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1.  Comparison of removal torques between laser-treated and SLA-treated implant surfaces in rabbit tibiae 
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to compare removal torques and surface topography between laser treated and sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) treated implants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Laser-treated implants (experimental group) and SLA-treated implants (control group) 8 mm in length and 3.4 mm in diameter were inserted into both sides of the tibiae of 12 rabbits. Surface analysis was accomplished using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; Hitachi S-4800; Japan) under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Surface components were analyzed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Rabbits were sacrificed after a 6-week healing period. The removal torque was measured using the MGT-12 digital torque meter (Mark-10 Co., Copiague, NY, USA).
RESULTS
In the experimental group, the surface analysis showed uniform porous structures under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Pore sizes in the experimental group were 20-40 mm and consisted of numerous small pores, whereas pore sizes in the control group were 0.5-2.0 mm. EDS analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. The mean removal torque in the laser-treated and the SLA-treated implant groups were 79.4 Ncm (SD = 20.4; range 34.6-104.3 Ncm) and 52.7 Ncm (SD = 17.2; range 18.7-73.8 Ncm), respectively. The removal torque in the laser-treated surface implant group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P=.004).
CONCLUSION
In this study, removal torque values were significantly higher for laser-treated surface implants than for SLA-treated surface implants.
doi:10.4047/jap.2014.6.4.302
PMCID: PMC4146731  PMID: 25177474
Sandblasted large-grit acid-etched; Laser treatment; Removal torque; Scanning electron microscope; Energy dispersive spectroscopy
2.  Ethyl 2,4-dimethyl­pyrido[1,2-a]benz­imidazole-3-carboxyl­ate 
The title compound, C16H16N2O2, was synthesized using a novel tandem annulation reaction between 1-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethanone and ethyl (E)-4-bromo­but-2-enoate under mild conditions. The dihedral angles formed by the mean plane of the five-membered imidazole ring with the dihydro­pyridin and benzene rings are 1.54 (9) and 1.85 (9)°, respectively.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812040299
PMCID: PMC3470386  PMID: 23125799

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