Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are central to the development and progression of dysfunctional ventricular remodeling after tissue injury. We studied 6 month old heterozygous mice with cardiac-specific transgenic expression of active MMP-2 (MMP-2 Tg). MMP-2 Tg hearts showed no substantial gross alteration of cardiac phenotype compared to age-matched wild-type littermates. However, buffer perfused MMP-2 Tg hearts subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion had a larger infarct size and greater depression in contractile performance compared to wild-type hearts. Importantly, cardioprotection mediated by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) was completely abolished in MMP-2 Tg hearts, as shown by abnormalities in mitochondrial ultrastructure and impaired respiration, increased lipid peroxidation, cell necrosis and persistently reduced recovery of contractile performance during post-ischemic reperfusion. We conclude that MMP-2 functions not only as a proteolytic enzyme but also as a previously unrecognized active negative regulator of mitochondrial function during superimposed oxidative stress.
Matrix metalloproteinase-2; Ischemia; Reperfusion; Mitochondria; Preconditioning
Experimental and clinical evidence has pinpointed a critical role for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in ischemic ventricular remodeling and systolic heart failure. Prior studies have demonstrated that transgenic expression of the full-length, 68 kDa, secreted form of MMP-2 induces severe systolic failure. These mice also had unexpected and severe mitochondrial structural abnormalities and dysfunction. We hypothesized that an additional intracellular isoform of MMP-2, which affects mitochondrial function is induced under conditions of systolic failure-associated oxidative stress.
Methodology and Principal Findings
Western blots of cardiac mitochondria from the full length MMP-2 transgenics, ageing mice and a model of accelerated atherogenesis revealed a smaller 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform. Cultured cardiomyoblasts subjected to transient oxidative stress generated the 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform. The 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform was also induced by hypoxic culture of cardiomyoblasts. Genomic database analysis of the MMP-2 gene mapped transcriptional start sites and RNA transcripts induced by hypoxia or epigenetic modifiers within the first intron of the MMP-2 gene. Translation of these transcripts yields a 65 kDa N-terminal truncated isoform beginning at M77, thereby deleting the signal sequence and inhibitory prodomain. Cellular trafficking studies demonstrated that the 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform is not secreted and is present in cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, while the full length 68 kDa isoform was found only in the extracellular space. Expression of the 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform induced mitochondrial-nuclear stress signaling with activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB, NFAT and IRF transcriptional pathways. By microarray, the 65 kDa MMP-2 induces an innate immunity transcriptome, including viral stress response genes, innate immunity transcription factor IRF7, chemokines and pro-apoptosis genes.
A novel N-terminal truncated intracellular isoform of MMP-2 is induced by oxidative stress. This isoform initiates a primary innate immune response that may contribute to progressive cardiac dysfunction in the setting of ischemia and systolic failure.
The role of the heme b in Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase is highly ambiguous and its role in catalysis is questionable. To examine whether heme reduction is an essential step of the catalytic mechanism, we generated a series of site-directed mutations around the heme binding pocket, creating a library of variants with a stepwise decrease in the midpoint potential of the heme from the wild-type value of +20 mV down to −80 mV. This difference in midpoint potential is enough to alter the reactivity of the heme towards succinate and thus its redox state under turnover conditions. Our results show both the steady state succinate oxidase and fumarate reductase catalytic activity of the enzyme are not a function of the redox potential of the heme. As well, lower heme potential did not cause an increase in the rate of superoxide production both in vitro and in vivo. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the heme in the wild-type enzyme is a combination of two distinct signals. We link EPR spectra to structure, showing that one of the signals likely arises from an out-of-plane distortion of the heme, a saddled conformation, while the second signal originates from a more planar orientation of the porphyrin ring.
A homogeneous protein with a subunit apparent molecular mass of ~50 kDa that catalyzes the previously described mitochondrial NADH-supported ammonium-stimulated hydrogen peroxide production (Grivennikova, V.G., Gecchini, G. and Vinogradov, A.D. (2008) FEBS Letts. 583, 1287-1291) was purified from the mitochondrial matrix of bovine heart. Chromatography of partially purified protein showed that the peaks of ammonium-stimulated NADH-dependent H2O2 production and that of NADH:lipoamide oxidoreductase activity coincided. The catalytic properties and mass spectrometry of the trypsin-digested protein revealed peptides that allowed identification of the protein as the Bos taurus dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase.
Hydrogen peroxide; ammonium; reactive oxygen species; dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase; mitochondria
The complex II family of proteins includes succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) and quinol:fumarate oxidoreductase (QFR). In the facultative bacterium Escherichia coli both are expressed as part of the aerobic (SQR) and anaerobic (QFR) respiratory chains. SQR from E. coli is homologous to mitochondrial complex II and has proven to be an excellent model system for structure/function studies of the enzyme. Both SQR and QFR from E. coli are tetrameric membrane-bound enzymes that couple succinate/fumarate interconversion with quinone/quinol reduction/oxidation. Both enzymes are capable of binding either ubiquinone or menaquinone, however, they have adopted different quinone binding sites where catalytic reactions with quinones occur. A comparison of the structures of the quinone binding sites in SQR and QFR reveals how the enzymes have adapted in order to accommodate both benzo- and napthoquinones. A combination of structural, computational, and kinetic studies of members of the complex II family of enzymes has revealed that the catalytic quinone adopts different positions in the quinone-binding pocket. These data suggest that movement of the quinone within the quinone-binding pocket is essential for catalysis.
Complex II; quinone-binding; succinate dehydrogenase; fumarate reductase; succinate-quinone oxidoreductase; menaquinol-fumarate oxidoreductase
The carbohydrate-binding region of GspB from S. gordonii strain M99 was crystallized in space group P212121 and data were collected to 1.3 Å resolution.
The carbohydrate-binding region of the bacterial adhesin GspB from Streptococcus gordonii strain M99 (GspBBR) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Separate sparse-matrix screening of GspBBR buffered in either 20 mM Tris pH 7.4 or 20 mM HEPES pH 7.5 resulted in different crystallographic behavior such that different precipitants, salts and additives supported crystallization of GspBBR in each buffer. While both sets of conditions supported crystal growth in space group P212121, the crystals had distinct unit-cell parameters of a = 33.3, b = 86.7, c = 117.9 Å for crystal form 1 and a = 34.6, b = 98.3, c = 99.0 Å for crystal form 2. Additive screening improved the crystals grown in both conditions such that diffraction extended to beyond 2 Å resolution. A complete data set has been collected to 1.3 Å resolution with an overall R
merge value of 0.04 and an R
merge value of 0.33 in the highest resolution shell.
GspB; glycoproteins; Streptococcus gordonii; sialic acid; adhesins; endocarditis; lectins
The carbohydrate binding region of the bacterial adhesin GspB from Streptococcus gordonii strain M99 (GspBBR) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Separate sparse-matrix screening of GspBBR buffered in either 20 mM Tris pH 7.4 or 20 mM HEPES pH 7.5 resulted in different crystallographic behavior such that different precipitants, salts, and additives supported crystallization of GspBBR in each buffer. While both sets of conditions supported crystal growth in space group P212121, these had distinct unit cell dimensions of a=33.3 Å, b=86.6 Å, c=117.9 Å for crystal form one and a=34.6 Å, b=98.3 Å, c=99.0 Å for crystal form two. Additive screening improved the crystals grown in both conditions such that diffraction extended beyond 2 Å resolution. A complete data set has been collected to 1.3 Å resolution with an overall Rsym value of 0.04 and an Rsym value of 0.33 in the highest resolution shell.
GspB; glycoprotein; Streptococcus gordonii; sialic acid; adhesin; endocarditis; lectin
GspB is a serine-rich repeat (SRR) adhesin of Streptococcus gordonii that mediates binding of this organism to human platelets via its interaction with sialyl-T antigen on the receptor GPIbα. This interaction appears to be a major virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. To address the mechanism by which GspB recognizes its carbohydrate ligand, we determined the high-resolution x-ray crystal structure of the GspB binding region (GspBBR), both alone and in complex with a disaccharide precursor to sialyl-T antigen. Analysis of the GspBBR structure revealed that it is comprised of three independently folded subdomains or modules: 1) an Ig-fold resembling a CnaA domain from prokaryotic pathogens; 2) a second Ig-fold resembling the binding region of mammalian Siglecs; 3) a subdomain of unique fold. The disaccharide was found to bind in a pocket within the Siglec subdomain, but at a site distinct from that observed in mammalian Siglecs. Confirming the biological relevance of this binding pocket, we produced three isogenic variants of S. gordonii, each containing a single point mutation of a residue lining this binding pocket. These variants have reduced binding to carbohydrates of GPIbα. Further examination of purified GspBBR-R484E showed reduced binding to sialyl-T antigen while S. gordonii harboring this mutation did not efficiently bind platelets and showed a significant reduction in virulence, as measured by an animal model of endocarditis. Analysis of other SRR proteins revealed that the predicted binding regions of these adhesins also had a modular organization, with those known to bind carbohydrate receptors having modules homologous to the Siglec and Unique subdomains of GspBBR. This suggests that the binding specificity of the SRR family of adhesins is determined by the type and organization of discrete modules within the binding domains, which may affect the tropism of organisms for different tissues.
The binding of bacteria to human platelets is thought to be important for development of infective endocarditis, a life-threatening infection of the cardiovascular system. Streptococcus gordonii is a leading cause of endocarditis. This pathogen uses a protein called GspB to attach to carbohydrates on human platelets. While this binding interaction appears to be mediated by a specific, contiguous domain within GspB, little is known about the molecular details of the interaction between GspB and the carbohydrate receptors on its human host. We therefore determined the crystal structure of the region of GspB that binds to platelet carbohydrates, both alone and in complex with a synthetic carbohydrate receptor. Using this structure as a guide, we were able to produce three strains of S. gordonii that lacked the ability to bind to platelet carbohydrates. One of these isogenic variants was studied more in-depth and lacked the ability to bind to human platelets in vitro and was reduced in virulence when tested in vivo. These studies provide the first structural information detailing the molecular interactions between any serine-rich repeat adhesin and its host receptor, and identify how different, related adhesins may have evolved different specificities for host receptors.
A b-type heme is conserved in membrane-bound complex II enzymes (SQR, succinate-ubiquinone reductase). The axial ligands for the low spin heme b in Escherichia coli complex II are SdhC His84 and SdhD His71. E. coli SdhD His71 is separated by 10 residues from SdhD Asp82 and Tyr83 which are essential for ubiquinone catalysis. The same His-10x-AspTyr motif dominates in homologous SdhD proteins, except for Saccharomyces cerevisiae where a tyrosine is at the axial position (Tyr-Cys-9x-AspTyr). Nevertheless, the yeast enzyme was suggested to contain a stoichiometric amount of heme, however, with the Cys ligand in the aforementioned motif acting as heme ligand. In this report, the role of Cys residues for heme coordination in the complex II family of enzymes is addressed. Cys was substituted to the SdhD-71 position and the yeast Tyr71Cys72 motif also recreated. The Cys71 variant retained heme, although it was high spin, while the Tyr71Cys72 mutant lacked heme. Previously the presence of heme in S. cerevisiae was detected by a spectral peak in fumarate-oxidized, dithionite-reduced mitochondria. Here it is shown that this method must be used with caution. Comparison of bovine and yeast mitochondrial membranes shows that fumarate induced reoxidation of cytochromes in both SQR and the bc1 complex (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase). Thus, this report raises a concern about the presence of low spin heme b in S. cerevisiae complex II.
Succinate dehydrogenase; complex II; cytochrome b; heme; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Alkaline incubation of NADH results in the formation of a very potent inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase. High resolution mass spectroscopy along with NMR characterization clearly showed that the inhibitor is derived from attachment of a glycolic acid moiety to the 4-position of the dihydronicotinamide ring of NADH. The very potent inhibitor is competitive with respect to NADH. The inhibitor added in submicromolar concentrations to cardiomyocytes protects them from damage caused by hypoxia/reoxygenation stress. In isolated mouse hearts, addition of the inhibitor results in a substantial reduction of myocardial infarct size caused by global ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Lactate Dehydrogenase; Competitive inhibition; Enzyme kinetics; cardioprotection
Cytochrome bd is a terminal quinol oxidase in Escherichia coli. Mitochondrial respiration is inhibited at cytochrome bc1 (complex III) by myxothiazol. Mixing purified cytochrome bd oxidase with myxothiazol-inhibited bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP) restores up to 50% of the original rotenone-sensitive NADH oxidase and succinate oxidase activities in the absence of exogenous ubiquinone analogues. Complex III bypassed respiration and is saturated at amounts of added cytochrome bd similar to that of other natural respiratory components in SMP. The cytochrome bd tightly binds to the mitochondrial membrane and operates as an intrinsic component of the chimeric respiratory chain.
Complex I; Complex II; Cytochrome bd quinol oxidase; Ubiquinone oxidoreduction; Respiratory chain; Mitochondria
Conditions for the reversible dissociation of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) from the membrane-bound mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) are described. The catalytic activities of the enzyme, i.e. rotenone-insensitive NADH:hexaammineruthenium III reductase and rotenone-sensitive NADH:quinone reductase decline when bovine heart submitochondrial particles are incubated with NADH in the presence of rotenone or cyanide at alkaline pH. FMN protects and fully restores the NADH-induced inactivation whereas riboflavin and flavin adenine dinucleotide do not. The data show that the reduction of complex I significantly weakens the binding of FMN to protein thus resulting in its dissociation when the concentration of holoenzyme is comparable with Kd (~10−8 M at pH 10.0).
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase; Complex I; Flavin mononucleotide; Respiratory chain; Mitochondria
The spatial arrangement and chemical reactivity of the activation-dependent thiol in the mitochondrial Complex I was studied using the membrane penetrating N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and non-penetrating anionic 5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB) as the specific inhibitors of the enzyme in mitochondria and inside-out submitochondrial particles (SMP). Both NEM and DTNB rapidly inhibited the de-activated Complex I in SMP. In mitochondria NEM caused rapid inhibition of Complex I, whereas the enzyme activity was insensitive to DTNB. In the presence of the channel-forming antibiotic alamethicin, mitochondrial Complex I became sensitive to DTNB. Neither active nor de-activated Complex I in SMP was inhibited by oxidized glutathione (10 mM, pH 8.0, 75 min). The data suggest that the active/de-active transition sulfhydryl group of Complex I which is sensitive to inhibition by NEM is located at the inner membrane–matrix interface. These data include the sidedness dependency of inhibition, effect of pH, ionic strength, and membrane bilayer modification on enzyme reactivity towards DTNB and its neutral analogue.
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase; Respiratory Complex I; Active/de-active transition; Sulfhydryl group; Mitochondria
A very potent and specific inhibitor of mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), a derivative of NADH (NADH-OH) has recently been discovered (Kotlyar, A. B., Karliner, J. S., and Cecchini, G. (2005) FEBS Lett. 579, 4861–4866). Here we present a quantitative analysis of the interaction of NADH-OH and other nucleotides with oxidized and reduced complex I in tightly coupled submitochondrial particles. Both the rate of the NADH-OH binding and its affinity to complex I are strongly decreased in the presence of succinate. The effect of succinate is completely reversed by rotenone, antimycin A, and uncoupler. The relative affinity of ADP-ribose, a competitive inhibitor of NADH oxidation, is also shown to be significantly affected by enzyme reduction (KD of 30 and 500 μM for oxidized and the succinate-reduced enzyme, respectively). Binding of NADH-OH is shown to abolish the succinate-supported superoxide generation by complex I. Gradual inhibition of the rotenone-sensitive uncoupled NADH oxidase and the reverse electron transfer activities by NADH-OH yield the same final titration point (~0.1 nmol/mg of protein). The titration of NADH oxidase appears as a straight line, whereas the titration of the reverse reaction appears as a convex curve. Possible models to explain the different titration patterns for the forward and reverse reactions are briefly discussed.
Succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) from Escherichia coli is expressed maximally during aerobic growth, when it catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and reduces ubiquinone in the membrane. The enzyme is similar in structure and function to fumarate reductase (menaquinol-fumarate oxidoreductase [QFR]), which participates in anaerobic respiration by E. coli. Fumarate reductase, which is proficient in succinate oxidation, is able to functionally replace SQR in aerobic respiration when conditions are used to allow the expression of the frdABCD operon aerobically. SQR has not previously been shown to be capable of supporting anaerobic growth of E. coli because expression of the enzyme complex is largely repressed by anaerobic conditions. In order to obtain expression of SQR anaerobically, plasmids which utilize the PFRD promoter of the frdABCD operon fused to the sdhCDAB genes to drive expression were constructed. It was found that, under anaerobic growth conditions where fumarate is utilized as the terminal electron acceptor, SQR would function to support anaerobic growth of E. coli. The levels of amplification of SQR and QFR were similar under anaerobic growth conditions. The catalytic properties of SQR isolated from anaerobically grown cells were measured and found to be identical to those of enzyme produced aerobically. The anaerobic expression of SQR gave a greater yield of enzyme complex than was found in the membrane from aerobically grown cells under the conditions tested. In addition, it was found that anaerobic expression of SQR could saturate the capacity of the membrane for incorporation of enzyme complex. As has been seen with the amplified QFR complex, E. coli accommodates the excess SQR produced by increasing the amount of membrane. The excess membrane was found in tubular structures that could be seen in thin-section electron micrographs.