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1.  Temporomandibular joint dislocation 
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation is an uncommon but debilitating condition of the facial skeleton. The condition may be acute or chronic. Acute TMJ dislocation is common in clinical practice and can be managed easily with manual reduction. Chronic recurrent TMJ dislocation is a challenging situation to manage. In this article, we discuss the comprehensive review of the different treatment modalities in managing TMJ dislocation.
PMCID: PMC4668726  PMID: 26668447
Dislocation; hypermobility; subluxation; temporomandibular joint
2.  Solitary plasmacytoma of the mandible: A rare case report 
Plasmacytoma is a monoclonal, neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells that usually arises within bone marrow or soft tissue sites. It can involve either a single bone (solitary) or multiple bones. Solitary plasmacytoma has a predisposition for the red marrow-containing axial skeleton and is most frequently seen in the thoracic vertebrae, followed by the ribs, sternum, clavicle, or scapula. Its presence in the jaws is extremely rare. We present a case of a 54-year-old female with a well-defined radiolucency of the body region of the mandible later diagnosed as solitary plasmacytoma.
PMCID: PMC4668738  PMID: 26668458
Mandible; myeloma; plasma cell; solitary plasmacytoma
3.  Crystal structure of (4Z)-1-(3,4-di­chloro­phen­yl)-4-[hy­droxy(4-methyl­phen­yl)methyl­idene]-3-methyl-4,5-di­hydro-1H-pyrazol-5-one 
The title compound, C18H14Cl2N2O2, crystallizes with two mol­ecules, A and B, in the asymmetric unit. In mol­ecule A, the dihedral angles between the central pyrazole ring and pendant di­chloro­benzene and p-tolyl rings are 2.18 (16) and 46.78 (16)°, respectively. In mol­ecule B, the equivalent angles are 27.45 (16) and 40.45 (18)°, respectively. Each mol­ecule features an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which closes an S(6) ring and mol­ecule A also features a C—H⋯O inter­action. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯π interactions and aromatic π–π stacking [shortest centroid–centroid separation = 3.707 (2) Å] generate a three-dimensional network.
PMCID: PMC4257223  PMID: 25484715
crystal structure; Schiff-base pyrazole derivative; hydrogen bonding; C—H⋯π inter­actions; aromatic π–π stacking
4.  Crystal structure of 5,5′-[(4-fluoro­phen­yl)methyl­ene]bis­[6-amino-1,3-di­methyl­pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione] 
In the title mol­ecule, C19H21FN6O4, the dihedral angles between the benzene ring and essentially planar pyrimidine rings [maximum deviations of 0.036 (2) and 0.056 (2) Å] are 73.32 (7) and 63.81 (8)°. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the pyrimidine rings is 61.43 (6)°. In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link mol­ecules, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001) and in combination with weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, a three-dimensional network is formed. Weak C—H⋯π inter­actions and π–π inter­actions, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.599 (2) Å are also observed.
PMCID: PMC4257154  PMID: 25484692
crystal structure; uracil derivatives; biological activity; pyrimidine scaffolds; bis-uracil derivatives
5.  Crystal structure of (Z)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methyl-4-[(naphthalen-1-yl­amino)(p-tolyl)methylidene]-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one 
The title Schiff base compound, C28H21Cl2N3O, was synthesized by the condensation of 1-(3,4-di­chloro­phen­yl)-3-methyl-4-(4-methyl­benzo­yl)-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one with 1-aminona­phthalene. The p-tolyl ring is normal to the pyrazole ring, with a dihedral angle of 88.02 (14)°, and inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 78.60 (12)°. The pyrazole ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system and the di­chloro-substituted benzene ring by 63.30 (12) and 11.03 (13)°, respectively. The amino group and carbonyl oxygen atom are involved in an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond enclosing an S(6) ring motif. There is also a short C—H⋯O contact involving the carbonyl O atom and the adjacent benzene ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional structure.
PMCID: PMC4186144  PMID: 25309277
crystal structure; Schiff base; naphthalene; pyrazolone; pyrrole
6.  6-Amino-3-methyl-4-(3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)-2,4-di­hydro­pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole-5-carbo­nitrile 
In the title compound, C17H18N4O4, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and 2,4-di­hydro­pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole ring system is 89.41 (7)°. The pyran moiety adopts a strongly flattened boat conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯N, N—H⋯O, C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into an infinite two-dimensional network parallel to (110). There are π–π inter­actions between the pyrazole rings in neighbouring layers [centroid–centroid distance = 3.621 (1) Å].
PMCID: PMC4158517  PMID: 25249920
crystal structure
7.  Cleidocranial dysplasia 
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting in the skeletal and dental abnormalities due to the disturbance in ossification of the bones. Clavicle is the most commonly affected bone. The prevalence of CCD is one in millions of live births. In this report, we present a case of 10-years-old boy showing features of this condition.
PMCID: PMC4405968  PMID: 25937737
Clavicular hypoplasia; cleidocranial dysostosis; cleidocranial dysplasia
8.  Ethyl 6-amino-5-cyano-4-phenyl-2,4-di­hydro­pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole-3-carboxyl­ate dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate 
In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C16H14N4O3·C2H6OS, there are two independent main mol­ecules (A and B) and two dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mol­ecules. In mol­ecule A, the pyran ring is in a flattened sofa conformation, with the sp 3-hydridized C atom forming the flap. In mol­ecule B, the pyran ring is in a flattened boat conformation, with the sp 3-hydridized C atom and the O atom deviating by 0.073 (3) and 0.055 (3) Å, respectively, from the plane of the other four atoms. The mean planes the pyrazole and phenyl rings form dihedral angles of 84.4 (2) and 84.9 (2)°, respectively, for mol­ecules A and B. In the crystal, N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure into chains along [010]. In both solvent mol­ecules, the S atoms are disordered over two sites, with occupancy ratios of 0.679 (4):0.321 (4) and 0.546 (6):0.454 (6).
PMCID: PMC4120557  PMID: 25161577
9.  2-[4-(Piperidin-1-yl)-5H-chromeno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-yl]phenol 
In the title compound, C22H21N3O2, the pyrimidine ring is essentially planar [maximum deviation = 0.018 (2) Å] and forms dihedral angles of 22.70 (8) and 0.97 (7)°, respectively, with the fused benzene ring and the hy­droxy-substituted benzene ring. The piperidine ring has a chair conformation and the pyran ring has a flattened twist-boat conformation. The hy­droxy group was refined as disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.702 (4):0.298 (4) ratio. The disorder corresponds to a rotation of approxomiately 180° about the C—C bond connecting the phenol group to the pyrimidine ring and hence, both the major and minor components of disorder form intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, pairs of weak C—H⋯π inter­actions form inversion dimers. In addition, π–π inter­actions are observed between the pyrimidine ring and the hy­droxy-substituted benzene ring [centroid–centroid separation = 3.739 (2) Å].
PMCID: PMC3998607  PMID: 24826150
10.  (Z)-3-Methyl-4-[1-(4-methyl­anilino)propyl­idene]-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one 
In the title mol­ecule, C20H21N3O, the central pyrazole ring forms dihedral angles of 4.75 (9) and 49.11 (9)°, respectively, with the phenyl and methyl-substituted benzene rings. The dihedral angle between the phenyl and benzene rings is 51.76 (8)°. The amino group and carbonyl O atom are involved in an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, π–π inter­actions are observed between benzene rings [centroid–centroid seperation = 3.892 (2) Å] and pyrazole rings [centroid–centroid seperation = 3.626 (2) Å], forming chains along [111]. The H atoms of the methyl group on the p-tolyl substituent were refined as disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.60 (4):0.40 (4) ratio.
PMCID: PMC3793766  PMID: 24109353
11.  (Z)-3-Methyl-1-phenyl-4-[(p-tol­yl)(p-tolyl­amino)­methyl­idene]-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one 
In the title mol­ecule, C25H23N3O2, the pyrazole ring forms dihedral angles of 28.56 (7), 80.35 (7) and 31.99 (7)° with the phenyl ring, the p-tolyl ring and the p-tolyl­amino ring, respectively. The N—H group attached to the exocyclic C=C bond is in a syn arrangement with respect to the C=O bond of the pyrazolone group and an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯π inter­actions link mol­ecules along [100].
PMCID: PMC3470389  PMID: 23125802
12.  Amplified fragment length polymorphism of clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae from a freshwater environment in a cholera-endemic area, India 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:249.
The region around Chandigarh in India has witnessed a resurgence of cholera. However, isolation of V. cholerae O1 from the environment is infrequent. Therefore, to study whether environmental nonO1-nonO139 isolates, which are native to the aquatic ecosystem, act as precursors for pathogenic O1 strains, their virulence potential and evolutionary relatedness was checked.
V. cholerae was isolated from clinical cases of cholera and from water and plankton samples collected from freshwater bodies and cholera-affected areas. PCR analysis for the ctxA, ctxB, tcpA, toxT and toxR genes and AFLP with six primer combinations was performed on 52 isolates (13 clinical, 34 environmental and 5 reference strains).
All clinical and 3 environmental isolates belonged to serogroup O1 and remaining 31 environmental V. cholerae were nonO1-nonO139. Serogroup O1 isolates were ctxA, tcpA (ElTor), ctxB (Classical), toxR and toxT positive. NonO1-nonO139 isolates possessed toxR, but lacked ctxA and ctxB; only one isolate was positive for toxT and tcpA. Using AFLP, 2.08% of the V. cholerae genome was interrogated. Dendrogram analysis showed one large heterogeneous clade (n = 41), with two compact and distinct subclades (1a and 1b), and six small mono-phyletic groups. Although V. cholerae O1 isolates formed a distinct compact subclade, they were not clonal. A clinical O1 strain clustered with the nonO1-nonO139 isolates; one strain exhibited 70% similarity to the Classical control strain, and all O1 strains possessed an ElTor variant-specific fragment identified with primer ECMT. Few nonO1-nonO139 isolates from widely separated geographical locations intermingled together. Three environmental O1 isolates exhibited similar profiles to clinical O1 isolates.
In a unique study from freshwater environs of a cholera-endemic area in India over a narrow time frame, environmental V. cholerae population was found to be highly heterogeneous, diverse and devoid of major virulence genes. O1 and nonO1-nonO139 isolates showed distinct lineages. Clinical isolates were not clonal but were closely related, indicating accumulation of genetic differences over a short time span. Though, environment plays an important role in the spread of cholera, the possibility of an origin of pathogenic O1 strains from environmental nonO1-nonO139 strains seems to be remote in our region.
PMCID: PMC3206463  PMID: 21936962
13.  Ossifying fibroma of maxilla in a male child: Report of a case and review of the literature 
Ossifying fibroma is a rare benign fibro-osseous neoplasm of the jaw characterized by substitution of normal bone by fibrous tissues and newly formed calcified products such as bone, cementum or both. It is a well-demarcated lesion that differentiates it from fibrous dysplasia. This case report describes a rare case of ossifying fibroma arising in the maxilla of an 11-year-old child treated with enucleation. The clinical, radiographical, surgical and histological findings are presented. Controversies regarding the terminology and classification along with the differential diagnosis are discussed and a review is provided of the literature on the subject.
PMCID: PMC3304240  PMID: 22442615
Bone neoplasm; cemento-ossifying fibroma; fibro-osseous lesionmaxilla; ossifying fibroma
14.  Peptides of a Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis–Specific Cell Wall Protein for Immunodiagnosis of Tuberculosis 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2009;200(4):571-581.
The sequencing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome revealed the existence of several genes encoding novel proteins with unknown functions, one of which is the proline-threonine repetitive protein (PTRP; Rv0538). Genomic studies of various mycobacterial species and M. tuberculosis clinical isolates demonstrate that ptrp is specific to the M. tuberculosis complex and ubiquitous in clinical isolates. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopic evaluation of M. tuberculosis subcellular fractions and intact bacteria confirm that PTRP is a cell wall protein. Antibodies to PTRP are present in serum specimens from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative, tuberculosis (TB)–positive and HIV-positive, TB-positive patients but not purified protein derivative (PPD)–negative or PPD-positive healthy control subjects, demonstrating its diagnostic potential. Epitope mapping of PTRP delineated 4 peptides that can identify >80% of sputum smear–positive and >50% of smear-negative, HIV-negative, TB-positive patients and >80% of HIV-positive, TB-positive patients. These results demonstrate that immunodominant epitopes of carefully selected M. tuberculosis–specific proteins can be used to devise a simple peptide-based serodiagnostic test for TB.
PMCID: PMC2846530  PMID: 19604115
15.  Role of oral health professional in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea 
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children is common. The impact of SDB on the growth and development of child may have detrimental effects on health, neuropsychological development, quality of life, and economic potential; therefore, SDB in children should be recognized as a public health problem as in the adult population. The coexistence of obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) not only appears to yield increased morbidity rates and poorer responses to therapy, but also is altogether associated with a distinct and recognizable clinical phenotype. Therapeutic options have somewhat expanded since the initial treatment approaches were conducted, to include not only surgical extraction of hypertrophic adenoids and tonsils, but also nonsurgical alternatives such as continuous positive air pressure, anti-inflammatory agents and oral appliances (OAs). Now, American academy of sleep medicine (AAOSM) has recommended OAs for OSA, hence the therapeutic interventions that are directed at the site of airway obstruction in the maxillofacial region are within the scope of dentistry. Among the physicians treating the children, dentists are more likely to identify adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Hence, the dentist can play an important role in identifying and treating those cases with OAs, who refuse the surgery, or those with structural abnormality in which myofunctional appliances are beneficial.
PMCID: PMC3304178  PMID: 22442548
Obstructive sleep apnea; oral appliances; polysomnography
16.  Interdisciplinary approach to palatally impacted canine 
Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. The article highlights the salient features and various surgical and orthodontic considerations to approach cases with impacted canines. It is exemplified with a case in which a palatally impacted canine and a highly placed canine in the buccal vestibule have been surgically intervened and orthodontically extruded with sequential traction and aligned in the arch.
PMCID: PMC3304190  PMID: 22442552
Attached gingiva; flap designs; forced eruption; impacted; interdisciplinary
17.  Gorlin-Goltz syndrome 
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder with complete penetrance and extreme variable expressivity. The authors present a case of an 11-year-old girl with typical features of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome with special respect to medical and dental problems which include multiple bony cage deformities like spina bifida with scoliosis having convexity to the left side, presence of an infantile uterus and multiple odonogenic keratocysts in the maxillofacial region.
PMCID: PMC3304191  PMID: 22442551
Autosomal dominant; multiple organs; odontogenic keratocyst; spina bifida
18.  Optimization of fermentation parameters for production of ethanol from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2008;47(4):310-316.
A study was taken up to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters like inoculum concentration, temperature, incubation period and agitation time on ethanol production from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cellulase and co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae G and Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077. Steam pretreated kinnow waste and banana peels were used as substrate for ethanol production in the ratio 4:6 (kinnow waste: banana peels). Temperature of 30°C, inoculum size of S. cerevisiae G 6% and (v/v) Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077 4% (v/v), incubation period of 48 h and agitation for the first 24 h were found to be best for ethanol production using the combination of two wastes. The pretreated steam exploded biomass after enzymatic saccharification containing 63 gL−1 reducing sugars was fermented with both hexose and pentose fermenting yeast strains under optimized conditions resulting in ethanol production, yield and fermentation efficiency of 26.84 gL−1, 0.426 gg −1 and 83.52 % respectively. This study could establish the effective utilization of kinnow waste and banana peels for bioethanol production using optimized fermentation parameters.
PMCID: PMC3450031  PMID: 23100683
Kinnow waste; Banana peels; SSF; Ethanol; Fermentation parameters; Cellulase production
19.  PPE Antigen Rv2430c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces a Strong B-Cell Response  
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(11):6338-6343.
The variation in sequence and length in the C-terminal region among members of the unique PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a likely source of antigenic variation, giving rise to the speculation that these protein families could be immunologically important. Based on in silico analysis, we selected a hypothetical open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein belonging to the PPE family and having epitopes with predictably higher antigenic indexes. Reverse transcriptase PCR using total RNA extracted from in vitro-cultured M. tuberculosis H37Rv generated an mRNA product corresponding to this gene, indicating the expression of this ORF (Rv2430c) at the mRNA level. Recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was used to screen the sera of M. tuberculosis-infected patients, as well as those of clinically healthy controls (n = 10), by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The panel of patient sera comprised sera from fresh infection cases (category 1; n = 32), patients with relapsed tuberculosis (category 2; n = 30), and extrapulmonary cases (category 3; n = 30). Category 2 and 3 sera had strong antibody responses to the PPE antigen, equal to or higher than those to other well-known antigens, such as Hsp10 or purified protein derivative (PPD). However, a higher percentage of patients belonging to category 1, as opposed to clinically healthy controls, showed stronger antibody response against the PPE protein when probed with anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM) (71 versus 37.5%) or anti-IgG (62.5 versus 28.12%). Our results reveal that this PPE ORF induces a strong B-cell response compared to that generated by M. tuberculosis Hsp10 or PPD, pointing to the immunodominant nature of the protein.
PMCID: PMC219563  PMID: 14573653
20.  Development of a Single-Reaction Multiplex PCR Toxin Typing Assay for Staphylococcus aureus Strains 
We describe here the development of a single-reaction multiplex PCR assay for the enterotoxin genes from Staphylococcus aureus that utilizes a universal toxin gene primer in combination with toxin-specific primers to amplify characteristic toxin gene products. In combination with a new DNA purification method, the assay can detect enterotoxin genes A to E from a pure culture within 3 to 4 h. The test was used to characterize a diverse set of environmental S. aureus isolates, and a 99% correlation with toxin typing using standard immunological tests was found. The design of the assay allows it to be extended to include both newly characterized and as-yet-unknown toxin genes.
PMCID: PMC91991  PMID: 10742210

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