facilitate the Agrobacterium infection of a non host plant like tea in an earlier study. In the present communication, we elucidate the structural changes in L-glutamine due to autoclaving and also confirm the role of heat transformed L-glutamine in Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of host/non host plants.
Results
When autoclaved at 121°C and 15 psi for 20 or 40 min, L-glutamine was structurally modified into 5-oxo proline and 3-amino glutarimide (α-amino glutarimide), respectively. Of the two autoclaved products, only α-amino glutarimide facilitated Agrobacterium infection of a number of resistant to susceptible plants. However, the compound did not have any vir gene inducing property.
Conclusions
We report a one pot autoclave process for the synthesis of 5-oxo proline and α-amino glutarimide from L-glutamine. Xenobiotic detoxifying property of α-amino glutarimide is also proposed.
doi:10.1186/1472-6769-11-1
PMCID: PMC3130638  PMID: 21624145
4.  Biogenesis of the cell wall and other glycoconjugates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
The reemergence of tuberculosis in its present-day manifectations – single, multiple and extensive drug resistant forms and as HIV-TB coinfections – has resulted in renewed research on fundamental questions such as the nature of the organism itself, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the molecular basis of its pathogenesis, definition of the immunological response in animal models and humans, and development of new intervention strategies such as vaccines and drugs. Foremost among these developments has been the precise chemical definition of the complex and distinctive cell wall of M. tuberculosis, elucidation of the relevant pathways and underlying genetics responsible for the synthesis of the hallmark moities of the tubercle bacillus such as the mycolic acid-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex, the phthiocerol- and trehalose-containing effector lipids, the phosphatidylinositol-containing mannosides, lipomannosides and lipoarabinomannosides, major immunomodulators, and others. In this review, the laboratory personnel that have been the focal point of some to these developments review recent progress towards a comprehensive understanding of the basic physiology and functions of the cell wall of M. tuberculosis.
doi:10.1016/S0065-2164(09)69002-X
PMCID: PMC3066434  PMID: 19729090
5.  AftD, a novel essential arabinofuranosyltransferase from mycobacteria 
Glycobiology  2009;19(11):1235-1247.
Arabinogalactan (AG) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) are the two major cell wall (lipo)polysaccharides of mycobacteria. They share arabinan chains made of linear segments of α-1,5-linked d-Araf residues with some α-1,3-branching, the biosynthesis of which offers opportunities for new chemotherapeutics. In search of the missing arabinofuranosyltransferases (AraTs) responsible for the formation of the arabinan domains of AG and LAM in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we identified Rv0236c (AftD) as a putative membrane-associated polyprenyl-dependent glycosyltransferase. AftD is 1400 amino acid-long, making it the largest predicted glycosyltransferase of its class in the M. tuberculosis genome. Assays using cell-free extracts from recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis and Corynebacterium glutamicum strains expressing different levels of aftD indicated that this gene encodes a functional AraT with α-1,3-branching activity on linear α-1,5-linked neoglycolipid acceptors in vitro. The disruption of aftD in M. smegmatis resulted in cell death and a decrease in its activity caused defects in cell division, reduced growth, alteration of colonial morphology, and accumulation of trehalose dimycolates in the cell envelope. Overexpression of aftD in M. smegmatis, in contrast, induced the accumulation of two arabinosylated compounds with carbohydrate backbones reminiscent of that of LAM and a degree of arabinosylation dependent on aftD expression levels. Altogether, our results thus indicate that AftD is an essential AraT involved in the synthesis of the arabinan domain of major mycobacterial cell envelope (lipo)polysaccharides.
doi:10.1093/glycob/cwp116
PMCID: PMC2757576  PMID: 19654261
arabinogalactan; arabinosyltransferase; lipoarabinomannan; Mycobacterium; tuberculosis
6.  Identification of a Polyprenylphosphomannosyl Synthase Involved in the Synthesis of Mycobacterial Mannosides▿ † 
Journal of Bacteriology  2009;191(21):6769-6772.
We report on the identification of a glycosyltransferase (GT) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Rv3779, of the membranous GT-C superfamily responsible for the direct synthesis of polyprenyl-phospho-mannopyranose and thus indirectly for lipoarabinomannan, lipomannan, and the higher-order phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides.
doi:10.1128/JB.00431-09
PMCID: PMC2795309  PMID: 19717608
7.  Preliminary crystallographic analysis of GpgS, a key glucosyltransferase involved in methylglucose lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  
Glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (GpgS) is a key enzyme that catalyses the first glucosylation step in methylglucose lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Mycobacterium spp. Here, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of GpgS from M. tuberculosis and of its complex with UDP are reported.
Glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (GpgS) is a key enzyme that catalyses the first glucosylation step in methylglucose lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in mycobacteria. These important molecules are believed to be involved in the regulation of fatty-acid and mycolic acid synthesis. The enzyme belongs to the recently defined GT81 family of retaining glycosyltransferases (CAZy, Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes Database; see http://www.cazy.org). Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis are reported of GpgS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and of its complex with UDP. GpgS crystals belonged to space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.85, b = 98.85, c = 127.64 Å, and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution. GpgS–UDP complex crystals belonged to space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.32, b = 98.32, c = 127.96 Å, and diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution.
doi:10.1107/S1744309108032892
PMCID: PMC2593697  PMID: 19052364
glycosyltransferases; methylglucose lipopolysaccharides; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
8.  Preliminary crystallographic analysis of GpgS, a key glucosyltransferase involved in methylglucose lipopolysaccharides biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Synopsis Glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (GpgS) is a key enzyme that catalyses the first glucosylation step in methylglucose lipopolysaccharides (MGLP) biosynthesis in Mycobacterium spp. Here we report the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of GpgS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its complex with UDP at 2.6 Å and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively.
Glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (GpgS) is a key enzyme that catalyses the first glucosylation step in methylglucose lipopolysaccharides (MGLP) biosynthesis in mycobacteria. These important molecules are believed to be involved in the regulation of fatty acid and mycolic acid synthesis. The enzyme belongs to the recently defined GT81 family of retaining glycosyltransferases (CAZy, Carbohydrate-Active enZymes data base; see www.cazy.org). Here we report the purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of GpgS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its complex with UDP. GpgS crystals belong to space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.85, b = 98.85, c= 127.64 Å, and diffract to 2.6 Å resolution. GpgS-UDP complex crystals belong to space group I4 with unit-cell parameters a= 98.32, b= 98.32, c= 127.96 Å, and diffract to 3.0 Å resolution.
doi:10.1107/S1744309108032892
PMCID: PMC2593697  PMID: 19052364
glycosyltransferase; methylglucose lipopolysaccharides; Mycobacterium; X ray structure
9.  The structural basis of chain length control in Rv1086 
Journal of molecular biology  2008;381(1):129-140.
In Mycobacterium tuberculosis two related Z-prenyl diphosphate synthases, E,Z-farnesyl diphosphate synthase (Rv1086) and decaprenyl diphosphate synthase (Rv2361c) work in series to synthesize decaprenyl phosphate (C50) from isopentenyl diphosphate and E-geranyl diphosphate. Decaprenyl phosphate plays a central role in the biosynthesis of essential mycobacterial cell wall components, such as the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex and lipoarabinomannan; thus, its synthesis has attracted considerable interest as a potential therapeutic target. Rv1086 is a unique prenyl diphosphate synthase in that it adds only one isoprene unit to geranyl diphosphate generating the 15 carbon product (E,Z-farnesyl diphosphate). Rv2361c then adds a further 7 isoprene units to E,Z-farnesyl diphosphate in a processive manner to generate the 50 carbon prenyl diphosphate, which is then dephosphorylated to generate a carrier for activated sugars. The molecular basis for chain length discrimination by Rv1086 during synthesis is unknown. We also report the structure of apo Rv1086 with citronellyl diphosphate bound and with the product mimic E,E-farnesyl diphosphate bound. We report the structures of Rv2361c in the apo form, with isopentyl diphosphate bound and with a substrate analogue, citronellyl diphosphate. The structures confirm the enzymes are very closely related. Detailed comparison reveals structural differences that account for chain length control in Rv1086. We have tested this hypothesis and have identified a double mutant of Rv1086 which makes a range of longer lipid chains.
doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2008.05.060
PMCID: PMC2527485  PMID: 18597781
Drug design; enzyme mechanism; tuberculosis; x-ray crystallography; inhibitors
10.  Initiation of Methylglucose Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis in Mycobacteria 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(5):e5447.
Background
Mycobacteria produce two unique families of cytoplasmic polymethylated polysaccharides - the methylglucose lipopolysaccharides (MGLPs) and the methylmannose polysaccharides (MMPs) - the physiological functions of which are still poorly defined. Towards defining the roles of these polysaccharides in mycobacterial physiology, we generated knock-out mutations of genes in their putative biosynthetic pathways.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We report here on the characterization of the Rv1208 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its ortholog in Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSMEG_5084) as the enzymes responsible for the transfer of the first glucose residue of MGLPs. Disruption of MSMEG_5084 in M. smegmatis resulted in a dramatic decrease in MGLP synthesis directly attributable to the almost complete abolition of glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase activity in this strain. Synthesis of MGLPs in the mutant was restored upon complementation with wild-type copies of the Rv1208 gene from M. tuberculosis or MSMEG_5084 from M. smegmatis.
Conclusions/Significance
This is the first evidence linking Rv1208 to MGLP biosynthesis. Thus, the first step in the initiation of MGLP biosynthesis in mycobacteria has been defined, and subsequent steps can be inferred.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005447
PMCID: PMC2674218  PMID: 19421329
11.  Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 4-Diphosphocytidyl-2-C-Methyl-d-Erythritol Synthase: Potential for Drug Development▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2007;189(24):8922-8927.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis utilizes the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate and its isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate, precursors of all isoprenoid compounds. This pathway is of interest as a source of new drug targets, as it is absent from humans and disruption of the responsible genes has shown a lethal phenotype for Escherichia coli. In the MEP pathway, 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-d-erythritol is formed from 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) and CTP in a reaction catalyzed by a 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-d-erythritol synthase (IspD). In the present work, we demonstrate that Rv3582c is essential for M. tuberculosis: Rv3582c has been cloned and expressed, and the encoded protein has been purified. The purified M. tuberculosis IspD protein was capable of catalyzing the formation of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-d-erythritol in the presence of MEP and CTP. The enzyme was active over a broad pH range (pH 6.0 to 9.0), with peak activity at pH 8.0. The activity was absolutely dependent upon divalent cations, with 20 mM Mg2+ being optimal, and replacement of CTP with other nucleotide 5′-triphosphates did not support activity. Under the conditions tested, M. tuberculosis IspD had Km values of 58.5 μM for MEP and 53.2 μM for CTP. Calculated kcat and kcat/Km values were 0.72 min−1 and 12.3 mM−1 min−1 for MEP and 1.0 min−1 and 18.8 mM−1 min−1 for CTP, respectively.
doi:10.1128/JB.00925-07
PMCID: PMC2168624  PMID: 17921290
12.  Decaprenyl Diphosphate Synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Journal of Bacteriology  2004;186(22):7564-7570.
Z-prenyl diphosphate synthases catalyze the sequential condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate with allylic diphosphates to synthesize polyprenyl diphosphates. In mycobacteria, these are precursors of decaprenyl phosphate, a molecule which plays a central role in the biosynthesis of essential mycobacterial cell wall components, such as the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex and lipoarabinomannan. Recently, it was demonstrated that open reading frame Rv2361c of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv genome encodes a unique prenyl diphosphate synthase (M. C. Schulbach, P. J. Brennan, and D. C. Crick, J. Biol. Chem. 275:22876-22881, 2000). We have now purified the enzyme to near homogeneity by using an Escherichia coli expression system and have shown that the product of this enzyme is decaprenyl diphosphate. Rv2361c has an absolute requirement for divalent cations and an optimal pH range of 7.5 to 8.5, and the activity is stimulated by both detergent and dithiothreitol. The enzyme catalyzes the addition of isopentenyl diphosphate to geranyl diphosphate, neryl diphosphate, ω,E,E-farnesyl diphosphate, ω,E,Z-farnesyl diphosphate, or ω,E,E,E-geranylgeranyl diphosphate, with Km values for the allylic substrates of 490, 29, 84, 290, and 40 μM, respectively. The Km value for isopentenyl diphosphate is 89 μM. The catalytic efficiency is greatest when ω,E,Z-farnesyl diphosphate is used as the allylic acceptor, suggesting that this is the natural substrate in vivo, a conclusion that is supported by previous structural studies of decaprenyl phosphoryl mannose isolated from M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of a bacterial Z-prenyl diphosphate synthase that preferentially utilizes an allylic diphosphate primer having the α-isoprene unit in the Z configuration, indicating that Rv1086 (ω,E,Z-farnesyl diphosphate synthase) and Rv2361c act sequentially in the biosynthetic pathway that leads to the formation of decaprenyl phosphate in M. tuberculosis.
doi:10.1128/JB.186.22.7564-7570.2004
PMCID: PMC524883  PMID: 15516568

Results 1-12 (12)