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1.  Novel modification of second generation intramedullary PMMA cementing technique for narrow upper and lower extremity canals 
Purpose
It is very difficult to cement intramedullary canals smaller than 10 mm with standard commercially available cement syringes due to mismatch in canal and syringe diameters. This is often encountered in children and in the upper limb. We describe a simple method of cementing, using cement gun with size-matched plastic endotracheal tube (ET).
Methods
The medullary canal is prepared and the size determined. ET with outer diameter 0.5–1 mm smaller than the canal diameter is chosen. The standard cementing syringe nozzle is cut at the middle and fitted to Portex® tube with the adaptor connector, which comes with the ET. The plastic ET is cut to an appropriate length depending on canal length to be cemented. The nozzle is fitted to the syringe and cementing done in the usual way. We applied this new modification in the method to cement narrow canals of ulna, humerus, tibia and femur.
Results
The method has proven to be consistently reliable and useful in cases of cementing stems into bones with narrow intramedullary diameters. Apart from femur and tibia in children, humerus and ulna in adults were also cemented. The cement mantle by this technique is uniform and uninterrupted. Special care should be taken to fit the connector properly to the syringe nozzle and to hold it firmly while cementing.
Conclusions
In our experience, this new technique has proven to be very useful, easy to use, reproducible and effective in cementing narrow canals.
doi:10.1016/j.jcot.2015.08.006
PMCID: PMC4735565  PMID: 26908980
Narrow intramedullary canals; Second generation cementing; Technique modification
2.  Influence of Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on quality and refrigerated storage stability of patties prepared from sutchi catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) 
The ability of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) in changing physical, chemical, microbial and sensory properties of fish patties prepared from sutchi catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) was investigated. Two batches of fresh patties were prepared, one batch was treated with 15 % button mushroom (TP) and other batch was a control (CP) without mushroom. The patties were packed in polythene bags and stored under refrigerated condition (6 ± 2 ºC) without adding any preservatives for the estimation of storage stability. The analyses of patties were conducted at regular intervals of 3 days. The results showed that, Peroxide value, Thiobarbituric acid value, Free fatty acids increased significantly in CP at the end of 12 days whereas the TP was within the acceptable limit up to 16 days. Total volatile base nitrogen and Trimethylamine nitrogen also showed a similar trend. The Total plate count and Aerobic spore formers showed an increasing trend in CP when compared to TP. The sensory scores showed that the overall acceptability of CP were lower than TP, which was acceptable even after 16 days of storage. The present study showed that, the quality and storage stability of TP were observed to be in good condition up to 16 days and started deteriorating 20th day onwards, whereas the CP were acceptable only up to 12 days. Therefore it can be recommended that, addition of 15 % of button mushroom to sutchi catfish patty not only increases the nutritional quality but also increases the shelf life of patties under refrigerated storage.
doi:10.1007/s13197-014-1415-6
PMCID: PMC4444920  PMID: 26028735
Sutchi catfish; Patty; Mushroom; Quality; Shelf life
3.  4-[(4-Bromo­phenyl)amino]-2-methyl­idene-4-oxo­butanoic acid 
In the title compound, C11H10BrNO3, two independent mol­ecules (A and B) crystallize in the asymmetric unit. The dihedral angles between the mean planes of the 4-bromo­phenyl ring and amide group are 24.8 (7) in mol­ecule A and 77.1 (6)° in mol­ecule B. The mean plane of the methyl­idene group is further inclined by 75.6 (4) in mol­ecule A and 72.5 (6)° in mol­ecule B from that of the amide group. In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds formed by amide groups and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds formed by carb­oxy­lic acid groups are observed and supported additionally by weak C—H⋯O inter­actions between the methyl­idene and amide groups. Together, these link the mol­ecules into chains of dimers along [110] and form R 2 2(8) graph-set motifs.
doi:10.1107/S1600536814012872
PMCID: PMC4120590  PMID: 25161566
4.  4-[(4-Acetyl­phen­yl)amino]-2-methyl­idene-4-oxo­butanoic acid 
In the title compound, C13H13NO4, the N—C(=O) bond length of 1.354 (2) Å is indicative of amide-type resonance. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the benzene ring and oxo­amine group is 36.4 (3)°, while the mean plane of the 2-methyl­idene group is inclined by 84.2 (01)° from that of the oxo­amine group. In the crystal, classical O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds formed by the carb­oxy­lic acid groups and weak N—H⋯O weak inter­actions formed by the amide groups and supported by weak C—H⋯O inter­actions between the 2-methyl­idene, phenyl and acetyl groups with the carb­oxy­lic acid, oxo­amine and acetyl O atoms, together link the mol­ecules into dimeric chains along [010]. The O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form R 2 2(8) graph-set motifs.
doi:10.1107/S1600536814012562
PMCID: PMC4120591  PMID: 25161547
5.  2-(2-Methyl­phen­yl)-N-(1,3-thia­zol-2-yl)acetamide 
In the title compound, C12H12N2OS, the dihedral angle between the benzene and thia­zole rings is 83.5 (7)°. The acetamide group is almost coplanar with the thia­zole ring, being twisted from it by 4.2 (9)°. In the crystal, pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link mol­ecules into inversion dimers, generating R 2 2[8] loops; the dimers are stacked along [001].
doi:10.1107/S1600536814011684
PMCID: PMC4051114  PMID: 24940286
6.  4-(3-Fluoro-4-methyl­anilino)-2-methyl­idene-4-oxo­butanoic acid 
The title compound, C12H12FNO3, crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 3-fluoro-4-methyl­phenyl ring and the oxo­amine group is 25.7 (7)° in mol­ecule A and 71.3 (7)° in mol­ecule B, while the mean plane of the 2-methyl­idene-4-oxo­butanoic acid group is twisted by 76.2 (1)° from that of the oxo­amine group in mol­ecule A and by 76.2 (4)° in mol­ecule B. In the crystal, N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds [the latter forming an R 2 2(8) graph-set motif] link the mol­ecules into a two-dimensional network parallel to the ac plane.
doi:10.1107/S160053681302998X
PMCID: PMC3885031  PMID: 24454206
7.  N-(1,3-Benzo­thia­zol-2-yl)acetamide 
The title compound, C9H8N2OS, crystallizes with two mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. The dihedral angles between the mean planes of the 1,3-benzo­thia­zol-2-yl ring system and the acetamide group are 2.7 (4) (mol­ecule A) and 7.2 (2) Å (mol­ecule B). In the crystal, pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the A and B mol­ecules into dimers, generating R 2 2(8) loops. The dimers stack along [100].
doi:10.1107/S160053681302730X
PMCID: PMC3884296  PMID: 24454072
8.  2-(4-Bromo­phen­yl)-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide 
In the title compound, C12H10BrN3O, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 4-bromo­phenyl and pyrazin-2-yl rings is 54.6 (3)°. An intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) graph-set motif. In the crystal, weak N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into chains along [100]. The chains are linked via C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming two-dimensional networks lying parallel to the ab plane.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813012531
PMCID: PMC3685048  PMID: 23795067
9.  2-(3,4-Dichloro­phen­yl)-N-(1,3-thia­zol-2-yl)acetamide 
In the title compound, C11H8Cl2N2OS, the mean plane of the dichloro­phenyl ring is twisted by 61.8 (1)° from that of the thia­zole ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds with an R 2 2(8) graph-set motif, forming inversion dimers which stack along the a-axis direction.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813008374
PMCID: PMC3647844  PMID: 23723810
10.  2-(2,4-Di­chloro­phen­yl)-N-(1,3-thia­zol-2-yl)acetamide 
In the title compound, C11H8Cl2N2OS, the mean plane of the di­chloro­phenyl ring is twisted by 72.4 (1)° from that of the thia­zole ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds with an R 2 2(8) graph-set motif and weak C—H⋯O inter­actions, forming inversion dimers which stack along the c-axis direction.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813008532
PMCID: PMC3647853  PMID: 23723819
11.  2-(2,6-Dichloro­phen­yl)-N-(1,3-thia­zol-2-yl)acetamide 
In the title compound, C11H8Cl2N2OS, the mean plane of the dichloro­phenyl ring is twisted by 79.7 (7)° from that of the thia­zole ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked via pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers which stack along the a-axis direction.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813006260
PMCID: PMC3629579  PMID: 23634066
12.  2-(3,4-Dichloro­phen­yl)-N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)acetamide 
In the title compound, C19H17Cl2N3O2, there are three mol­ecules (A, B and C) in the asymmetric unit and each differs in the conformation adopted. As a result of steric repulsion, the amide group is rotated with respect to both the dichloro­phenyl and 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl rings, making dihedral angles of 44.5 (2) and 56.2 (2)°, respectively in A, 51.1 (2) and 54.1 (2)° in B, and 53.8 (2) and 54.6 (2)° in C. The dihedral angles between the dichloro­phenyl and 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl rings are 54.8 (2), 76.2 (2) and 77.5 (2)° in mol­ecules A, B and C, respectively, while the 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl and phenyl rings make dihedral angles of 45.3 (2), 51.2 (2) and 42.8 (2)°, respectively. In the crystal, two of the mol­ecules are linked through N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding to an adjoining mol­ecule, forming dimers of the R 2 2(10) type, while the third mol­ecule forms such dimers with itself. C—H⋯O inter­actions link the dimers.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813002341
PMCID: PMC3588482  PMID: 23476584
13.  A second monoclinic polymorph of 4-[(E)-(4-benzyl­oxybenzyl­idene)amino]-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one 
In the title compound, C25H23N3O2, the central benzene ring makes dihedral angles of 77.14 (8) and 87.7 (2)° with the terminal benzene rings and an angle of 1.9 (1)° with the pyrazolone ring. The benzene ring and the N atom of the pyrazole ring bearing the phenyl substituent are disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.71 (2):0.29 (2). The N atoms of the pyrazole ring have a pyramidal environment, the sums of the valence angles around them being 354.6 (3) and 352.0 (6)/349.5 (15)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are packed into layers parallel to the ac plane. The other monoclinic polymorphic form was reported recently [Dutkiewicz et al. (2012 ▶). Acta Cryst. E68, o1324].
doi:10.1107/S1600536812050891
PMCID: PMC3588271  PMID: 23476378
14.  4-(4-Iodo­anilino)-2-methyl­ene-4-oxo­butanoic acid 
In the title compound, C11H10INO3, an addition product of itaconic acid anhydride and 4-iodo­aniline, the least-squares planes defined by the atoms of the aromatic moiety and the non-H atoms of the carb­oxy­lic acid group enclose an angle of 74.82 (11)°. In the crystal, classical O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds formed by carb­oxy­lic groups, as well as N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds formed by amide groups, are present along with C—H⋯O contacts. Together, these connect the mol­ecules into dimeric chains along the b-axis direction.
doi:10.1107/S160053681205012X
PMCID: PMC3588263  PMID: 23476465
15.  [3-Benzoyl-2,4-bis­(3-nitro­phen­yl)cyclo­but­yl](phen­yl)methanone 
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H22N2O6, comprises a half-mol­ecule of the cyclo­butane derivative. The least-squares planes defined by the respective C atoms of the aromatic substituents inter­sect at angles of 76.81 (7) and 89.22 (8)° with the least-squares plane defined by the C atoms of the cyclo­butane ring. In the crystal, C—H⋯O contacts connect the mol­ecules into a three-dimensional network. The shortest centroid–centroid distance between the two different aromatic rings is 3.9601 (8) Å.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812044650
PMCID: PMC3588821  PMID: 23468786
16.  (2E)-3-[4-(Benz­yloxy)phen­yl]-1-(pyridin-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one 
The title compound, C21H17NO2, exists in an E conformation with respect to the C=C bond. The pyridine ring forms dihedral angles of 5.57 (7) and 82.30 (9)°, respectively, with the central benzene ring and the terminal phenyl ring. The dihedral angle between the benzene and phenyl rings is 87.69 (8)°. No significant inter­molecular inter­actions are observed.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812034897
PMCID: PMC3435737  PMID: 22969608
17.  N-(1,5-Dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-[4-(methyl­sulfan­yl)phen­yl]acetamide 
In the title compound, C20H21N3O2S, the 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazole ring is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.023 Å) and forms dihedral angles of 16.96 (6) and 38.93 (6)° with the benzene and phenyl rings, respectively. The dihedral angle between the benzene and phenyl rings is 55.54 (6)°. The mol­ecular conformation is consolidated by an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which forms an S(6) ring. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯Op (p = pyrazole) hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(10) loops. The dimers are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into sheets lying parallel to (100).
doi:10.1107/S1600536812034605
PMCID: PMC3435699  PMID: 22969570
18.  2-(4-Bromo­phen­yl)-N-(2,6-dimethyl­phen­yl)acetamide 
In the title compound, C16H16BrNO, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 69.8 (2)°. In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into C(4) chains propagating in [100]. Adjacent mol­ecules in the chains are also linked by C—H⋯O inter­actions which, along with the N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generate R 2 1(6) loops.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812034617
PMCID: PMC3435700  PMID: 22969571
19.  2-(4-Chloro­phen­yl)-N-(1,3-thia­zol-2-yl)acetamide 
In the title compound, C11H9ClN2OS, the thia­zole ring is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å) and forms a dihedral angle of 64.18 (7)° with the bezene ring. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯Nt (t = thia­zole) hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(8) loops.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812034629
PMCID: PMC3435701  PMID: 22969572
20.  N-(2-Bromo­phen­yl)-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)acetamide 
In the title compound, C18H14BrNO, the naphthalene ring system [maximum deviation = 0.015 (3) Å] forms a dihedral angle of 67.70 (10)° with the benzene ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into C(4) chains propagating in [100]. A C—H⋯O inter­action reinforces the chain connectivity, generating an R 2 1(6) loop.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812034423
PMCID: PMC3435683  PMID: 22969554
21.  (2E)-3-(2-Fluoro­phen­yl)-1-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)prop-2-en-1-one 
In the title compouund, C15H10F2O, the mol­ecule exists in an E conformation with respect to the C=C bond [1.3382 (16) Å]. The dihedral angle between the fluoro-substituted benzene rings is 6.80 (6)° and the whole mol­ecule is roughly planar (r.m.s. deviation for the non-H atoms = 0.069 Å). In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯F and C—H⋯O inter­actions into sheets lying parallel to the bc plane.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812034411
PMCID: PMC3435684  PMID: 22969555
22.  2,2-Diphenyl-N-(2,4,5-trichloro­phen­yl)acetamide 
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C20H14Cl3NO, consists of two independent mol­ecules. In one mol­ecule, the chlorinated benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 12.00 (9) and 77.04 (9)° with the phenyl rings. The dihedral angle between the phenyl rings is 80.37 (10)°. The corresponding dihedral angles for the other mol­ecule are 26.34 (10), 62.98 (10) and 88.47 (11)°, respectively. One of the mol­ecules features an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which forms an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into [100] chains. The chains are further linked by C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.
doi:10.1107/S160053681203440X
PMCID: PMC3435685  PMID: 22969556
23.  2-(2-Fluoro­phen­yl)-N-(1,3-thia­zol-2-yl)acetamide 
In the title compound, C11H9FN2OS, the 1,3-thia­zole ring is planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.007 Å) and forms a dihedral angle of 73.75 (5)° with the benzene ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via pairs of N—H⋯N and C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds into chains along [100].
doi:10.1107/S1600536812032989
PMCID: PMC3415006  PMID: 22904993
24.  2-(4-Bromo­phen­yl)-N-(5-methyl­pyridin-2-yl)acetamide 
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H13BrN2O, consists of two mol­ecules; the dihedral angles between the pyridine and benzene rings are 87.99 (9) and 84.28 (9)°. An intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring in each mol­ecule. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via N—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. The crystal structure also features weak π–π stacking inter­actrions between the benzene rings [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.6829 (12) Å].
doi:10.1107/S1600536812032631
PMCID: PMC3414974  PMID: 22904961
25.  N-(4-Chloro­phen­yl)-2,2-diphenyl­acetamide 
In the title compound, C20H16ClNO, an S(6) ring motif is formed via an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. The chloro-substituted benzene ring is almost perpendicular to the benzene rings, forming dihedral angles of 87.33 (9) and 88.69 (9)°. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 87.17 (9)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains parallel to the c axis by inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The crystal packing also features weak C—H⋯π inter­actions involving the chloro-substituted ring.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812032965
PMCID: PMC3414999  PMID: 22904986

Results 1-25 (47)