Sweet's panniculitis is a rare variant of Sweet's syndrome in which neutrophilic infiltrate can be found either in the subcutaneous fat or in both the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue. Due to the rarity of this entity, the association between Sweet's panniculitis and malignancies is inconclusive, but cases of Sweet's panniculitis have largely been associated with hematological malignancies. Herein, we present a case of Sweet's panniculitis accompanied by bone metastasis from prostate cancer. Clinicians should be aware that Sweet's panniculitis may be associated with malignancies of solid organs.
Prostate cancer; Sweet's panniculitis; Sweet's syndrome
Endothelial cells maintain the homeostasis of blood, which consists of plasma and cellular components, and regulate the interaction between blood and the surrounding tissues. They also have essential roles in vascular permeability, the circulation, coagulation, inflammation, wound healing, and tissue growth. The senescence of endothelial cells is closely related to the aging of the adjacent tissues and to age-related vascular disease. Recently, the expression of moesin was found to be decreased in elderly human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs), and an association between moesin and senescence has been suggested. This study examined the functional role of moesin in cellular senescence.
Materials and Methods
To study the effects of decreased moesin expression on cellular senescence and metabolism, HDMECs were transfected with short hairpin-RNA (shRNA) lentivirus to silence moesin gene expression. In addition, specimens from young and old human skin were stained with anti-moesin and anti-p16 antibodies as an in vivo study.
Using shRNAl-entivirus, moesin knock-down HDMECs developed characteristics associated with aging and expressed senescence associated-beta-galactosidase during early passages. They also showed increased p16 expression, decreased metabolic activity, and cell growth retardation. Human skin tissue from elderly persons showed decreased moesin expression and increased p16 expression.
These findings suggest that there is a functional association between moesin expression and cellular senescence. Further study of the functional mechanism of moesin in the cytoskeleton and cellular senescence is needed. In addition, this study provides a useful model for developing anti-aging treatments.
Aging; endothelial cell; shRNA lentivirus; moesin; p16
Female patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) often experience cutaneous deterioration associated with their pregnancy or menstrual cycle.
We wanted to determine the prevalence of symptom aggravation as related to pregnancy and the menstrual cycle in female patients with AD.
One hundred female patients with AD were included in the study and interviews were performed. The total IgE level and the Eczema Area and Severity Index score of the patients were retrospectively reviewed.
Ninety seven patients replied the questionnaire, and among them, 23 patients had completed at least 1 pregnancy. Among the 23 women who experienced pregnancy, 14 (61%) had noticed deterioration of their clinical symptoms during pregnancy. Of the 97 females, 31 (32%) patients had noticed deterioration of their AD as related to their menstrual cycle. For the patients who were sub-grouped as the intrinsic type of AD, the prevalence of symptom aggravation as related to pregnancy was significantly higher as compared to that of the extrinsic type of AD patients (p=0.048).
Of the 97 patients, 45 (46%) females answered that they have experienced deterioration of AD during pregnancy or in relation to their menstrual cycle, and this suggests the relation of a hormonal influence on the clinical manifestations of AD.
Atopic dermatitis; Hormone; Intrinsic; Menstruation; Pregnancy
Cutaneous metastases from internal malignancies are, occurring in 0.5% to 9% of cases. Lung, breast, and colorectal cancers are common primary tumors that metastasize to the skin; cutaneous metastasis usually occurs on the chest wall and abdomen as asymptomatic nodular patterns. Esophageal cancer is not nearly as common as breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, and esophageal cancer rarely metastasizes to the skin. Cutaneous metastasis of esophageal cancer is rare and metastasis to the scalp is extremely rare. Only a few cases of cutaneous metastases of esophageal cancer have been reported in Korea. Most of the cases involved cutaneous metastases arising from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; however, there have been several reports describing cutaneous metastases from esophageal adenocarcinomas. Herein, we describe a case of metastatic skin cancer that originated from esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Adenocarcinoma; Esophagus; Metastasis; Scalp
Epidermal growth factor has an important role in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes, as well as in the survival, angiogenesis and metastasis of cancer cells. Cetuximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody selective for the epidermal growth factor receptor that induces a broad range of cellular responses that enhance tumor sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents. However, it can cause adverse events in the patient including acneiform eruption, asthenia, abdominal pain and nausea/vomiting. We report a case of severe acneiform eruption induced by cetuximab in a 56-year-old man with colorectal cancer and liver metastases.
Cetuximab; acneiform eruption
The purpose of our study was to describe clinical and histopathological features of sixty one patients with histological diagnosis of syringoma over four year period in our dermatology clinic in Korea. Female:male ratio was 6.6:1 with onset of age during 2nd and 3rd decades in more than half of the patients in our study. The most frequently involved site was eyelids (43 cases, 70.5%) and the most common color of lesion was skin-color (30 cases, 49.2%). In 34 cases, characteristic tad-pole appearances (55.7%) were observed. Basal hyperpigmentation was observed more frequently in brown-colored lesion (p = 0.005). Fibrosis was observed more frequently in erythematous lesion (p = 0.033). Keratin cyst was observed less frequently in genital involved group (p = 0.006). We also performed immunohistochemical stain for the presence of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor (ER) in fifty six cases with negative results.
Syringoma; immunohistochemical staining; treatment
Infrared radiation is increasingly and uncritically used for cosmetic and wellness purposes, despite the poorly understood biologic effects of such treatments on humans. In the present study, we investigated the effects of infrared radiation on collagen and elastin production in dermal fibroblasts, as well as the clinical and histopathologic effects of infrared radiation on photo-aged facial skin lesions. In order to determine the effects of infrared radiation on collagen and elastin production, dermal fibroblasts were exposed to infrared radiation for varying lengths of time and collagen and elastin contents were subsequently determined. Additionally, 20 patients with mild to moderate facial wrinkles and hyperpigmented lesions received daily treatments of far infrared radiation (900 to 1000 µm) for six-months. During the treatment, patients and a medical observer conducted independent photographic and clinical evaluations every 4 weeks, and skin biopsies were obtained for histological analysis at baseline and one month post-treatment. We found that the content of collagen and elastin produced by the fibroblasts increased after infrared radiation, and that this increase was proportional to the duration of irradiation exposure. Following 6 months of treatment, all patients reported good (51-75%) improvements in skin texture and roughness. Additionally, patients noted fair (25-50%) improvement in color tone of the skin; however, improvements in hyperpigmented lesions were not observed. Objective medical evaluation of the patients indicated that roughness and laxity were fairly improved, but there was no significant improvement in hyperpigmented lesions. Histological examination failed to reveal any differences as well. These results suggest that infrared radiation may have beneficial effects on skin texture and wrinkles by increasing collagen and elastin contents from the stimulated fibroblasts. Therefore, skin treatment with infrared radiation may be an effective and safe non-ablative remodeling method, and may also be useful in the treatment of photo-aged skin.
Infrared radiation; fibroblasts; photo-aging
Phagocytosis and autophagy are two important and related arms of the host's first-line defense against microbial invasion. Rubicon is a RUN domain containing cysteine-rich protein that functions as part of a Beclin-1-Vps34-containing autophagy complex. We report that Rubicon is also an essential, positive regulator of the NADPH oxidase complex. Upon microbial infection or Toll-like-receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, Rubicon interacts with the p22phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, facilitating its phagosomal trafficking to induce a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines. Consequently, ectopic expression or depletion of Rubicon profoundly affected ROS, inflammatory cytokine production, and subsequent antimicrobial activity. Rubicon's actions in autophagy and in the NADPH oxidase complex are functionally and genetically separable, indicating that Rubicon functions in two ancient innate immune machineries, autophagy and phagocytosis, depending on the environmental stimulus. Rubicon may thus be pivotal to generating an optimal intracellular immune response against microbial infection.
Topical application of corticosteroids also has an influence on skin barrier impairment. Physiological lipid mixtures, such as multi-lamellar emulsion (MLE) containing a natural lipid component leads to effective recovery of the barrier function.
The purpose of this study was to conduct an evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy and skin barrier protection of topical mometasone furoate in MLE.
A multi-center randomized, double-blind, controlled study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate cream in MLE for Korean patients with eczema. The study group included 175 patients with eczema, who applied either mometasone furoate in MLE cream or methylprednisolone aceponate cream for 2 weeks. Treatment efficacy was evaluated using the physician's global assessment of clinical response (PGA), trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), and visual analogue scale (VAS) for pruritus. Patients were evaluated using these indices at days 4, 8, and 15.
Comparison of PGA score, TEWL, and VAS score at baseline with those at days 4, 8, and 15 of treatment showed a significant improvement in both groups. Patients who applied mometasone furoate in MLE (74.8%) showed better results (p<0.05) than those who applied methylprednisolone aceponate (47.8%). The TEWL improvement ratio was higher in the mometasone furoate in MLE group than that in the methylprednisolone aceponate group, and VAS improvement was also better in the mometasone furoate in MLE group.
Mometasone furoate in MLE has a better therapeutic efficacy as well as less skin barrier impairment than methylprednisolone aceponate.
Ceramide; Corticosteroid; Eczema; Multi-lammelar emulsion; Skin-barrier
Upon phagocytosis, Legionella pneumophila translocates numerous effector proteins into host cells to perturb cellular metabolism and immunity, ultimately establishing intracellular survival and growth. VipD of L. pneumophila belongs to a family of bacterial effectors that contain the N-terminal lipase domain and the C-terminal domain with an unknown function. We report the crystal structure of VipD and show that its C-terminal domain robustly interferes with endosomal trafficking through tight and selective interactions with Rab5 and Rab22. This domain, which is not significantly similar to any known protein structure, potently interacts with the GTP-bound active form of the two Rabs by recognizing a hydrophobic triad conserved in Rabs. These interactions prevent Rab5 and Rab22 from binding to downstream effectors Rabaptin-5, Rabenosyn-5 and EEA1, consequently blocking endosomal trafficking and subsequent lysosomal degradation of endocytic materials in macrophage cells. Together, this work reveals endosomal trafficking as a target of L. pneumophila and delineates the underlying molecular mechanism.
Legionella pneumophila is a pathogen bacterium that causes Legionnaires' disease accompanied by severe pneumonia. Surprisingly, this pathogen invades and replicates inside macrophages, whose major function is to detect and destroy invading microorganisms. How L. pneumophila can be “immune” to this primary immune cell has been a focus of intensive research. Upon being engulfed by a macrophage cell, L. pneumophila translocates hundreds of bacterial proteins into this host cell. These proteins, called bacterial effectors, are thought to manipulate normal host cellular processes. However, which host molecules and how they are targeted by the bacterial effectors are largely unknown. In this study, we determined the three-dimensional structure of L. pneumophila effector protein VipD, whose function in macrophage was unknown. Ensuing analyses revealed that VipD selectively and tightly binds two host signaling proteins Rab5 and Rab22, which are key regulators of early endosomal vesicle trafficking. These interactions prevent the activated form of Rab5 and Rab22 from binding their downstream signaling proteins, resulting in the blockade of endosomal trafficking in macrophages. The presented work shows that L. pneumophila targets endosomal Rab proteins and delineates the underlying molecular mechanism, providing a new insight into the pathogen's strategies to dysregulate normal intracellular processes.
The surface of proteins can be charged with zinc ions and the anomalous signals from these zinc ions can be used for structure determination of proteins.
Zinc is a suitable metal for anomalous dispersion phasing methods in protein crystallography. Structure determination using zinc anomalous scattering has been almost exclusively limited to proteins with intrinsically bound zinc(s). Here, it is reported that multiple zinc ions can easily be charged onto the surface of proteins with no intrinsic zinc-binding site by using zinc-containing solutions. Zn derivatization of protein surfaces appears to be a largely unnoticed but promising method of protein structure determination.
zinc anomalous scattering; phasing; Zn derivatization
We aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies in a large group of Korean patients with Behçet's disease (BD), with and without joint involvement, and to compare these findings with the prevalences of anti-CCP antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Materials and Methods
We tested 189 patients with BD, 105 with RA, and 36 with SLE for anti-CCP antibodies and IgM rheumatoid factor in serum. We reviewed the medical records of patients with BD to investigate their personal and clinical characteristics as well as their laboratory test results.
Anti-CCP antibodies were detected in seven of the 189 BD patients (3.7%), at a mean titer of 30.6±44.4 U/mL, in 86 of the 105 RA patients (81.9%) with a mean titer of 198.8±205.7 U/mL, and in nine of the 36 SLE patients (25%) with a mean titer of 180.4±113.9 U/mL. One of the seven anti-CCP-positive BD patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for both BD and RA. Five of the seven anti-CCP-positive BD patients (71.4%) had polyarticular joint involvement, and the other two patients (28.6%) had oligoarticular involvement.
We determined the prevalence of anti-CCP antibodies in a large group of Korean BD patients with and without joint involvement. Negative anti-CCP test in patients with BD may help to differentiate BD from RA and SLE, all of which present with similar clinical features.
Behçet's disease; joint involvement; anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody; rheumatoid factor; systemic lupus erythematosus; rheumatoid arthritis
S100A8/A9 (Calgranulin A/B, Calprotectin), a heterodimer of 2 calcium-binding proteins originally found in the cytoplasm of neutrophils and membrane of monocytes. It has emerged as an important pro-inflammatory mediator, so called “damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP)” molecule in acute and chronic inflammation. Our previous proteomics data showed that S100A8/A9 was significantly downregulated after immunotherapy with house dust mite in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD).
The purpose of this study was to evaluate S100A8/A9 expression in serum and lesional skin of AD patients, and then to assess S100A8/A9 expression in HaCaT cells and primary human keratinocytes, which were cultured with Th2, Th17 cytokines and house dust mite (HDM) extracts.
Compared with healthy controls, serum S100A8/A9 levels were higher in AD patients and correlated with eczema area and severity index (EASI) scores (P < 0.01, r2 = 0.2037). S100A8/A9 was strongly expressed in the upper epidermis of AD tissues by immunofluorescence. IL-17A strongly induced S100A8/A9, and enhanced S100A8/A9 expression in HaCaT cells and human keratinocytes which were cultured with Th2 cytokines. S100A8/A9 mRNA and protein levels were also increased in HaCaT cells and human keratinocytes which were stimulated with Dermatophagoides farinae by time dependent manner. IL-17A also strongly enhanced S100A8/A9 expression in HaCaT cells which were cultured with D. farinae, but Th2 cytokines did not.
These results suggest that elevated S100A8/A9 levels of AD patients may reflect the importance of DAMP-associated inflammation, which could be triggered by Th17 cytokines and HDM allergens in AD.
RIG-I is a cytosolic receptor for non-self RNA that mediates immune responses against viral infections through IFNα/β production. In an attempt to identify novel tools that modulate IFNα/β production, we used SELEX technology to screen RNA aptamers that specifically target RIG-I protein. Most of the selected RIG-I aptamers contained polyU motifs in the second half regions that played critical roles in the activation of RIG-I-mediated IFNβ production. Unlike other known ligands, RIG-I aptamer bound and activated RIG-I in a 5′-triphosphate-independent manner. The helicase and RD domain of RIG-I were used for aptamer binding, but intact RIG-I protein was required to exert aptamer-mediated signaling activation. Furthermore, replication of NDV, VSV and influenza virus in infected host cells was efficiently blocked by pre- or post-treatment with RIG-I aptamer. Based on these data, we propose that RIG-I aptamer has strong potential to be an antiviral agent that specifically boosts the RIG-I-dependent signaling cascade.
Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease with unclear etiology, which is characterized by chronic non-specific inflammation of the retroperitoneum. This study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, radiologic findings, treatment and outcome in Korean patients with RPF. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 27 RPF patients who were admitted to Yonsei University Medical Center between 1998 and 2009. Twenty-two patients (81%) were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 56 yr. Nine patients had identifiable risk factors of RPF and three patients had combined autoimmune diseases. Acute phase reactants were elevated in most patients. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 3 of 16 patients (19%) and antinuclear antibody in 4 of 17 (24%). Five of 6 patients who were taken positron-emission tomography showed positive uptake. Glucocorticoids were used in 16 patients (59%) and four of them received combination therapy with azathioprine. After immunosuppressive treatment, the levels of acute phase reactants dropped, and the size of mass also decreased in most patients. In conclusion, the clinical characteristics of RPF in Korean patients are similar with other series except for higher proportion of male. Some patients with RPF have autoimmune features. The effect of immunosuppressive treatment on RPF is good.
Retroperitoneal Fibrosis; Autoimmune Diseases; Immunosuppression
S100A12 is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins and is secreted either in inflamed tissues or in the bloodstream by activated neutrophils. Expression of S100A12 has been reported in various diseases, especially non-infectious inflammatory diseases, such as Kawasaki disease, giant cell arteritis and inflammatory bowel disease.
This study was conducted to determine both the tissue expression and the serum levels of S100A12 in Behçet's disease (BD) patients and the correlation of the S100A12 serum level with disease activity of BD.
We included in this study ten BD patients who fulfilled the criteria for diagnosis, according to the International Study Group for BD. The activity of BD was calculated using the BD Current Activity Form. The serum concentrations of both S100A12 and interleukin-8 were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, before and after treatment. Immunohistochemical studies were also performed to detect S100A12 expression in the skin.
The serum S100A12 level was significantly increased in the active BD period (p<0.001), in the inactive BD period (p=0.041) and in patients with active Kawasaki disease (p=0.028), compared with the serum level in the healthy controls. The serum S100A12 level decreased significantly from baseline, compared to post-treatment (p=0.017). The activity score of BD was significantly correlated with the serum level of S100A12 (Spearman's coefficient=0.464, p=0.039). Immunohistochemical studies showed that S100A12 was strongly expressed in the erythema nodosum-like skin lesions of patients.
S100A12 contributes to the pathogenesis of BD related to neutrophil hyperactivity and reflects the disease activity in BD patients.
Behçet's disease; Interleukin-8; S100A12
The greater lubricity and resistance to scratching of oxidized zirconium femoral components are expected to result in less polyethylene wear than cobalt-chrome femoral components.
We examined polyethylene wear particles in synovial fluid and compared the weight, size (equivalent circle diameter), and shape (aspect ratio) of polyethylene wear particles in knees with an oxidized zirconium femoral component with those in knees with a cobalt-chrome femoral component.
Patients and Methods
One hundred patients received an oxidized zirconium femoral component in one knee and a cobalt-chrome femoral component in the other. There were 73 women and 27 men with a mean age of 55.6 years (range, 44–60 years). The minimum followup was 5 years (mean, 5.5 years; range, 5–6 years). Polyethylene wear particles were analyzed using thermogravimetric methods and scanning electron microscopy.
The weight of polyethylene wear particles produced at the bearing surface was 0.0223 ± 0.0054 g in 1 g synovial fluid in patients with an oxidized zirconium femoral component and 0.0228 ± 0.0062 g in patients with a cobalt-chrome femoral component. Size and shape of polyethylene wear particles were 0.59 ± 0.05 μm and 1.21 ± 0.24, respectively, in the patients with an oxidized zirconium femoral component and 0.52 ± 0.03 μm and 1.27 ± 0.31, respectively, in the patients with a cobalt-chrome femoral component. Knee Society knee and function scores, radiographic results, and complication rate were similar between the knees with an oxidized zirconium and cobalt-chrome femoral component.
The weight, size, and shape of polyethylene wear particles were similar in the knees with an oxidized zirconium and a cobalt-chrome femoral component. We found the theoretical advantages of this surface did not provide the actual advantage.
Level of Evidence
Level I, therapeutic study. See the guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
This study demonstrates that IFN-γ–inducible chemokines and CXCR3 are key components of the ocular surface inflammatory response in dry eye syndrome. CXCL11 may be a major chemoattractant for effector T cells involved in the pathophysiology of dry eye.
To investigate the expression of CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 in the tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye syndrome.
Thirty-three patients with dry eye (16 with and 17 without Sjögren's syndrome) and 15 control subjects were recruited. The concentrations of CXCL9, -10, and -11 in tears were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The correlation between chemokine levels and tear film and ocular surface parameters was analyzed. The expression of CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 in the conjunctiva was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry was performed to count CXCR3+ cells and CXCR3+CD4+ cells in the conjunctiva.
The concentrations of CXCL9, -10, and -11 were 1,148 ± 1,088, 24,338 ± 8,706, and 853 ± 334 pg/mL, in the patients with dry eye, and 272 ± 269 (P = 0.01), 18,149 ± 5,266 (P = 0.02), and 486 ± 175 (P < 0.01) pg/mL in the control subjects, respectively. The concentrations significantly increased in tears of the patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared with those of the patients with non-Sjögren's dry eye (P < 0.05). CXCL10 levels correlated significantly with basal tear secretion, and CXCL11 levels correlated significantly with basal tear secretion, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy score, and goblet cell density (P < 0.05). Staining for CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 increased in patients with dry eye, especially in the patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Flow cytometry demonstrated an increased number of CXCR3+ and CXCR3+CD4+ cells in all the patients with dry eye.
Expression of CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 increased in the tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye syndrome, especially in those with Sjögren's syndrome. CXCL11 levels correlated significantly with various tear film and ocular surface parameters. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00991679.)
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. There are no generally accepted diagnostic criteria for PsA. Indeed, the diagnosis of this inflammatory arthritis is made by exclusion of other possible diseases and based upon immunologic, radiologic, and clinical features which are consistent with the diagnosis. Inflammatory arthritis in a patient with psoriasis can be an important clue for the diagnosis of PsA, but the possibility for diagnosis of other inflammatory arthritides ever remains. Herein we report a case of a female patient who was not diagnosed with PsA, but with rheumatoid arthritis, even though she had psoriasis.
Psoriasis; Arthritis, rheumatoid; Arthritis, psoriatic
The objective of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelation and excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) combined with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for the treatment of band keratopathy (BK).
Eleven eyes in ten patients with BK received combined PTK (ablation zone of central 7.0-7.5 mm, depth of 50 µm), EDTA chelation (0.05 M, 3 minutes), and amniotic membrane transplantation using fibrin glue. Preand postoperative best corrected visual acuities, symptom changes, reepithelialization time, cosmesis, recurrence, and complications were analyzed.
Visual acuity improved in three eyes (27.3%) and did not change in eight eyes (72.7%). Symptoms improved in all patients, and the mean reepithelialization time was 10.6±5.3 days. The cosmetic results were good in eight eyes (72.7%) and were fair in three eyes (27.3%). During the mean follow-up period of 11.4±6.1 months (range, 6 to 23 months), no postoperative complications or recurrences were observed.
The combination of EDTA chelation, PTK, and AMT is safe and effective for the treatment of band keratopathy.
Amion; Chelating agents; Excimer lasers
Generalized granuloma annulare (GGA) is a benign skin disorder of an unknown etiology. Though some cases of GGA have been reported, few systemic reviews of the clinical and pathological features of GGA have been performed.
The purpose of this study is to analyze and correlate the clinical and pathological characteristics of GGA in Korean patients.
We conducted a retrospective study that included 54 biopsy specimens of Korean GGA patients, and the clinical and pathological features of GGA were reviewed and analyzed for their correlation.
The cutaneous lesions could be divided into the annular (24, 44%) and nonannular types (30, 56%), and the lesions were more common in males than in females (29 males and 25 females). The incidence of GGA showed a bimodal age distribution. The number of patients who presented within the first decade was 24 cases (44%), and 24 cases (44%) were over the fifth decade. Eight patients (15%) had systemic diseases. Especially, diabetes mellitus (DM) occurred only in the adult GGA patients over forty years old. The pathological findings showed dermal granulomatous lesions that consisted of either a palisading pattern (28, 52%) or an interstitial pattern (26, 48%).
In contrast to the previously reported studies, the age of GGA onset showed a bimodal distribution, and GGA was observed more often in males. The prevalence of DM in the GGA affected individuals was higher than that found in the general Korean population. Therefore, it is recommended to perform a work-up for DM in the GGA affected patients who are over forty years old.
Clinical; Generalized granuloma annulare; Pathological
All gammaherpesviruses express homologues of antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) to counter the clearance of infected cells by host antiviral defense machineries. To gain insights into the action mechanisms of these viral BCL-2 proteins, we carried out structural and biochemical analyses on the interactions of M11, a viral BCL-2 of murine γ-herpesvirus 68, with a fragment of proautophagic Beclin1 and BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain-containing peptides derived from an array of proapoptotic BCL-2 family proteins. Mainly through hydrophobic interactions, M11 bound the BH3-like domain of Beclin1 with a dissociation constant of 40 nanomole, a markedly tighter affinity compared to the 1.7 micromolar binding affinity between cellular BCL-2 and Beclin1. Consistently, M11 inhibited autophagy more efficiently than BCL-2 in NIH3T3 cells. M11 also interacted tightly with a BH3 domain peptide of BAK and those of the upstream BH3-only proteins BIM, BID, BMF, PUMA, and Noxa, but weakly with that of BAX. These results collectively suggest that M11 potently inhibits Beclin1 in addition to broadly neutralizing the proapoptotic BCL-2 family in a similar but distinctive way from cellular BCL-2, and that the Beclin1-mediated autophagy may be a main target of the virus.
In higher animals, defective or surplus cells are removed by a process known as apoptosis. On the other hand, defective or damaged cellular components are removed by a process known as autophagy. These two destructive processes are indispensable for the survival and development of an organism. While apoptosis is known as a central host defense mechanism that removes virus-infected cells, the role of autophagy against viral infection has recently emerged. Many viruses express an armory of viral proteins that counteract cell death–mediated innate immune control. One such protein is a homologue of the cellular BCL-2 protein that suppresses apoptosis through inhibitory binding to apoptosis-promoting proteins. Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 also encodes a viral BCL-2, known as M11. In this study, we quantitatively measured the binding affinity of M11 for its potential cellular targets, including ten different proapoptotic proteins and the proautophagic protein Beclin1. We found that M11 neutralizes the proapoptotic proteins broadly rather than selectively to suppress apoptosis. Surprisingly, M11 bound to Beclin1 with the highest affinity, which correlated with its strong antiautophagic activity in cells. These data suggest that M11 suppresses not only apoptosis but also autophagy potently, which ultimately contributes to the viral chronic infection.
Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, multisystem disorder, characterized by recurrent oral ulcer, genital ulcers, eye lesion, and skin lesion. The underlying pathology is nonspecificvasculitis of all vessel sizes, and severe vasculitis can result in fistula formation of neighboring tissues due to a necroticprocess. Herein, eleven cases of BD combined with fistula are presented. In the present study, various types of fistula were associated; enterocutaneous fistula in six patients, and rectovaginal fistula in two. The other three patients showed aortoduodenal fistula, urethrovaginal fistula and urethrocutaneous fistula. They were treated with a corrective operation, but the prognoses were poor due to frequent relapses.
Fistula; Behçet's disease
Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic inflammatory disorder known as having a histopathological findings of vasculitis. The influence of sexual difference on BD is a well-known fact and there are several reports suggesting a more severe course of the disease among young males. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of gender on the severity and clinical features of BD patients in Korea. The study included 1,901 patients with BD who fulfilled the criteria of International Study Group for Behçet's Disease or corresponded to the complete or incomplete type for the revised criteria of Behçet's Disease Research Committee of Japan. BD in Korea showed a female predominance (M:F=0.61:1). The skin lesions were observed in 79.9% of patients, of which 77.6% had erythema nodosum-like lesion, which was more frequent in females. The ocular lesions were more common in males showing a higher frequency of uveitis. Ocular and vascular symptoms as clinical features with severe complications or mortality were more frequent in males than in females. The mean age at the onset of patients with the worst prognosis such as ocular, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and vascular involvements was significantly younger in male than in female patients (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study elucidated the influences of sexual difference on BD in Korea.