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1.  Pleural cancer mortality in Spain: time-trends and updating of predictions up to 2020 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:528.
A total of 2,514,346 metric tons (Mt) of asbestos were imported into Spain from 1906 until the ban on asbestos in 2002. Our objective was to study pleural cancer mortality trends as an indicator of mesothelioma mortality and update mortality predictions for the periods 2011–2015 and 2016–2020 in Spain.
Log-linear Poisson models were fitted to study the effect of age, period of death and birth cohort (APC) on mortality trends. Change points in cohort- and period-effect curvatures were assessed using segmented regression. Fractional power-link APC models were used to predict mortality until 2020. In addition, an alternative model based on national asbestos consumption figures was also used to perform long-term predictions.
Pleural cancer deaths increased across the study period, rising from 491 in 1976–1980 to 1,249 in 2006–2010. Predictions for the five-year period 2016–2020 indicated a total of 1,319 pleural cancer deaths (264 deaths/year). Forecasts up to 2020 indicated that this increase would continue, though the age-adjusted rates showed a levelling-off in male mortality from 2001 to 2005, corresponding to the lower risk in post-1960 generations. Among women, rates were lower and the mortality trend was also different, indicating that occupational exposure was possibly the single factor having most influence on pleural cancer mortality.
The cancer mortality-related consequences of human exposure to asbestos are set to persist and remain in evidence until the last surviving members of the exposed cohorts have disappeared. It can thus be assumed that occupationally-related deaths due to pleural mesothelioma will continue to occur in Spain until at least 2040.
PMCID: PMC4228262  PMID: 24195451
Age-period-cohort; Asbestos; Epidemiology; Pleural cancer; Mesothelioma
2.  Tris(η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)-tris­[η6-[9,10-dihydro­anthracene-9,10-endo-3′,4′-(N-benz­yl)pyrrolidine]]triruthenium(II) tris­(hexa­fluoro­phosphate) acetone disolvate 
In the title compound, [Ru3(C25H23N)(C5H5)3]·3PF6·2C3H6O], the cation is a triruthenium complex of a 9,10-dihydro­anthracene derivative. Three RuCp+ (Cp is cyclo­penta­dien­yl) groups are bonded to the three aromatic rings of the ligand. Surprisingly, the pyramidalized N atom of the heterocycle (Σ C—N—C = 329.0°) points towards the anthracenyl group, so losing its coordinative ability. There is an inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­action involving an acetone mol­ecule and the adjacent benzyl ring of the ligand. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via a number of C—H⋯O and C—H⋯F inter­actions and a C—H⋯π inter­action, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional supra­molecular structure. One of the Cp groups is disordered over two positions, with refined occupancies of 0.695 (14):0.305 (14). Two of the three hexa­fluoro­phospate anions are disordered, with refined occupancies of 0.630 (6):0.370 (6) and 0.771 (8):0.229 (8). One of the two solvent acetone mol­ecules is also disordered, with refined occupancies of 0.82 (2):0.18 (2).
PMCID: PMC3470180  PMID: 23125624
3.  (1S,8R,15S,19R)-17-Benzyl-17-aza­penta­cyclo­[,7.09,14.015,19]nona­deca-2(7),3,5,9(14),10,12-hexa­ene chloro­form monosolvate 
In the title compound, C25H23N·CHCl3, the dihydro­anthracene unit is bent with a dihedral angle between the benzene rings of 57.82 (8)°. The N atom of the pyrrolidine heterocycle, which has an envelope conformation with the N atom as the flap, exhibits a pronounced pyramidalization [Σ(C—N—C) = 328.07°], indicating an accentuated N-donor character. In the crystal, this behaviour is evident by the C—H⋯N hydrogen bond involving a solvent mol­ecule and the N atom. The absolute configuration at the C-atom fused positions of the pyrrolidine group were crystallographically confirmed to be S and R.
PMCID: PMC3470235  PMID: 23125679
4.  Exposure to mercury in the mine of Almadén 
To describe the process for obtaining mercury and the historical exposure of Almadén miners to mercury.
Information on every workplace and historical data on production, technological changes in the productive process and biological and environmental values of mercury was collected. A job‐exposure matrix was built with these values and the exposure to inorganic mercury was estimated quantitatively as μg/l of urine mercury. A cumulative exposure index was calculated for every worker by adding the estimates for every year in the different workplaces.
In the mine, the highest exposures occurred during drilling, with values up to 2.26 mg/m3 in air, 2194 μg/l in urine and 374 μg/l in blood. Furnace operation and cleaning were the tasks with the highest values in metallurgy, peaking up to 3.37 mg/m3. The filling of bottles with mercury by free fall gave values within a range of 1.13–2.43 mg/m3 in air; these values dropped to 0.32–0.83 mg/m3 after introducing a new ventilation system. The toxicity effects of high doses of inorganic mercury on the central nervous and urinary systems have been known for decades.
The exposure of the workers in Almadén mines to mercury has been very high. The extremely high content cinnabar ore of the mine explains the increased concentrations of mercury in air at the work places. This, together with inadequate working conditions, explains the high mercury levels found in blood and urine during the study period.
PMCID: PMC2078521  PMID: 17227836

Results 1-4 (4)