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1.  The Effects of a Distracting N-Back Task on Recognition Memory Are Reduced by Negative Emotional Intensity 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110211.
Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110211
PMCID: PMC4199670  PMID: 25330251
2.  Semantics, Syntax or Neither? A Case for Resolution in the Interpretation of N500 and P600 Responses to Harmonic Incongruities 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e76600.
The processing of notes and chords which are harmonically incongruous with their context has been shown to elicit two distinct late ERP effects. These effects strongly resemble two effects associated with the processing of linguistic incongruities: a P600, resembling a typical response to syntactic incongruities in language, and an N500, evocative of the N400, which is typically elicited in response to semantic incongruities in language. Despite the robustness of these two patterns in the musical incongruity literature, no consensus has yet been reached as to the reasons for the existence of two distinct responses to harmonic incongruities. This study was the first to use behavioural and ERP data to test two possible explanations for the existence of these two patterns: the musicianship of listeners, and the resolved or unresolved nature of the harmonic incongruities. Results showed that harmonically incongruous notes and chords elicited a late positivity similar to the P600 when they were embedded within sequences which started and ended in the same key (harmonically resolved). The notes and chords which indicated that there would be no return to the original key (leaving the piece harmonically unresolved) were associated with a further P600 in musicians, but with a negativity resembling the N500 in non-musicians. We suggest that the late positivity reflects the conscious perception of a specific element as being incongruous with its context and the efforts of musicians to integrate the harmonic incongruity into its local context as a result of their analytic listening style, while the late negativity reflects the detection of the absence of resolution in non-musicians as a result of their holistic listening style.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076600
PMCID: PMC3818369  PMID: 24223704
3.  2,4,6-Trinitro­phenyl benzoate 
In the title mol­ecule, C13H7N3O8, the phenyl and benzene rings are rotated from the mean plane of the central ester group by 18.41 (9) and 81.80 (5)°, respectively. The dihedral angle between the rings is 80.12 (14)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O inter­actions, forming helical chains along [010].
doi:10.1107/S1600536812048362
PMCID: PMC3589064  PMID: 23476300
4.  1-Benzyl­piperidin-4-one O-(2-bromo­benz­yl)oxime 
In the title mol­ecule, C19H21BrN2O, the piperidone ring adopts a chair conformation with a total puckering amplitude Q T of 0.554 (2) Å. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 64.10 (7)°. There are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812040263
PMCID: PMC3470391  PMID: 23125804
5.  (E)-Benzaldehyde O-{[3-(pyridin-3-yl)isoxazol-5-yl]meth­yl}oxime 
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C16H13N3O2, contains two independent mol­ecules in which the pyridine and benzene rings form dihedral angles of 81.7 (2) and 79.8 (2)°, indicating the twist in the mol­ecules. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯N inter­actions link mol­ecules into chains along [100].
doi:10.1107/S1600536812010732
PMCID: PMC3344035  PMID: 22589944
6.  5,7,7,12,14,14-Hexamethyl-4,8-diaza-1,11-diazo­niocyclotetra­deca-4,11-diene diiodide dihydrate 
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C16H34N4 2+·2I−·2H2O, contains one half-cation, one iodide anion and one water mol­ecule. The cation has crystallographically imposed centrosymmetric symmetry. Despite some differences in the unit-cell dimensions, packing analysis on a cluster of 15 cations and a comparison of the hydrogen bonding suggests that this compound is isostructural with its bromide analogue. Inter­molecular hydrogen bonding forms eight-membered [H—O—H⋯I]2 and [H—N—H⋯I]2 rings and creates a sheet structure.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811005848
PMCID: PMC3052064  PMID: 21522429
7.  Disodium (2RS,3SR)-tartrate 
The asymmetric unit of the anhydrous title compound, 2Na+·C4H4O6 2−, contains two sodium cations and one tartrate anion. Each sodium ion is six coordinate, with bonding to six O atoms from both the carboxyl­ate and hydroxyl groups of the anion. A three-dimensional coordination network is formed with sodium ions stacking in layers along the c-axis direction. This network is supported by additional O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809037155
PMCID: PMC2970502  PMID: 21577751
8.  (R,R)-Disynephrine ether bis­(hydrogen sulfate) 
The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: (R,R)-2,4-bis­(4-hydroxy­phen­yl)-N,N′-dimethyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diammonium bis­(hydrogen sulfate)], C18H26N2O3 2+·2HSO4 −, contains one half-cation and one hydrogen sulfate anion. The cation has crystallographically imposed twofold symmetry with the rotation axis passing through the central ether O atom. Hydrogen bonds between the hydr­oxy group and amine H atoms of the cation to two hydrogen sulfate anions link the three ions in a ring motif. A three-dimensional network is accomplished by additional O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the anions and by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the cations. Disorder with equally occupied sites affects the H-atom position in the anion.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809025288
PMCID: PMC2977255  PMID: 21583478

Results 1-8 (8)