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1.  3-(9H-Fluoren-9-yl)-1,3-diphenyl­propan-1-one 
In the title compound, C28H22O, the fluorene ring system is approximately planar [maximum deviation = 0.044 (2) Å] and forms dihedral angles of 69.88 (6) and 89.46 (6)° with the phenyl rings. The crystal packing is stabilized by weak π–π stacking inter­actions, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.7172 (13) and 3.7827 (11) Å.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812032497
PMCID: PMC3470216  PMID: 23125660
2.  3-(9H-Fluoren-9-yl)-3-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-1-phenyl­propan-1-one 
In the title compound, C29H24O, the phenyl and methyl­phenyl rings are approximately perpendicular to each other, making a dihedral angle of 87.67 (10)°, and are oriented at dihedral angles of 62.49 (9) and 84.77 (7)°, respectively, to the nearly planar fluorene ring system [maximum deviation = 0.077 (2) Å] In the crystal, weak C—H⋯π inter­actions are observed.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812036847
PMCID: PMC3435844  PMID: 22969690
3.  Localization and Androgen Regulation of Metastasis-Associated Protein 1 in Mouse Epididymis 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(11):e15439.
Background
Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), the founding member of the MTA family of genes, can modulate transcription by influencing the status of chromatin remodeling. Despite its strong correlation with the metastatic potential of cancer cells, MTA1 can also regulate crucial cellular pathways by modifying the acetylation status. We have previously reported the presence of MTA1/MTA1 in human and mouse testes, providing the evidence for its involvement in the regulation of testicular function during murine spermatogenesis. The objective of present study was to further assess the localization of MTA1 in mouse epididymis on both transcriptional and translational level, and then to explore whether MTA1 expression is regulated by androgens and postnatal epididymal development.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Mice were deprived of circulating androgen by bilaterally castration and were then supplemented with exogenous testosterone propionate for one week. MTA1 was immunolocalized in the epithelium of the entire epididymis with the maximal expression in the nuclei of principal cells and of clear cells in proximal region. Its expression decreased gradually after castration, whereas testosterone treatment could restore the expression, indicating that the expression of this gene is dependent on androgen. During postnatal development, the protein expression in the epididymis began to appear from day 7 to day 14, increased dramatically from postnatal day 28, and peaked at adulthood onwards, coinciding with both the well differentiated status of epididymis and the mature levels of circulating androgens. This region- and cell-specific pattern was also conservative in normal human epididymis.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that the expression of MTA1 protein could be regulated by androgen pathway and its expression level is closely associated with the postnatal development of the epididymis, giving rise to the possibility that this gene plays a potential role in sperm maturation and fertility.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015439
PMCID: PMC2972736  PMID: 21082030
4.  Up-Regulation of NDRG2 in Senescent Lens Epithelial Cells Contributes to Age-Related Cataract in Human 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26102.
Background
Human N-Myc downstream regulated gene2 (NDRG2), a novel gene has been cloned and shown to be related to a number of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, stress, and apoptosis. NDRG2 has also been linked to age-related Alzheimer's disease. Since the role of this gene in senescence is limited, we have investigated the potential role of NDRG2 in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs), a paradigm implicated in age-related cataract.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Cultured HLECs (SRA01/04) were subjected to prolonged exposure to low dose of H2O2 to simulate senescence. After being exposed to 50 µM H2O2 for 2 weeks, HLECs senescent-morphological changes appeared, cell viability decreased dramatically, cell proliferation reduced from 37.4% to 16.1%, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity increased from 0 to 90.3%. Ndrg2 protein expression was also significantly increased in these senescent cells. To induce overexpression of NDRG2, SRA01/04 cells were infected with the adenoviral vector of NDRG2. In these cells, overexpression of NDRG2 resulted in a fibroblast-like appearance and the cell viability decreased about 20%. In addition, the NDRG2-overexpression cells demonstrated 20% lower viability when exposed to 50–200 µM H2O2 for acute oxidative stress. Furthermore, the expression of NDRG2 from age-related cataracts was up-regulated 2-fold at both mRNA and protein levels compared with the clear lenses.
Conclusions/Significance
NDRG2 is up regulated not only in the ageing process of HLECs in vitro but also in the cells from human age-related cortical cataract in vivo. Up-regulation of NDRG2 induces cell morphological changes, reduces cell viability, and especially lowers cellular resistance to oxidative stress. NDRG2-mediated affects in HLECs may associate with age-related cataract formation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026102
PMCID: PMC3197158  PMID: 22043305
5.  Transient Protection from Heat-Stress Induced Apoptotic Stimulation by Metastasis-Associated Protein 1 in Pachytene Spermatocytes 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26013.
Background
Deregulated thermal factors have been frequently implicated in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but the molecular basis through which certain responses are directed remain largely unknown. We previously reported that overexpression of exogenous Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) protects spermatogenic tumor cells GC-2spd (ts) against heat-induced apoptosis. To further dissect the underlying mechanism, we addressed here the fine coordination between MTA1 and p53 in pachytene spermatocytes upon hyperthermal stimulation.
Methodology/Principal Findings
High level of MTA1 expression sustained for 1.5 h in primary spermatocytes after heat stress before a notable decrease was detected conversely correlated to the gradual increase of acetylation status of p53 and of p21 level. Knockdown of the endogenous MTA1 in GC-2spd (ts) elevated the acetylation of p53 by diminishing the recruitment of HDAC2 and thereafter led to a dramatic increase of apoptosis after heat treatment. Consistent with this, in vivo interference of MTA1 expression in the testes of C57BL/6 mice also urged an impairment of the differentiation of spermatocytes and a disruption of Sertoli cell function due to the elevated apoptotic rate after heat stress. Finally, attenuated expression of MTA1 of pachytene spermatocytes was observed in arrested testes (at the round spermatid level) of human varicocele patients.
Conclusions
These data underscore a transient protective effect of this histone modifier in primary spermatocytes against heat-stress, which may operate as a negative coregulator of p53 in maintenance of apoptotic balance during early phase after hyperthermal stress.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026013
PMCID: PMC3192157  PMID: 22022494

Results 1-5 (5)