Better understanding of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis at the molecular level will facilitate the discovery of tumor initiating events. Herein, transcriptome sequencing revealed that adenosine (A)-to-inosine (I) RNA editing of antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) displays a high modification rate in HCC specimens. A-to-I editing of AZIN1 transcripts is specifically regulated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1). The serine (S) → glycine (G) substitution at residue 367, located in β-strand 15 (β15), predicted a conformational change, induced a cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation, and conferred “gain-of-function” phenotypes manifested by augmented tumor initiating potential and more aggressive behavior. Compared with wild-type AZIN1 protein, the edited form possesses stronger affinity to antizyme, and the resultant higher protein stability promotes cell proliferation via the neutralization of antizyme-mediated degradation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclin D1 (CCND1). Collectively, A-to-I RNA editing of AZIN1 may be a potential driver in the pathogenesis of human cancers, particularly HCC.
A-to-I; RNA editing; AZIN1; ADAR1; antizyme; ODC; CCND1; HCC
Differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is a critical event in the progression of cardiac fibrosis that leads to pathological cardiac remodeling. Metformin, an antidiabetic agent, exhibits a number of cardioprotective properties. However, much less is known regarding the effect of metformin on cardiac fibroblast differentiation. Thus, in the present study, we examined the effect of metformin on angiotensin (Ang) II-induced differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and its underlying mechanism. Adult rat cardiac fibroblasts were stimulated with Ang II (100 nM) in the presence or absence of metformin (10–200 µM). Ang II stimulation induced the differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, as indicated by increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen types I and III, and this effect of Ang II was inhibited by pretreatment of cardiac fibroblasts with metformin. Metformin also decreased Ang II-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cardiac fibroblasts via inhibiting the activation of the PKC-NADPH oxidase pathway. Further experiments using PKC inhibitor calphostin C and NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin confirmed that inhibition of the PKC-NADPH oxidase pathway markedly attenuated Ang II-induced ROS generation and myofibroblast differentiation. These data indicate that metformin inhibits Ang II-induced myofibroblast differentiation by suppressing ROS generation via the inhibition of the PKC-NADPH oxidase pathway in adult rat cardiac fibroblasts. Our results provide new mechanistic insights regarding the cardioprotective effects of metformin and provide an efficient therapeutic strategy to attenuate cardiac fibrosis.
Correcting aberrant folds that develop during protein folding disease states is now an active research endeavor that is attracting increasing attention from both academic and industrial circles. One particular approach focuses on developing or identifying small molecule correctors or pharmacological chaperones that specifically stabilize the native fold. Unfortunately, the limited screening platforms available to rapidly identify or validate potential drug candidates are usually inadequate or slow because the folding disease proteins in question are often transiently folded and/or aggregation-prone, complicating and/or interfering with the assay outcomes. In this review, we outline and discuss the numerous platform options currently being employed to identify small molecule therapeutics for folding diseases. Finally, we describe a new stability screening approach that is broad based and is easily applicable toward a very large number of both common and rare protein folding diseases. The label free screening method described herein couples the promiscuity of the GroEL binding to transient aggregation-prone hydrophobic folds with surface plasmon resonance enabling one to rapidly identify potential small molecule pharmacological chaperones.
Protein misfolding; missense mutations; pharmacological chaperones; GroEL chaperonin; Surface Plasmon Resonance
Penicillium marneffei is the most important thermal dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in China and Southeast Asia. While miRNAs are increasingly recognized for their roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in animals and plants, miRNAs in fungi were less well studied and their potential roles in fungal dimorphism were largely unknown. Based on P. marneffei genome sequence, we hypothesize that miRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) may be expressed in the dimorphic fungus.
We attempted to identify milRNAs in P. marneffei in both mycelial and yeast phase using high-throughput sequencing technology. Small RNAs were more abundantly expressed in mycelial than yeast phase. Sequence analysis revealed 24 potential milRNA candidates, including 17 candidates in mycelial and seven in yeast phase. Two genes, dcl-1 and dcl-2, encoding putative Dicer-like proteins and the gene, qde-2, encoding Argonaute-like protein, were identified in P. marneffei. Phylogenetic analysis showed that dcl-2 of P. marneffei was more closely related to the homologues in other thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungi than to Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus spp., suggesting the co-evolution of dcl-2 among the thermal dimorphic fungi. Moreover, dcl-2 demonstrated higher mRNA expression levels in mycelial than yeast phase by 7 folds (P<0.001). Northern blot analysis confirmed the expression of two milRNAs, PM-milR-M1 and PM-milR-M2, only in mycelial phase. Using dcl-1KO, dcl-2KO, dclDKO and qde-2KO deletion mutants, we showed that the biogenesis of both milRNAs were dependent on dcl-2 but not dcl-1 or qde-2. The mRNA expression levels of three predicted targets of PM-milR-M1 were upregulated in knockdown strain PM-milR-M1KD, supporting regulatory function of milRNAs.
Our findings provided the first evidence for differential expression of milRNAs in different growth phases of thermal dimorphic fungi and shed light on the evolution of fungal proteins involved in milRNA biogenesis and possible role of post-transcriptional control in governing thermal dimorphism.
Penicillium marneffei is the most important thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungus in Southeast Asia. Despite findings on diverse genes and mechanisms involved in dimorphic switching, the key to signally pathways governing the switch is still unknown. Since miRNAs are important regulatory molecules in eukaryotes, we attempt to define if miRNAs are expressed in different growth phases of P. marneffei. Using high-throughput sequencing, we identified 24 potential milRNA candidates in P. marneffei, which were more abundantly expressed in mycelial than yeast phase. Two genes, dcl-1 and dcl-2, encoding Dicer-like proteins and the gene, qde-2, encoding Argonaute-like protein, were also identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that dcl-2 of P. marneffei was more closely related to the homologues in other thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungi than to Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus spp.. dcl-2 demonstrated higher mRNA levels in mycelial than yeast phase. Northern blot analysis confirmed expression of two milRNAs, PM-milR-M1 and PM-milR-M2, only in mycelial phase, whose expression was dependent on dcl-2 but not dcl-1 or qde-2. The mRNA levels of three predicted targets of PM-milR-M1 were upregulated in knockdown strain PM-milR-M1KD, supporting its regulatory function. This study represents the first discovery of milRNAs in thermal dimorphic fungi, with differential expression in different growth phases.
Docetaxel has been recognized as one of the most efficient anticancer drugs over the past decade; however, its poor water solubility and systemic toxicity have greatly limited its clinical application. In recent decades, the emergence of nanotechnology has provided new drug delivery systems for docetaxel, which can improve its water solubility, minimize the side effects and increase the tumor-targeting distribution by passive or active targeting. This review focuses on the research progress in nanoformulations related to docetaxel delivery – such as polymer-based, lipid-based, and lipid-polymer hybrid nanocarriers, as well as inorganic nanoparticles – addressing their structures, characteristics, preparation, physicochemical properties, methods by which drugs are loaded into them, and their in vitro and in vivo efficacies. Further, the targeted ligands used in the docetaxel nanoformulations, such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, folic acid, transferrin, aptamers and hyaluronic acid, are described. The issues to overcome before docetaxel nanoformulations can be used in clinical and commercial applications are also discussed.
docetaxel; nanotechnology; nanoformulations; target delivery systems; cancer therapy
We assessed the effectiveness of an integrated individual, community, and structural intervention to reduce risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs).
The integration individual, community, and structural intervention was implemented from 2004 to 2009 in six counties of Shandong Province. Post-intervention cross-sectional surveys were conducted in six intervention counties and 10 control counties.
Of 3326 female sex workers were recruited and analyzed in the post-intervention survey with 1157 from intervention sites and 2169 from control sites. No HIV positive was found in both intervention and control counties. The rate of syphilis was 0.17% for intervention sites and 1.89% for control sites (OR = 11.1, 95% CI: 2.7, 46.1). After adjusted for age, marital status, education, economic condition, recruitment venues, the rates of condom use in the last sex with clients(AOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.9, 3.8), with regular sex partners(AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and consistent condom use in the last month with clients (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI: 2.6, 4.1) and regular sex partners (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3) were significantly higher in intervention sites than that in control sites. The proportion of participants correctly answered at least six out of eight HIV-related questions (83.3%) in intervention sites is significant higher than that (21.9%) in control sites (AOR = 24.7; 95% CI: 2.5, 42.7), the five indicators related to HIV-related intervention services ever received in the last year including HIV testing(AOR = 4.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 6.7), STD examination and/or treatment(AOR = 5.1; 95% CI: 4.2, 6.4), free condom(AOR = 20.3; 95% CI: 14.3, 28.9), peer education(AOR = 4.3; 95% CI: 3.5, 5.4), education materials(AOR = 19.8; 95%CI: 13.1, 29.8) were significantly higher in intervention sites than that in control sites, the participants in the intervention sites are more likely to seek medical treatment when they had any disorders (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 2.5, 4.2).
This study found that the integrated individual, community, and structural intervention showed positive impact in reducing HIV and STI risks among FSWs.
Female sex workers; HIV; Condom use; Intervention counties; China
To evaluate the roles of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and optimum tracer kinetic parameters in the noninvasive grading of the glial brain tumors with histopathological grades (I–IV).
Materials and Methods
Twenty eight patients with histopathologically graded gliomas were imaged. Images with five flip angles were acquired before injection of gadolinium-DTPA and were processed to calculate the T1 value of each regions of interest (ROI). All the DCE-MRI data acquired during the injection were processed based on the MRI signal and pharmacokinetic models to establish concentration-time curves in the ROIs drawn within the tumors, counterlateral normal areas, and area of the individual artery input functions (iAIF) of each patient. A nonlinear least square fitting method was used to obtain tracer kinetic parameters. Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were applied to these parameters in different histopathological grade groups for statistical differences (P<0.05).
Volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and extravascular extracellular space volume fraction (Ve) calculated by using iAIFs can be used not only to distinguish the low (i.e., I and II) from the high (i.e., III and IV) grade gliomas (P(Ktrans) <0.001 and PVe<0.001), but also grade II from III (P(Ktrans) =0.016 and PVe=0.033).
Ktrans is the most sensitive and specific parameter in the noninvasive grading, distinguishing the high (III and IV) from the low (I and II) grade and high grade III from low grade II gliomas.
MR perfusion imaging; gliomas; microvascular permeability; pharmacokinetics; grades of glioma
Bone marrow microenvironment (niche) plays essential roles in the fate of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Intracellular and extracellular redox metabolic microenvironment is one of the critical factors for the maintenance of the niche. Cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is an obligate electron donor to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450 or CYP), and contributes to the redox metabolic process. However, its role in maintaining HSCs is unknown.
To examine the effects of low CPR expression on HSCs function using a mouse model of globally suppressed Cpr gene expression (Cpr Low, CL mice).
Hematopoietic cell subpopulations in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) from WT and CL mice were examined for their repopulation and differentiation ability upon BM competitive transplantation and enriched HSC (LKS+) transplantation. Effects of low CPR expression on hematopoiesis were examined by transplanting normal BM cells into CL recipients. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle, and apoptosis in CL mice were analyzed by flow cytometry for DCF-DA fluorescence intensity, Ki67 protein, and Annexin-V, respectively.
The levels of ROS in BM cells, HPCs and HSCs were comparable between CL and WT mice. In comparison to WT mice, the number of LT-HSCs or ST-HSCs was lower in CL mice while CMPs, GMPs and MEPs in CL mice were higher than that in WT control. Competitive transplantation assay revealed enhanced repopulation capacity of HSCs with low CPR expression, but no difference in differentiation potential upon in vitro experiments. Furthermore, lymphoid differentiation of donor cells decreased while their myeloid differentiation increased under CL microenvironment although the overall level of donor hematopoietic repopulation was not significantly altered.
Our studies demonstrate that suppressing CPR expression enhances the repopulation efficiency of HSCs and a low CPR expression microenvironment favors the differentiation of myeloid over lymphoid lineage cells.
The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote–rural village–urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources.
Soil; PAHs; Source diagnostics; Beijing; Tianjin
In China, several species (Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz., Hedysarum limprichtii Hlbr., Hedysarum vicioider Turcz. var. Taipeicum Hand.-Mazz. Liu, Hedysarum smithianum, et al.) of genus Hedysarum have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, these plants are used to increase the energy of the body. To date, 155 compounds, including flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, lignanoids, nitrogen compounds, sterols, carbohydrates, fatty compounds, and benzofuran, have been isolated from plants of the genus Hedysarum. Various chemical constituents contribute to the antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive properties of these plants. Hedysarum species are used to treat infestation with gastrointestinal nematodes and may support the immune system and peripheral nervous system. In the present review, we summarize the research on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Hedysarum species, which will be useful for better utilization of these important species in TCM.
Hedysarum; Chemical constituents; Pharmacology; Utilization; TCM
The mechanism of skin allograft rejection has been thought to require presentation of graft antigen by resident epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). We have previously engineered mice that have a selective and constitutive absence of epidermal LCs. By using donor skin from these LC-deficient mice, we show that LCs are not required for rejection of major (FVB→B6) or minor (H-Y, male→female on B6 background) antigen-mismatched skin grafts. On the FVB background, where H-Y mismatched grafts are normally maintained indefinitely, grafts lacking LCs are efficiently rejected. Thus, LCs in the donor graft are required for long-term skin engraftment, which supports a regulatory role for LCs in skin graft acceptance.
Both deletion and anergy shape B cell tolerance to membrane-bound antigens.
B cell tolerance to self-antigen is critical to preventing antibody-mediated autoimmunity. Previous work using B cell antigen receptor transgenic animals suggested that self-antigen–specific B cells are either deleted from the repertoire, enter a state of diminished function termed anergy, or are ignorant to the presence of self-antigen. These mechanisms have not been assessed in a normal polyclonal repertoire because of an inability to detect rare antigen-specific B cells. Using a novel detection and enrichment strategy to assess polyclonal self-antigen–specific B cells, we find no evidence of deletion or anergy of cells specific for antigen not bound to membrane, and tolerance to these types of antigens appears to be largely maintained by the absence of T cell help. In contrast, a combination of deleting cells expressing receptors with high affinity for antigen with anergy of the undeleted lower affinity cells maintains tolerance to ubiquitous membrane-bound self-antigens.
Rheumatoid arthritis develops in association with a defect in peripheral CD4+ T cell homeostasis. T cell lymphopenia has also been shown to be a barrier to CD4+ T cell clonal anergy induction. We, therefore, explored the relationship between clonal anergy induction and the avoidance of autoimmune arthritis by tracking the fate of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)-reactive CD4+ T cells in the setting of selective T cell lymphopenia. CD4+ T cell recognition of self GPI peptide/MHCII complexes in normal murine hosts did not lead to arthritis, and instead caused those T cells to develop a Folate receptor 4 (FR4)hi CD73hi anergic phenotype. In contrast, hosts selectively depleted of polyclonal Foxp3+ CD4+ T regulatory cells could not make GPI-specific CD4+ T cells anergic, and failed to control arthritis. This suggests that autoimmune arthritis develops in the setting of lymphopenia when Foxp3+ CD4+ T regulatory cells are insufficient to functionally inactivate all autoreactive CD4+ T cells that encounter self Ag.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein consistently expressed in all EBV-associated malignancies, and play a critical role in the onset, progression, and/or maintenance of these tumors. Based on the signature changes at amino acid residue 487, EBNA1 is classified into five distinct subtypes: P-ala, P-thr, V-leu, V-val and V-pro. In the present study, the sequence variations of EBNA1 in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) and throat washing (TW) samples of healthy EBV carriers in Guangzhou, southern China, where nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic, were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. V-val subtype was the most predominant (53.6%, 15/28) in EBVaGC, followed by P-ala (42.9%, 12/28) and V-leu (32.1%, 9/28) subtypes. In TWs of healthy EBV carriers, V-val subtype was also predominant (85.7%, 18/21). The sequence variations of EBNA1 in EBVaGC were similar to those in TW of healthy EBV carriers (p>0.05), suggesting that the EBV strains in EBVaGC might originate from the viral strains prevalent within the background population. The predominance of V-val subtype in EBVaGC in Guangzhou was similar to that in EBVaGC in northern China and Japan, but was different from that in EBVaGC in America, suggesting that the variations of EBNA1 in EBVaGC represent geographic-associated polymorphisms rather than tumor-specific mutations. In addition, the EBNA1 variations in EBVaGC in gastric remnant carcinoma were also determined. V-leu subtype was detected in all 4 (100%) cases, although 2 cases occurred as mixed infection with P-ala subtype. This is different from the predominant V-val subtype in EBVaGC in conventional gastric carcinoma, suggesting that V-leu might be a subtype that adapts particularly well to the microenvironment within the gastric stump and enters the remnant gastric mucosa epithelia easily. This, to our best knowledge, is the first investigation of EBNA1 polymorphisms in EBVaGC from endemic area of NPC.
The purpose of this study was to develop two novel drug delivery systems based on biodegradable docetaxel-lipid-based-nanosuspensions. The first one was poly(ethylene glycol)- modified docetaxel-lipid-based-nanosuspensions (pLNS). It was developed to increase the cycle time of the drug within the body and enhance the accumulation of the drug at the tumor site. The second one was targeted docetaxel-lipid-based-nanosuspensions (tLNS) using folate as the target ligand. The tLNS could target the tumor cells that overexpressed folate receptor (FR). The morphology, particle size, and zeta potential of pLNS and tLNS were characterized, respectively. The in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of Duopafei®, pLNS, and tLNS were performed in human hepatocellular liver carcinoma HepG2 (FR−) and B16 (FR+) cells, respectively. The in vivo antitumor efficacy and pharmacokinetics, as well as the drug tissue distribution, were evaluated in Kunming mice bearing B16 cells. The particle size of pLNS was 204.2 ± 6.18 nm and tLNS had a mean particle size of 220.6 ± 9.54 nm. Cytotoxicity of tLNS against B16 (FR+) cell lines was superior to pLNS (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in the half maximum inhibitory concentration values for HepG2 (FR−) cells between pLNS and tLNS. The results of the in vivo antitumor efficacy evaluation showed that tLNS exhibited higher antitumor efficacy by reducing tumor volume (P < 0.01) compared with Duopafei and pLNS, respectively. The results of the in vivo biodistribution study indicate that the better antitumor efficacy of tLNS was attributed to the increased accumulation of the drug in the tumor.
lipid-based-nanosuspensions; docetaxel; cancer therapy; folate; target drug delivery
Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal required for normal homeostasis. Humans chronically exposed to high Mn levels, however, may exhibit psychomotor signs secondary to increased brain Mn. As Mn and iron (Fe) share several cellular membrane transporters, decreased Fe levels resulting from Fe deficiency or anemia lead to increased brain Mn deposition. Conversely, decreased Mn levels are associated with abnormal brain Fe accumulation. To reduce potential Mn toxicity resulting from brain Mn accumulation, we proposed that increased dietary Fe would attenuate brain Mn deposition. To test this hypothesis, three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were injected weekly (14 weeks) with Mn (3 mg/kg) and fed normal Fe (TX), Fe-supplemented (FeS), or Fe-deficient (FeD) chow. Control (CN) rats received normal dietary Fe and saline injections. Using magnetic resonance imaging, rats were imaged biweekly for 14 weeks to qualitatively monitor brain Mn and Fe accumulation. Both FeS and FeD had greater brain Mn deposition than TX rats. By week 3, R1 values, which correlate with Mn deposition, were statistically significantly increased (p < 0.05) in brain stem, cerebellum, cortex, midbrain, and striatum compared with CN or TX animals. By week 14, R1 values for all brain regions in FeS and FeD animals were statistically significantly increased (p < 0.05). By the end of the study, similar results were obtained for R2 values, a marker of Fe accumulation. These data suggest that Fe supplementation does not effectively protect and may even exacerbate brain Mn accumulation in mammals subchronically exposed to Mn.
manganese; dietary iron; magnetic resonance imaging; rat; metal transport
The success of gene therapy asks for the development of multifunctional vectors that could overcome various gene delivery barriers, such as the cell membrane, endosomal membrane, and nuclear membrane. Layer-by-layer technique is an efficient method with easy operation which can be used for the assembly of multifunctional gene carriers. This work describes a pH-sensitive multifunctional gene vector that offered long circulation property but avoided the inhibition of tumor cellular uptake of gene carriers associated with the use of polyethylene glycol.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was firstly condensed with protamine into a cationic core which was used as assembly template. Then, additional layers of anionic DNA, cationic liposomes, and o-carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMCS) were alternately adsorbed onto the template via layer-by-layer technique and finally the multifunctional vector called CMCS-cationic liposome-coated DNA/protamine/DNA complexes (CLDPD) was constructed. For in vitro test, the cytotoxicity and transfection investigation was carried out on HepG2 cell line. For in vivo evaluation, CMCS-CLDPD was intratumorally injected into tumor-bearing mice and the tumor cells were isolated for fluorescence determination of transfection efficiency.
CMCS-CLDPD had ellipsoidal shapes and showed “core-shell” structure which showed stabilization property in serum and effective protection of DNA from nuclease degradation. In vitro and in vivo transfection results demonstrated that CMCS-CLDPD had pH-sensitivity and the outermost layer of CMCS fell off in the tumor tissue, which could not only protect CMCS- CLDPD from serum interaction but also enhance gene transfection efficiency.
These results demonstrated that multifunctional CMCS-CLDPD had pH- sensitivity, which may provide a new approach for the antitumor gene delivery.
layer-by-layer; multifunctional nanovector; pH-sensitivity; gene delivery
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multifunctional kinase linking the extracellular matrix to intracellular signaling pathways, whose activation in the heart gives rise to a number of functional consequences. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the therapeutic and survival benefit of cardiac ILK overexpression in a rat model of dilated cardiomyopathy.
Methods and Results
The dilated cardiomyopathy model was generated in rats by intraperitoneal administration of six equal doses of doxorubicin over a 2 week period. Five weeks after the first injection, echocardiographic analysis demonstrated impaired cardiac function and, at that point, recombinant adenoviral vector harboring ILK cDNA or vehicle was injected into the myocardium, and the rats re-studied 4 weeks later. Compared with vehicle injection, ILK treatment ameliorated inflammatory cell infiltration and cardiomyocyte degeneration, as well as left ventricular dilation and dysfunction. ILK treatment was also associated with a reduction in apoptosis and an increase in proliferation of cardiomyocytes, as well as decreased oxidative stress and autophagic vacuole accumulation. Importantly, mortality was lower in rats following ILK treatment than in those following vehicle injection. In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, we also found that ILK overexpression protected against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, giving rise to an increase in their proliferation.
These data demonstrate for the first time that ILK gene therapy improves cardiac function and survival in a model of dilated cardiomyopathy, and this may be mediated through suppression of inflammation, prevention of ventricular remodeling, inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and autophagy, and stimulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation.
The hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs) control many mediators of vascular response, including both angiogenic factors and small molecules such as nitric oxide (NO). In studying how endothelial HIF response itself affects metastasis, we found that loss of HIF-1α in endothelial cells reduces NO synthesis, retards tumor cell migration through endothelial layers, and restricts tumor cell metastasis, and that loss of HIF-2α has in each case the opposite effect. This results from differential regulation of NO homeostasis that in turn regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression in an NO-dependent feedback loop. These opposing roles for the two HIF factors indicate that both they and endothelial cells regulate metastasis as malignancy progresses.
► Endothelial cell hypoxic response is a critical determinant of metastatic success ► HIF isoforms differentially regulate NO homeostasis in endothelium ► iNOS is essential for hypoxic NO production in endothelial cells ► HIF isoforms in endothelium differentially promote and hinder metastasis
A strain of Mucor spp. isolated from a fermented soybean food in central China was smeared on the surface of semi-hard cheese to investigate its role in cheese ripening. Cheese ripening indices showed increase by 3–4 fold upon ripening of cheese for 90 days. Electrophoretic studies revealed that caseins in the cheese were degraded gradually during ripening forming several low molecular weight peptides, especially of 14.4 kDa. Texture profile analysis and microstructure study of the cheese showed that the proteolytic activity of Mucor led to desirable texture development in ripened cheese. The study indicates that the strain of Mucor used in the experiment has desirable proteolytic capability for use in cheese system.
Mucor; Cheese; Ripening; Proteolysis; Texture; Microstructure
T cells can inhibit tumor growth, but their function in the tumor microenvironment is often suppressed. Many solid tumors exhibit abundant macrophage infiltration and low oxygen tension, yet how hypoxic conditions may affect innate immune cells and their impact on tumor progression is poorly understood. Targeted deletion of the hypoxia responsive transcription factor HIF-1α in macrophages in a progressive murine model of breast cancer resulted in reduced tumor growth, although VEGF-A and vascularization was unchanged. Tumor associated macrophages can suppress tumor infiltrating T cells by several mechanisms, and we found that hypoxia powerfully augmented macrophage-mediated T cell suppression in vitro in a manner dependent on macrophage expression of HIF-1α. Our findings link the innate immune hypoxic response to tumor progression through induction of T cell suppression in the tumor microenvironment.
In the structure of the title compound, C17H18ClN3O4S, the thiazinane ring displays a twist-boat conformation. The 1,4-dihydropyridine ring is approximately perpendicular to the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 88.3 (1)°]. The molecular conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H⋯O interactions into a C(8) chain along .
Angiogenesis and the development of a vascular network is required for tumor progression, and involves release of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), from both malignant and stromal cell types1. Infiltration by cells of the myeloid lineage is a hallmark of many tumors, and in many cases the macrophages in these infiltrates express VEGF2. Here we show that deletion of inflammatory cell-derived VEGF attenuates the formation of a typical high-density vessel network, thus blocking the angiogenic switch in solid tumors. Vasculature in tumors lacking myeloid cell-derived VEGF was less tortuous, with increased pericyte coverage and decreased vessel length, indicating vascular normalization. In addition, loss of myeloid-derived VEGF decreases VEGFR2 phosphorylation in tumors, even though overall VEGF levels in the tumors are unaffected. However, myeloid deletion of VEGF resulted in an accelerated tumor progression in multiple subcutaneous isograft models and an autochthonous transgenic model of mammary tumorigenesis, with less overall tumor cell death and decreased tumor hypoxia. Furthermore, loss of myeloid cell VEGF increased tumor susceptibility to chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity. This demonstrates that myeloid-derived VEGF is essential for tumorigenic alteration of vasculature and signaling to VEGFR2, and that these changes act to retard, not promote, tumor progression.
Factor Inhibiting HIF-1α (FIH) is an asparaginal hydroxylase. Hydroxylation of HIF-α proteins by FIH blocks association of HIFs with the transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300, thus inhibiting transcriptional activation. We have created mice with a null mutation in the FIH gene, and found that it has little or no discernable role in mice in altering classical aspects of HIF function, e.g., angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, or development. Rather, it is an essential regulator of metabolism: mice lacking FIH exhibit reduced body weight, elevated metabolic rate, hyperventilation, improved glucose and lipid homeostasis, and are resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain and hepatic steatosis. Neuron-specific loss of FIH phenocopied some of the major metabolic phenotypes of the global null animals: those mice have reduced body weight, increased metabolic rate, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and are also protected against high fat diet-induced weight gain. These results demonstrate that FIH acts to a significant degree through the nervous system to regulate metabolism.