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author:("Garg, ankura")
1.  Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases Using WHO Steps Approach in an Adult Population in Delhi 
The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide largely due to prevalence of various risk factors, which can be controlled. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major preventable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, using STEPS approach.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study, that included a random sample of 200 adults, was conducted. A study tool based on the WHO STEPS questionnaire for assessing non-communicable diseases and their risk factors was used. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements of the participants were also taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.
Out of the 200 participants, 26% (n = 52) were consuming alcohol and 17% (n = 34) were smoking. Majority (77.5%) had a raised waist circumference, and more than two-thirds were either overweight or obese. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to be raised in 18% of the study population. More than third participants had raised systolic and diastolic blood pressures and abnormal lipid profiles. More males were found to be overweight in comparison to females (P < 0.01), but in contrast, obesity (P < 0.05) and raised waist circumference (P < 0.001) were more common in females. Tobacco use was more common in lower class (P < 0.05), whereas obesity was commoner in the upper socio-economic class (P < 0.05).
Study showed a high burden of risk factors for NCDs in the study population, pointing towards changing disease epidemiology of non-communicable diseases in India.
PMCID: PMC4139989  PMID: 25161966
Alcohol use; Delhi; non-communicable diseases; risk factors; tobacco use; WHO step approach
2.  An Appended Domain Results in an Unusual Architecture for Malaria Parasite Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66224.
Specific activation of amino acids by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) is essential for maintaining fidelity during protein translation. Here, we present crystal structure of malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (Pf-WRS) catalytic domain (AAD) at 2.6 Å resolution in complex with L-tryptophan. Confocal microscopy-based localization data suggest cytoplasmic residency of this protein. Pf-WRS has an unusual N-terminal extension of AlaX-like domain (AXD) along with linker regions which together seem vital for enzymatic activity and tRNA binding. Pf-WRS is not proteolytically processed in the parasites and therefore AXD likely provides tRNA binding capability rather than editing activity. The N-terminal domain containing AXD and linker region is monomeric and would result in an unusual overall architecture for Pf-WRS where the dimeric catalytic domains have monomeric AXDs on either side. Our PDB-wide comparative analyses of 47 WRS crystal structures also provide new mechanistic insights into this enzyme family in context conserved KMSKS loop conformations.
PMCID: PMC3680381  PMID: 23776638
3.  Prevalence and correlates of tobacco smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among persons aged 30 years or above in a resettlement colony of Delhi, India 
To assess the prevalence and correlates of current smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among smokers 30 years and above.
Materials and Methods:
Study design: Cross-sectional; Setting: Gokulpuri, a resettlement colony in East Delhi, India; Sample size: 911, persons aged 30 years and above using systematic random sampling; Study tools: Semi-structured questionnaire.
Prevalence of current smoking was found to be 24.6% (95% CI 21.90 - 27.49). Majority 198 (88.4%) of current smokers smoked bidi exclusively, and on an average 13.5 bidi/cigarette were smoked per day. Multivariate analysis showed the factors associated with current smoking as male sex, advancing age, illiteracy, skilled occupation, low socio-economic status, and low BMI (P < 0.001). 64.2% were aware of the hazards of smoking. 63 (21.9%) had quit smoking in the past, majority due to the health problems. Low educational status was associated with poor hazard awareness and quitting behavior.
Smoking is a significant problem among poor and illiterate males, shows an increasing trend with an advancing age and is directly associated with skilled occupation and low BMI. There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding hazards of smoking.
PMCID: PMC3519019  PMID: 23243347
Awareness; prevalence; quit; resettlement; smoking
4.  Nanolitre-scale crystallization using acoustic liquid-transfer technology 
Acoustic droplet ejection achieves precise, tipless, non-invasive transfer of diverse aqueous solutions, enabling nanolitre-scale crystallization trials. The rapid and scalable technique demonstrated successful crystal growth with diverse targets in drop volumes as small as 20 nl.
Focused acoustic energy allows accurate and precise liquid transfer on scales from picolitre to microlitre volumes. This technology was applied in protein crystallization, successfully transferring a diverse set of proteins as well as hundreds of precipitant solutions from custom and commercial crystallization screens and achieving crystallization in drop volumes as small as 20 nl. Only higher concentrations (>50%) of 2-­methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) appeared to be systematically problematic in delivery. The acoustic technology was implemented in a workflow, successfully reproducing active crystallization systems and leading to the discovery of crystallization conditions for previously uncharacterized proteins. The technology offers compelling advantages in low-nanolitre crystallization trials by providing significant reagent savings and presenting seamless scalability for those crystals that require larger volume optimization experiments using the same vapor-diffusion format.
PMCID: PMC3413209  PMID: 22868754
acoustic liquid transfer; nanolitre-scale crystallization
5.  Recanalization Following Various Endovascular Modalities for Treatment of Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Strokes 
Currently several endovascular modalities and devices are available for use in acute ischemic stroke setting. Limited data exist regarding the relative efficacy of these different options when used individually or in combination. The primary objective of this study was to retrospectively compare the recanalization rates of various endovascular options when used for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in the anterior cerebral circulation. We retrospectively reviewed 132 consecutive patients treated endovascularly at our center for acute ischemic stroke in the anterior cerebral circulation. Recanalization was defined as mTIMI of ≥ 2 while complete recanalization was defined as mTIMI of 4. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the modality or combination of modalities associated with best recanalization rate. Recanalization was achieved in 74% of patients while complete recanalization was achieved in 39% of patients. No individual endovascular therapy was significantly different from others in achieving recanalization. Where a multimodality approach was used, combination of angioplasty with intra- or extracranial stent placement was significantly (p=0.05) associated with recanalization. On regression analysis, combination of intra-arterial tPA with a mechanical modality (p=0.09) was significantly associated with recanalization while combination of intravenous tPA with intracranial stent placement (p=0.06) was significantly associated with complete recanalization. Combination of pharmacological and mechanical modalities in the setting of multimodal therapy is associated with increased likelihood of successful recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior cerebral circulation. Stent placement in acute stroke setting is promising and needs further exploration. Further prospective studies are needed.
PMCID: PMC3379902  PMID: 22737260
6.  Placement of the Internal Pulse Generator for Deep Brain Stimulation in the Upper Back to Prevent Fracture of the Extension Wire due to Generator Rotation: Case Report 
Parkinson's Disease  2010;2010:189371.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a common surgical procedure used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor. A potential complication of this procedure is hardware failure. The authors report a case of DBS hardware failure in which repeated fractures of the extension wire were caused by abnormal rotational movements of the IPG placed in the loose subclavicular tissue of an overweight female. Implantation of the IPG in the suprascapular area prevented further extension wire fractures. This strategy may be especially relevant in overweight females with loose subclavicular tissue.
PMCID: PMC2951139  PMID: 20948892

Results 1-6 (6)