The CCP4 template-restraint library defines restraints for biopolymers, their modifications and ligands that are used in macromolecular structure refinement. JLigand is a graphical editor for generating descriptions of new ligands and covalent linkages.
Biological macromolecules are polymers and therefore the restraints for macromolecular refinement can be subdivided into two sets: restraints that are applied to atoms that all belong to the same monomer and restraints that are associated with the covalent bonds between monomers. The CCP4 template-restraint library contains three types of data entries defining template restraints: descriptions of monomers and their modifications, both used for intramonomer restraints, and descriptions of links for intermonomer restraints. The library provides generic descriptions of modifications and links for protein, DNA and RNA chains, and for some post-translational modifications including glycosylation. Structure-specific template restraints can be defined in a user’s additional restraint library. Here, JLigand, a new CCP4 graphical interface to LibCheck and REFMAC that has been developed to manage the user’s library and generate new monomer entries is described, as well as new entries for links and associated modifications.
macromolecular refinement; restraint library; molecular graphics
Type 1 pili are the archetypal representative of a widespread class of adhesive multisubunit fibres in Gram-negative bacteria. During pilus assembly, subunits dock as chaperone-bound complexes to an usher, which catalyzes their polymerization and mediates pilus translocation across the outer membrane. We report the crystal structure of the full-length FimD usher bound to the FimC:FimH chaperone:adhesin complex and that of the unbound form of the FimD translocation domain. The FimD:FimC:FimH structure shows FimH inserted inside the FimD 24-stranded β-barrel translocation channel. FimC:FimH is held in place through interactions with the two C-terminal periplasmic domains of FimD, a binding mode confirmed in solution by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. To accommodate FimH, the usher plug domain is displaced from the barrel lumen to the periplasm, concomitant with a dramatic conformational change in the β-barrel. The N-terminal domain of FimD is observed in an ideal position to catalyse incorporation of a newly recruited chaperone:subunit complex. The FimD:FimC:FimH structure provides unique insights into the pilus subunit incorporation cycle, and captures the first view of a protein transporter in the act of secreting its cognate substrate.
The GAF domain is a simple module widespread in proteins of diverse function including cell signalling proteins and transcription factors. Its structure, typically spanning 150 residues, has three tiers; a basal layer of two or more α-helices, a middle layer of β-pleated sheet and a top layer formed by segments of the polypeptide that connect strands of the β-sheet. In structures of GAF domains in complex with their effectors, these polypeptide segments envelop the ligand enclosing it in a cavity whose base is formed by the β-sheet, so that ligand binding and release must be accompanied by conformational rearrangements of the distal portion of the structure. Descriptions of binding are presently limited by the absence of a GAF domain for which both liganded and unliganded structures are known. Earlier, we solved the crystal structure of the GAF domain of CodY, a branched chain amino acid and GTP responsive regulator of the transcription of stationary phase and virulence genes in Bacillus, in complexes with isoleucine and valine. Here, we report the structure of this domain in its unliganded form, allowing definition of the structural changes accompanying ligand binding. The core of the protein and its dimerisation interface are essentially unchanged in agreement with circular dichroism spectroscopy experiments that show that the secondary structure composition is unperturbed by ligand binding. There is however, extensive refolding of the binding site loops, with up to 15 Å movements of the coiled segment linking β3 and β4, such that in the absence of the ligand, the binding pocket is not formed. The implications of these structural rearrangements for ligand affinity and specificity are discussed. Finally, saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy showed binding of isoleucine, but not GTP, to the GAF domain suggesting that the two cofactors do not have a common binding site.
GAF domain; conformational change; transcription regulation; Bacillus subtilis; branched chain amino acids
The general principles behind the macromolecular crystal structure refinement program REFMAC5 are described.
This paper describes various components of the macromolecular crystallographic refinement program REFMAC5, which is distributed as part of the CCP4 suite. REFMAC5 utilizes different likelihood functions depending on the diffraction data employed (amplitudes or intensities), the presence of twinning and the availability of SAD/SIRAS experimental diffraction data. To ensure chemical and structural integrity of the refined model, REFMAC5 offers several classes of restraints and choices of model parameterization. Reliable models at resolutions at least as low as 4 Å can be achieved thanks to low-resolution refinement tools such as secondary-structure restraints, restraints to known homologous structures, automatic global and local NCS restraints, ‘jelly-body’ restraints and the use of novel long-range restraints on atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) based on the Kullback–Leibler divergence. REFMAC5 additionally offers TLS parameterization and, when high-resolution data are available, fast refinement of anisotropic ADPs. Refinement in the presence of twinning is performed in a fully automated fashion. REFMAC5 is a flexible and highly optimized refinement package that is ideally suited for refinement across the entire resolution spectrum encountered in macromolecular crystallography.
Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis begins with an asymmetric cell division, following which differential gene expression is established by alternative compartment-specific RNA polymerase σ factors. The spoIISAB operon of B. subtilis was identified as a locus whose mutation leads to increased activity of the first sporulation-specific sigma factor, σF. Inappropriate spoIISA expression causes lysis of vegetatively growing B. subtilis cells and Escherichia coli cells when expressed heterologously, effects that are countered by co-expression of spoIISB, identifying SpoIISA-SpoIISB as a toxin-antitoxin system. SpoIISA has three putative membrane-spanning segments and a cytoplasmic domain. Here, the crystal structure of a cytoplasmic fragment of SpoIISA (CSpoIISA) in complex with SpoIISB has been determined by selenomethionine-multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing to 2.5 Å spacing, revealing a CSpoIISA2·SpoIISB2 heterotetramer. CSpoIISA has a single domain α/β structure resembling a GAF domain with an extended α-helix at its N terminus. The two CSpoIISA protomers form extensive interactions through an intermolecular four-helix bundle. Each SpoIISB chain is highly extended and lacking tertiary structure. The SpoIISB chains wrap around the CSpoIISA dimer, forming extensive interactions with both CSpoIISA protomers. CD spectroscopy experiments indicate that SpoIISB is a natively disordered protein that adopts structure only in the presence of CSpoIISA, whereas surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the CSpoIISA·SpoIISB complex is stable with a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. The results are interpreted in relation to sequence conservation and mutational data, and possible mechanisms of cell killing by SpoIISA are discussed.
Bacterial Toxins; Crystal Structure; Membrane Proteins; Protein Structure; Protein-Protein Interactions; Native Disorder; Sporulation; Toxin-Antitoxin
Defects in the human Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) protein-coding gene lead to the autosomal recessive disorder characterised by bone marrow dysfunction, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and skeletal abnormalities. This protein is highly conserved in eukaryotes and archaea but is not found in bacteria. Although genomic and biophysical studies have suggested involvement of this protein in RNA metabolism and in ribosome biogenesis, its interacting partners remain largely unknown.
We determined the crystal structure of the SBDS orthologue from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (mthSBDS). This structure shows that SBDS proteins are highly flexible, with the N-terminal FYSH domain and the C-terminal ferredoxin-like domain capable of undergoing substantial rotational adjustments with respect to the central domain. Affinity chromatography identified several proteins from the large ribosomal subunit as possible interacting partners of mthSBDS. Moreover, SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) experiments, combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) suggest that mthSBDS does not interact with RNA molecules in a sequence specific manner.
It is suggested that functional interactions of SBDS proteins with their partners could be facilitated by rotational adjustments of the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains with respect to the central domain. Examination of the SBDS protein structure and domain movements together with its possible interaction with large ribosomal subunit proteins suggest that these proteins could participate in ribosome function.
The default model-preparation scheme of MOLREP is described. Two examples are presented of model improvement using X-ray data.
The success of molecular replacement is critically dependent on the quality of the search model. Several model-preparation procedures are integrated in the molecular-replacement program MOLREP. These include model modification on the basis of amino-acid sequence alignment and model correction based on analysis of the solvent-accessibility of the atoms. The packing function used in MOLREP for the translational search is explained in the context of model preparation. In difficult cases, bioinformatics-based modifications are not sufficient for successful molecular replacement. An approach implemented in MOLREP for solving cases with translational noncrystallographic symmetry is an example of model preparation in which analysis of X-ray data plays an essential role. In addition, two examples are presented in which the X-ray data were used to refine partial models for subsequent use in molecular replacement.
MOLREP; model preparation; molecular replacement
The presence of pseudosymmetry can cause problems in structure determination and refinement. The relevant background and representative examples are presented.
It is not uncommon for protein crystals to crystallize with more than a single molecule per asymmetric unit. When more than a single molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, various pathological situations such as twinning, modulated crystals and pseudo translational or rotational symmetry can arise. The presence of pseudosymmetry can lead to uncertainties about the correct space group, especially in the presence of twinning. The background to certain common pathologies is presented and a new notation for space groups in unusual settings is introduced. The main concepts are illustrated with several examples from the literature and the Protein Data Bank.
pathology; twinning; pseudosymmetry
Three difficult MR cases are reported in which the orientation of a search oligomer or its internal parameters were determined and the oligomer was positioned according to the maximal value of the correlation coefficient in a series of translation searches. Such an exhaustive search was feasible because of constraints on the model parameters derived from the self-rotation function.
The efficiency of the cross-rotation function step of molecular replacement (MR) is intrinsically limited as it uses only a fraction of the Patterson vectors. Along with general techniques extending the boundaries of the method, there are approaches that utilize specific features of a given structure. In special cases, where the directions of noncrystallographic symmetry axes can be unambiguously derived from the self-rotation function and the structure of the homologue protein is available in a related oligomeric state, the cross-rotation function step of MR can be omitted. In such cases, a small number of yet unknown parameters defining the orientation of the oligomer and/or its internal organization can be optimized using an exhaustive search. Three difficult MR cases are reported in which these parameters were determined and the oligomer was positioned according to the maximal value of the correlation coefficient in a series of translation searches.
molecular replacement; exhaustive search
Concerted, stochastic and sequential mechanisms of action have been proposed for different hexameric AAA+ molecular motors. Here we report the crystal structure of the E1 helicase from bovine papillomavirus, where asymmetric assembly is for the first time observed in the absence of nucleotide cofactors and DNA. Surprisingly, the ATP-binding sites adopt specific conformations linked to positional changes in the DNA-binding hairpins, which follow a wave-like trajectory, as observed previously in the E1/DNA/ADP complex. The protein's assembly thus maintains such an asymmetric state in the absence of DNA and nucleotide cofactors, allowing consideration of the E1 helicase action as the propagation of a conformational wave around the protein ring. The data imply that the wave's propagation within the AAA+ domains is not necessarily coupled with a strictly sequential hydrolysis of ATP. Since a single ATP hydrolysis event would affect the whole hexamer, such events may simply serve to rectify the direction of the wave's motion.
Production of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis toxins is controlled by a number of transcriptional regulators. Here we report the crystal structure of Bacillus cereus HlyIIR, a regulator of the gene encoding the pore-forming toxin hemolysin II. We show that HlyIIR forms a tight dimer with a fold and overall architecture similar to the TetR family of repressors. A remarkable feature of the structure is a large internal cavity with a volume of 550 Å3 suggesting that the activity of HlyIIR is modulated by binding of a ligand, which triggers the toxin production. Virtual ligand library screening shows that this pocket can accommodate compounds with molecular masses of up to 400-500 Da. Based on structural data and previous biochemical evidence, we propose a model for HlyIIR interaction with the DNA.
HlyIIR; X-ray crystallography; DNA-binding; TetR family; Hemolysin II
Production of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis toxins is controlled by a number of transcriptional regulators. Here we report the crystal structure of B. cereus HlyIIR, a regulator of the gene encoding the pore-forming toxin hemolysin II. We show that HlyIIR forms a tight dimer with a fold and overall architecture similar to the TetR family of repressors. A remarkable feature of the structure is a large internal cavity with a volume of 550 Å3 suggesting that the activity of HlyIIR is modulated by binding of a ligand, which triggers the toxin production. Virtual ligand library screening shows that this pocket can accommodate compounds with molecular masses of up to 400–500 Da. Based on structural data and previous biochemical evidence, we propose a model for HlyIIR interaction with the DNA.
HlyII, hemolysin II; RNAP, RNA-polymerase; SELEX, systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment; SeMet, selenomethionine; HlyIIR; X-ray crystallography; DNA-binding; TetR family; hemolysin II