We hypothesized that regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) could replace jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjvO2) in the steep Trendelenburg position under pneumoperitoneum. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between SjvO2 and rSO2 during laparoscopic surgery.
Materials and Methods
After induction of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation was controlled to increase PaCO2 from 35 to 45 mm Hg in the supine position, and the changes in SjvO2 and rSO2 were measured. Then, after establishment of pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position, ventilation was controlled to maintain a PaCO2 at 35 mm Hg and the CO2 step and measurements were repeated. The changes in SjvO2 (rSO2) -CO2 reactivity were compared in the supine position and Trendelenburg-pneumoperitoneum condition, respectively.
There was little correlation between SjvO2 and rSO2 in the supine position (concordance correlation coefficient=0.2819). Bland-Altman plots showed a mean bias of 8.4% with a limit of agreement of 21.6% and -4.7%. SjvO2 and rSO2 were not correlated during Trendelenburg-pneumoperitoneum condition (concordance correlation coefficient=0.3657). Bland-Altman plots showed a mean bias of 10.6% with a limit of agreement of 23.6% and -2.4%. The SjvO2-CO2 reactivity was higher than rSO2-CO2 reactivity in the supine position and Trendelenburg-pneumoperitoneum condition, respectively (0.9±1.1 vs. 0.4±1.2% mm Hg-1, p=0.04; 1.7±1.3 vs. 0.5±1.1% mm Hg-1, p<0.001).
There is little correlation between SjvO2 and rSO2 in the supine position and Trendelenburg-pneumoperitoneum condition during laparoscopic surgery.
Cerebral oxygenation; jugular bulb oxygen saturation; laparoscopy; pneumoperitoneum
A suite of eight cationic, tetra-metallic molecular rectangles (1–8) was generated via coordination-driven self-assembly using four dicarboxylate-bridged arene-Ru precursors (A1–A4) with one of two dipyridyl ligands (D1, D2). The high-yielding (84–92%) rectangles were characterized by 1H NMR and HR-ESI-MS to support their structural assignments. The molecular structure of 5 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis, which indicated that two D2 ligands bridge two A1 acceptors to form a rectangular construct. The photophysical properties of these metalla-rectangles and their molecular precursors were also investigated, as well as an MTT assay to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicities relative to two chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and doxorubicin. MTT assays were conducted using SK-hep-1 (liver cancer) and HCT-15 (colon cancer) human cancer cell lines. Compounds 3, 4, 7 and 8 showed significant activity, with IC50 values comparable to those of cisplatin and doxorubicin.
In Korea, tree pollens are known to be prevalent in spring, grass pollens in summer and weed pollens in autumn. However, few studies have revealed their seasonal specificity for allergic rhinitis symptoms. An ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) classification of allergic rhinitis was recently introduced and its clinical validation has not been well proved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal specificity of seasonal allergens and to validate the ARIA classification with the conventional seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis (SAR/PAR) classification.
Two hundred twenty six patients with allergic rhinitis were included in this study. The patients were classified according to the sensitized allergens and the ARIA classifications. A questionnaire survey was performed and the data on the seasonal symptom score, the severity of symptoms and the SNOT (sinonasal outcome test)-20 score was obtained and the data was analyzed and compared between the conventional SAR/PAR classification and the ARIA classification.
Seasonal pollens (tree, grass, weed) were not specific to the pollen peak season and the patients' symptoms were severe during spring and autumn regardless of the offending pollens. More than 60% of the patients with SAR showed persistent symptoms and 33% of the patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) had intermittent symptoms, showing the lack of association between the SAR/PAR/PAR+SAR classification and the ARIA classification. The ARIA classification showed better association not only with the symptomatic score, but also with the SNOT-20 score, which showed better validity than the conventional SAR/PAR classifications.
Seasonal pollens were not specific to their season of prevalence in terms of the severity of symptoms, and the ARIA classification showed better representation of allergic symptoms and quality of life (SNOT-20 score) than did the SAR/PAR classification.
Seasonal allergic rhinitis; perennial allergic rhinitis; allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma
Most intrasellar meningiomas are located in the subdiaphragmatic and supraglandular region because they originate from the diaphragma sellae. Subglandular meningiomas located under the pituitary gland are extremely rare. Intrasellar meningiomas in the subdiaphragmatic and subglandular region probably originate from the dura in the sellar floor. We report a case of a subglandular meningioma along with a review of the literature.
Intracrainal meningioma; Intrasellar meningioma; Sellar turcica
To determine the approximate incidence and clinical features of pernicious anemia in a Korean population, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data for patients with pernicious anemia who were diagnosed between 1995 and 2010 at five hospitals in Chungnam province. Ninety-seven patients were enrolled, who accounted for 24% of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. The approximate annual incidence of pernicious anemia was 0.3 per 100,000. The median age was 66 (range, 32-98) yr, and the male/female ratio was 1.25. Anemia-associated discomfort was the most common symptom (79.4%), followed by gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms (78.4% and 38.1%, respectively). Pancytopenia was found in 36 patients (37.1%), and autoimmune disorders were found in 15 patients (15.5%). Antibody to intrinsic factor was detected in 62 (77.5%) of 80 patients examined, and antibody to parietal cells was detected in 35 (43.2%) of 81 patients examined. Of the 34 patients who underwent tests for Helicobacter pylori, 7 (12.5%) were positive. The anemia-associated and gastrointestinal symptoms resolved completely in all patients after intramuscular injection of cobalamin, whereas neurological symptoms remained in some. In conclusion, pernicious anemia is less frequent in Koreans than in Western populations; however, the clinical features of this disorder in Koreans do not differ from those of Western cases.
Anemia, Pernicious; Vitamin B12; Anti-Intrinsic Factor Antibody; Anti-Parietal Cell Antibody; Helicobacter Pylori
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after anesthesia and surgery; 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have been considered as a first-line therapy. Ramosetron and palonosetron are more recently developed drugs and have greater receptor affinity and a longer elimination half-life compared with older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The purpose of this study was to determine which drug is more effective for preventing PONV between ramosetron and palonosetron.
We enrolled 100 patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery into this study. The subjects were divided into ramosetron group and palonosetron group. The medications were provided immediately before the induction of anesthesia. The occurrence of nausea and vomiting, severity of nausea according to a visual analogue scale, and rescue anti-emetic drug use were monitored immediately after the end of surgery and at 0-6 h, 6-24 h, and 24-48 h post-surgery.
The incidence of vomiting was significantly lower in the palonosetron group than in the ramosetron group during 0-6 h (6% vs 26%, P = 0.012) and 0-48 h (14% vs 34%, P = 0.034). The incidence of nausea and overall PONV, and the use of rescue antiemetic were not significantly different during all time intervals. The severity of nausea was not different between the two groups.
In conclusion, the incidence of PONV between the ramosetron and the palonosetron group have not shown the difference during 0-48 h, although palonosetron results in a lower incidence of vomiting during 0-6 h post-surgery.
Palonosetron; PONV; Ramosetron
The aim of this study was to evaluate the shaping ability of newly marketed single-file instruments, Wave·One (Dentsply-Maillefer) and Reciproc (VDW GmbH), in terms of maintaining the original root canal configuration and curvature, with or without a glide-path.
Materials and Methods
According to the instruments used, the blocks were divided into 4 groups (n = 10): Group 1, no glide-path / Wave·One; Group 2, no glide-path / Reciproc; Group 3, #15 K-file / Wave·One; Group 4, #15 K-file / Reciproc. Pre- and post-instrumented images were scanned and the canal deviation was assessed. The cyclic fatigue stress was loaded to examine the cross-sectional shape of the fractured surface. The broken fragments were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for topographic features of the cross-section. Statistically analysis of the data was performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (α = 0.05).
The ability of instruments to remain centered in prepared canals at 1 and 2 mm levels was significantly lower in Group 1 (p < 0.05). The centering ratio at 3, 5, and 7 mm level were not significantly different.
The Wave·One file should be used following establishment of a glide-path larger than #15.
Centering ratio; Nickel-Titanium instrument; Reciproc; Wave·One
Bacteriorhodopsin protein (bR)-based systems are one of the simplest known biological energy converters. The robust chemical, thermal and electrochemical properties of bR have made it an attractive material for photoelectric devices. This study demonstrates the photoelectric response of a dry bR layer deposited on a nitrocellulose membrane with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Light-induced electrical current as well as potential and impedance changes of dried bR film were recorded as the function of illumination. We have also tested bR in solution and found that the electrical properties are strongly dependent on light intensity changing locally proton concentration and thus pH of the solution. Experimental data support the assumption that bR protein on a positively charged nitrocellulose membrane (PNM) can be used as highly sensitive photo- and pH detector. Here the bR layer facilitates proton translocation and acts as an ultrafast optoelectric signal transducer. It is therefore useful in applications related to bioelectronics, biosensors, bio-optics devices and current carrying junction devices.
bacteriorhodopsin (bR); purple membrane (PM); indium tin oxide (ITO); positively charged nitrocellulose membrane (PNM)
Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.
buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprouts; methyl jasmonate (MeJA); anti-adipogenic activity; 3T3-L1; ROS production; obesity
A recombinant multiple cofactor-dependent DNA ligase from S. zilligii has been purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution and the crystals belonged to space group P1.
A recombinant DNA ligase from Sulfophobococcus zilligii that shows multiple cofactor specificity (ATP, ADP and GTP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified under reducing conditions. Crystals were obtained by the microbatch crystallization method at 295 K in a drop containing 1 µl protein solution (10 mg ml−1) and an equal volume of mother liquor [0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 10 000]. A data set was collected to 2.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.7, b = 77.1, c = 77.8 Å, α = 83.4, β = 82.4, γ = 74.6°. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the unit cell, the solvent content was estimated to be about 53.4%.
multiple cofactors; DNA ligases; Sulfophobococcus zilligii
The purpose of this study was to develop a disability rating scale according to job classification using the Korean Academy of Medical Society (KAMS) guidelines. All jobs were categorized based on their level of physical activity and professional skills. The KAMS guidelines were used for the impairment rating. We modified the California Schedule for rating permanent disabilities. The differences were plotted to compare between the impairment rate and the job-adjusted disability rate. The KAMS job-adjusted disability rates were then compared to the McBride and workers' compensation rates. A total of 1,206 occupations were classified into 44 groups. The occupational disability indexes were rated on a scale of 1 to 7. The differences in the McBride disability rates varied inconsistently from 0% to 35%, while the differences in the KAMS disability rates were between 0% and 18%. The KAMS disability rates were slightly higher than the McBride disability rates for the upper extremities, but were lower for the lower extremities and internal organs. This is the first Korean job-adjusted disability rating method. There are several limitations, but its impairment rating is more scientific and reflects the current Korean occupational environment.
Disability Evaluation; Impairment; Compensation and Redress; Workers' Compensation; Occupations
An objective method for determining the location of the cancer with respect to peritoneal reflection would be helpful to decide the treatment modality for rectal cancer. This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of rectal MRI to determine spatial relations between the peritoneal reflection and rectal cancer and to compare these with operative findings.
Patients and methods
Patients that underwent a rectal cancer operation after a rectal MRI check between November 2008 and June 2010 were considered for the study. The patients that received preoperative concurrent chemoradiation or trans-anal local excision were excluded.
Fifty-four patients constituted the study cohort. By comparing surgical and radiologic findings, the accuracy for predicting tumour location in relation to the peritoneal reflection by rectal MRI in all patients was 90.7%. In terms of tumour location in relation to peritoneal reflection, the accuracy of rectal MRI was 93.5% in patients with a tumour located above the peritoneal reflection, 90.0% in patients with a tumour located on the peritoneal reflection, and 84.6% in patients with a tumour located below the peritoneal reflection (p=0.061). When the cohort was subdivided by gender, body mass index (BMI), operative findings, or tumour size, no significant difference was observed among subgroups.
Rectal MRI could be a useful tool for evaluating the relation between rectal cancer and peritoneal reflection especially when tumour size is less than 8cm. Rectal MRI can provide information regarding the location of rectal cancer in relation to the peritoneal reflection for treatment planning purposes.
rectal cancer; peritoneal reflection; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
We report a case of hypereosinophilia causing multiple areas of cerebral infarcts. A 52-year-old Korean man presented with dysarthria and weakness in both arms. A brain MRI revealed multiple acute infarcts in the distal border zone with focal intracerebral hemorrhage, whereas a cerebral angiogram was not remarkable. The eosinophil count was 5,500/µL and was accompanied by elevated cardiac enzyme levels. The pattern of cerebral infarcts and laboratory results suggest a thromboembolic infarction associated with hypereosinophilia.
Hypereosinophilic syndrome; Infarction, cerebral; Thromboembolism; Intracerebral hemorrhage
To assess the technical feasibility and local efficacy of biplane fluoroscopy plus US-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for viable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) around retained iodized oil after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE).
Materials and Methods
Our prospective study was approved by our institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from all participating patients. For patients with viable HCC around retained iodized oil after TACE, biplane fluoroscopy plus US-guided RFA was performed. We evaluated the rate of technical success and major complications on a post-RFA CT examination and local tumor progression with a follow-up CT.
Among 40 consecutive patients, 19 were excluded due to one of the following reasons: poorly visible HCC on fluoroscopy (n = 13), high risk location (n = 2), RFA performed under monoplane fluoroscopy and US guidance (n = 2), and poorly identifiable new HCCs on US (n = 2). The remaining 21 patients with 21 viable HCCs were included. The size of total tumors ranged from 1.4 to 5.0 cm (mean: 3.2 cm) in the longest diameter. Technical success was achieved for all 21 HCCs, and major complications were observed in none of the patients. During the follow-up period (mean, 20.3 months; range, 6.5-29.9 months), local tumor progression was found in two patients (2/21, 9.5%). Distant intrahepatic metastasis developed in 76.2% (16/21) of patients.
When retained iodized oil around the tumor after TACE hampers the targeting of the viable tumor for RFA, biplane fluoroscopy plus US-guided RFA may be performed owing to its technical feasibility and effective treatment for viable HCCs.
Liver; Guidance; Radiofrequency ablation; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Biplane fluoroscopy; Ultrasonography; Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, iodized oil
A 54-year-old female was suffering from cold-induced Raynaud's attacks in her both hands with symptoms most severe in her left hand. As the patient did not respond to previous medical treatments and endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy, we performed percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency thoracic sympathicotomy at the left T3 vertebral level. After the procedure, the patient obtained a long duration of symptom relief over 3 years. Percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency T3 sympathicotomy is minimally invasive and effective technique by creating large continuous strip lesion.
Bipolar; Radiofrequency; Raynaud's disease; Sympathectomy; Thoracic
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Primary stability at the time of implant placement is related to the level of primary bone contact. The level of bone contact with implant is affected by thread design, surgical procedure and bone quality, etc.
The aim of this study was to compare the initial stability of the various taper implants according to the thread designs, half of which were engaged to inferior cortical wall of type IV bone (Group 1) and the rest of which were not engaged to inferior cortical wall (Group 2) by measuring the implant stability quotient (ISQ) and the removal torque value (RTV).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
In this study, 6 different implant fixtures with 10 mm length were installed. In order to simulate the sinus inferior wall of type IV bone, one side cortical bone of swine rib was removed. 6 different implants were installed in the same bone block following manufacturer's recommended procedures. Total 10 bone blocks were made for each group. The height of Group 1 bone block was 10 mm for engagement and that of group 2 was 13 mm. The initial stability was measured with ISQ value using Osstell mentor® and with removal torque using MGT50 torque gauge.
In this study, we found the following results. 1. In Group 1 with fixtures engaged to the inferior cortical wall, there was no significant difference in RTV and ISQ value among the 6 types of implants. 2. In Group 2 with fixtures not engaged to the inferior cortical wall, there was significant difference in RTV and ISQ value among the 6 types of implants (P < .05). 3. There was significant difference in RTV and ISQ value according to whether fixtures were engaged to the inferior cortical wall or not (P < .05). 4. Under-drilling made RTV and ISQ value increase significantly in the NT implants which had lower RTV and ISQ value in Group 2 (P < .05).
Without being engaged to the inferior cortical wall fixtures had initial stability affected by implant types. Also in poor quality bone, under-drilling improved initial stability.
Thread design; Taper implant; Bicortical engagement; ISQ; Removal torque value
The involvement of the MET oncogene in de novo and acquired resistance of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been reported, but the precise mechanism by which MET overexpression contributes to TKI-resistant NSCLC remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression and their dysregulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis. To understand the role of microRNAs in TKI-resistant NSCLC, we examined TK receptor-mediated microRNA changes. Here we report that miR-30b/c and miR-221/222, modulated by both EGF and MET receptors, and miR-103, -203, controlled only by MET, play important roles in gefitinib-induced apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of NSCLC cells, in vitro and in vivo, by inhibiting the expression of Bim, APAF-1, PKC-ε and SRC genes. The finding suggests that modulation of specific microRNAs may provide a therapeutic approach for future treatment of NSCLC.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for many nosocomial and community-acquired infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A practical way to limit the spread of MRSA is early detection and proper treatment. However, screening culture for MRSA typically requires 2–3 days. The Xpert MRSA assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay developed for screening an MRSA-specific DNA sequence within the staphylococcal cassette chromosome in 2 h. Lower respiratory tract specimens, such as transtracheal aspirates (TTAs) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), are commonly obtained from intubated patients. Therefore, using the lower respiratory tract specimens with the Xpert MRSA assay may be a practical tool for patient care. We performed the Xpert MRSA assay on 108 TTA and 21 BALF specimens from 92 patients and compared the results to those obtained by culture. The two assays showed concordant results in 120 (93.0%) cases and discordant results in 9 (7.0%) cases, which were culture-negative and Xpert MRSA-positive. Among the discordant cases, 5 patients developed culture-positive samples 2–15 days after the Xpert MRSA detected MRSA. We conclude that the Xpert MRSA assay is a rapid, sensitive and clinically useful test, particularly for the early detection of MRSA.
MRSA; Xpert® MRSA; early detection; lower respiratory tract infection
It is well-known that the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is higher in epileptic children than in the general pediatric population. The aim of this study was to compare the accompaniment of ADHD in epileptic children with well-controlled seizures and no significant intellectual disability with that in healthy controls. We included epileptic children between the ages of 6 and 12 yr visiting our clinic for six consecutive months and controls without significant medical or psychiatric illnesses. We excluded patients with intellectual disability or persistent seizures during the recent three months. The diagnosis of ADHD was based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). After exclusion of 84 patients, we enrolled 102 (54.8%) children (mean age, 9.4 ± 2.0 yr). Seven (7 of 102, 6.9%) were diagnosed with ADHD. As compared to control group (4 of 110, 3.6%), there was no difference in ADHD accompaniment (P = 0.29). No difference was observed in ADHD accompaniment according to seizure type and epilepsy syndrome. In conclusion, the accompaniment of ADHD in epileptic children with well-controlled seizures and no intellectual disability may not differ from that of the general pediatric population.
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity; Epilepsy; Intellectual Disability
This study was designed to evaluate the normal development of the nasal septum in Koreans using sagittal MRI for the valuable clinical information on septal procedures.
Two hundred eighty patients who had their whole nasal septum visualized in the midline sagittal view were selected among the 3,904 patients with brain MRI from January, 2004 to December, 2006 at Dankook University Hospital. The patients who had a history of nasal septal surgery or nasal trauma were excluded. Following parameters are calculated and analyzed: lengths of bony and cartilage dorsum and septal cartilage-nasal bone overlap, total septal area, septal cartilage area and, the proportion of the cartilage area to septal area and the maximal harvestable cartilage for grafting were calculated using the PAC™ program.
All the parameters were increased until adolescence. Thereafter, bony dorsal length, cartilage dorsal length, total dorsal length, total septal area and maximal harvestable cartilage for grafting have not changed significantly with age, while SC-NB overlap length, septal cartilage area, and proportion of the cartilage area to the total septal area were significantly decreased with age. The SC-NB overlap length was positively correlated with the septal cartilage area and the proportion of the cartilage area to the total septal area.
The small septal cartilage area and its proportion to the total septal area were significantly correlated with a short overlap length of the septal cartilage under the nasal bone. Septal procedures should be carefully performed in the elderly due to the risk of incurring saddle nose.
Septum; Cartilage; Magnetic resonance imaging; Development
The surface of proteins can be charged with zinc ions and the anomalous signals from these zinc ions can be used for structure determination of proteins.
Zinc is a suitable metal for anomalous dispersion phasing methods in protein crystallography. Structure determination using zinc anomalous scattering has been almost exclusively limited to proteins with intrinsically bound zinc(s). Here, it is reported that multiple zinc ions can easily be charged onto the surface of proteins with no intrinsic zinc-binding site by using zinc-containing solutions. Zn derivatization of protein surfaces appears to be a largely unnoticed but promising method of protein structure determination.
zinc anomalous scattering; phasing; Zn derivatization
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) regulate dorsal/ventral (D/V) patterning across the animal kingdom; however, the biochemical properties of certain pathway components can vary according to species-specific developmental requirements. For example, Tolloid (Tld)-like metalloproteases cleave vertebrate BMP-binding proteins called Chordins constitutively, while the Drosophila Chordin ortholog, Short gastrulation (Sog), is only cleaved efficiently when bound to BMPs. We identified Sog characteristics responsible for making its cleavage dependent on BMP binding. “Chordin-like” variants that are processed independently of BMPs, changed the steep BMP gradient found in Drosophila embryos to a shallower profile, analogous to that observed in some vertebrate embryos. This change ultimately affected cell fate allocation and tissue size and resulted in increased variability of patterning. Thus, the acquisition of BMP-dependent Sog processing during evolution appears to facilitate long-range ligand diffusion and formation of a robust morphogen gradient, enabling the bistable BMP signaling outputs required for early Drosophila patterning.
The aim of this study was to document the optimal spacing of two cannulae to form continuous strip lesions and maximal surface area by using water-cooled bipolar radiofrequency technology.
Two water-cooled needle probes (15 cm length, 18-gauge probe with 6 mm electrode tip) were placed in a parallel position 10, 20, 24, 26, and 28 mm apart and submerged in egg white. Temperatures of the probes were raised from 35℃ to 90℃ and the progress of lesion formation was photographed every 1 minute with the increase of the tip temperature. Approximately 30 photographs were taken. The resultant surface areas of the lesions were measured with the digital image program.
Continuous strip lesions were formed when the cannulae were spaced 24 mm or less apart; monopolar lesions around each cannula resulted if they were spaced more than 26 mm apart. Maximal surface areas through the formation of continuous strip lesion were 221 mm2, 375 mm2, and 476 mm2 in 10, 20, and 24 mm, respectively. Summations of maximal surface area of each monopolar lesions were 394 mm2 and 103 mm2 in 26 and 28 mm, respectively.
Water-cooled bipolar Radiofrequency technology creates continuous "strip" lesions proportional in size to the distance between the probes till the distance between cannulae is 24 mm or less. Spacing the cannulae 24 mm apart and treating about 80℃ for 24 minutes maximizes the surface area of the lesion.
bipolar; egg white; radiofrequency
The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of fluoroscopy-guided anterior approach for suprascapular nerve block (SSNB).
Twenty patients with chronic shoulder pain were included in the study. All of the nerve blocks were performed with patients in a supine position. Fluoroscopy was tilted medially to obtain the best view of the scapular notch (medial angle) and caudally to put the base of coracoid process and scapular spine on same line (caudal angle). SSNB was performed by introducing a 100-mm, 21-gauge needle to the scapular notch with tunnel view technique. Following negative aspiration, 1.0 ml of contrast was injected to confirm the scapular notch, and 1 % mepivacaine 2 ml was slowly injected. The success of SSNB was assessed by numerical rating scale (NRS) before and after the block.
The average NRS was decreased from 4.8 ± 0.6 to 0.6 ± 0.5 after the procedure (P < 0.05). The best view of the scapular notch was obtained in a medial angle of 15.1 ± 2.2 (11-19°) and a caudal angle of 15.4 ± 1.7° (12-18°). The average distance from the skin to the scapular notch was 5.8 ± 0.6 cm. None of the complications such as pneumothorax, intravascular injection, and hematoma formation was found except one case of partial brachial plexus block.
SSNB by fluoroscopy-guided anterior approach is a feasible technique. The advantage of using a fluoroscopy resulted in an effective block with a small dose of local anesthetics by an accurate placement of a tip of needle in the scapular notch while avoiding pneumothorax.
contrast media; fluoroscopy; nerve block; shoulder pain