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2.  Heuristics for Multiobjective Optimization of Two-Sided Assembly Line Systems 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:458959.
Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E). Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA) to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems.
doi:10.1155/2014/458959
PMCID: PMC3981163  PMID: 24790568
3.  Synthesis, SAR Study and Evaluation of Mannich and Schiff Bases of Pyrazol-5(4H)-one Moiety Containing 3-(Hydrazinyl)-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one 
In the present investigation, a series of 12 Mannich bases (QP1-12) and 5 Schiff bases (QSP1-5) of pyrazol-5(4H)-one moiety containing 3-(hydrazinyl)-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one has been synthesized and characterized by physicochemical as well as spectral means. The synthesized Mannich and Schiff bases were screened for their preliminary antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial as well as fungal strains by the determination of zone of inhibition. Mannich bases (QP1-12) were found to be more potent antibacterial agents against Gram-positive bacteria, whereas Schiff bases (QSP1-5) were more potent against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration result demonstrated that Mannich base compound (QP7) having ortho -OH and para -COOH group showed some improvement in antibacterial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 48.88×10−3 μM/ml) among the tested Gram-positive organisms and it also exhibit minimum inhibitory concentration of value of 12.22×10−3 μM/ml for Klebsiella pneumoniae. The antitubercular activity of synthesized compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv) was determined using microplate alamar blue assay. Compound QP11 showed appreciable antitubercular activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.49×10−3 μM/ml) which was more active than the standard drugs, ethambutol (minimum inhibitory concentration of 7.60×10−3 μM/ml) and ciprofloxacin (9.4×10−3 μM/ml). Compounds QP11, QP9, QSP1, QSP2, and QSP5 have good selective index and may be selected as a lead compound for the development of novel antitubercular agents.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.119832
PMCID: PMC3831729  PMID: 24302802
Antimicrobial; antimycobacterium; cytotoxicity; pyrazolone; quinazolinones
4.  Ultrasonic Studies on Molecular Interactions in Binary Mixtures of N-Methyl Aniline with Methyl Isobutylketone, +3-Pentanone, and +Cycloalkanones at 303.15 K 
Journal of Solution Chemistry  2013;42(5):916-935.
Densities, ρ, viscosities, η, and ultrasonic sound velocities u of pure methyl isobutylketone, diethylketone, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, 2-methyl cyclohexanone and those of their binary mixtures with N-methyl aniline were measured at 303.15 K over the entire composition range. These experimental data have been used to calculate the excess volume (VE), deviation in ultrasonic sound velocity (∆u), isentropic compressibility (κs), intermolecular free length (Lf), excess intermolecular free length (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ L_{\text{f}}^{\text{E}} $$\end{document}), acoustic impedance (Z), excess isentropic compressibility (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \kappa_S^{\text{E}} $$\end{document}), deviation in viscosity (∆η) and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (G*E). The viscosity data have been correlated using three equations proposed by Grunberg and Nissan, Katti and Chaudhri, and Hind et al. The excess/deviations have been fitted by Redlich–Kister equation and the results are discussed in terms of molecular interactions present in these mixtures.
doi:10.1007/s10953-013-0003-0
PMCID: PMC3676644  PMID: 23761942
Ultrasonic speed; Viscosity; Ketone; Excess volume; Intermolecular interaction; N-methyl aniline
5.  Synthesis, in-vitro antimicrobial and antitubercular screening of Schiff bases of 3-amino-1-phenyl-4- [2-(4-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl) hydrazin-1-ylidene]-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-one 
PURPOSE:
Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some Schiff bases of 3-amino-1-phenyl-4- [2-(4-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl) hydrazin-1-ylidene]-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-ones (TZP4a-l) are described.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed using infrared, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectral data. Synthesized compounds were tested in-vitro against four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacterial strains, three fungal strains and two mycobacterial strains. Title compounds were screened its in-vitro cytotoxicity (IC50) by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay using mouse embryonic fibroblasts cell line (NIH 3T3).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Compounds TZP4 g and TZP4 h were found to be significant activity against Bacillus substilis (bacteria) and Aspergillus niger (fungi). In-vitro anti-tuberculosis (TB) activity of compound TZP4g showed appreciable antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] =0.6.48 × 10−3 μM/mL) which was 1.69 and 3.91 times more active than the standard drug, pyrazinamide (25.38 × 10−3 μM/mL) and streptomycin (MIC = 11.01 × 10−3 μM/mL), respectively. Their in-vitro cytotoxicity (IC50) was determined to establish a selectivity index (SI) (SI = IC50/MIC). Compounds TZP4 c, TZP4 g, and TZP4 h have SI 82.85, 168.88, and 199.07, respectively.
CONCLUSION:
All the title compounds had mild toxicity on the mouse embryonic fibroblasts NIH 3T3 cells (IC50 ≥ 100 μM). In comparison to the results of toxicity and antimycobacterial activity tests, it was observed that the activity of the compounds is not due to general toxicity effect; however, their antimycobacterial activity can be possibly because of their selective antimycobacterial effect. We concluded from our investigations that TZP4 c, TZP4 g, and TZP4 h may be considered promising for the development of new anti-TB agents.
doi:10.4103/0975-7406.111828
PMCID: PMC3697191  PMID: 23833518
Antimicrobial; antimycobacterial; cytotoxicity; pyrazolone; thiazole
6.  Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus) 
Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus) has been carried out under 293 K temperature conditions. The ostrich is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate in erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich heamoglobin.
Haemoglobin is a tetrameric protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. The oxygen-binding properties of haemoglobin are regulated through the binding of allosteric effectors. The respiratory system of avian species is unique and complex in nature when compared with that of mammals. In avian species, inositol pentaphosphate (inositol-P5) is present in the erythrocytes of the adult and is thought to be the major factor responsible for the relatively high oxygen affinity of the whole blood. The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate (inositol-P4) in its erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich haemoglobin. Ostrich haemoglobin was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. Haemoglobin crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant in 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.2. Data were collected using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals of ostrich haemo­globin diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. They belonged to the ortho­rhombic space group P212121 with one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit; the unit-cell parameters were a = 80.93, b = 81.68, c = 102.05 Å.
doi:10.1107/S1744309109019009
PMCID: PMC2705633  PMID: 19574638
haemoglobin; Struthio camelus
7.  Screening of marine actinobacteria for amylase enzymes inhibitors 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2010;50(2):233-237.
Amylase inhibitor producing actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from terrestrial environment and there is no much report found from marine environment, hence in the present study, 17 strains isolated from the rhizosphere sediments of mangroves were tested for their amylase inhibition ability. Seawater requirement test for the growth of actinobacteria found that the strains SSR-3, SSR-12 and SSR-16 requires at least 50% and SSR-6 requires at least 25% seawater for their growth. The inhibition activity of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic amylase was tested by using Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. The maximum amylase activity (40mm) produced by the A. niger was taken as positive control, when the test actinobacteria strains grown in the medium they inhibited amylase activity and was evidenced by the reduction in inhibition zone (14–37 mm) similarly the amylase produced by the Bacillus subtilis was also recorded maximum (35 mm) amylase activity and was taken as positive control, and the test atinobacterial strains reduced enzyme action(12–33 mm) it varied levals. This indicates that the actinobacteria strains were controlled amylase enzyme activity in both the cases. The strain SSR-10 was highly effective and SSR-8 was less effective in inhibiting eukaryotic amylase produced by A. niger. The strain SSR-2 was effective and SSR-6 showed very less effect in inhibiting the prokaryotic amylase produced by the B subtilis.
doi:10.1007/s12088-010-0046-5
PMCID: PMC3450336  PMID: 23100835
Marine actinobacteria; Amylase enzyme; Amylase inhibitor
8.  Preparation, storage stability and palatability of spent hen meal based pet food 
Extruded pet foods were prepared by extrusion process incorporating dry rendered spent hen meal (SHM) at 10 and 20% levels, and packed in LDPE bags before storage at room temperature (35 ± 2°C) up to 45 days. The colour of the pet foods was uniformly brown with pleasant meaty odour. The thiobarbituric acid, tyrosine values, free fatty acid content and acid value and total bacterial counts increased gradually during storage but E.coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp and fungi were not detected during storage. The pet owners rated the pet foods as good. The body weight of the adult pet dogs did not decrease during the feeding trial of one month and the health condition of pets was good. The cost of production per kg of pet food containing 10 and 20% SHM was Rs 18.00 and Rs 22.75, respectively. It was concluded that a pet food (whole meal) with good nutritive quality and palatability to dogs can be prepared by incorporating 10–20% of spent hen meal which can be safely stored up to 45 days at room temperature.
doi:10.1007/s13197-010-0053-x
PMCID: PMC3551029  PMID: 23572647
Spent hen meal; Extruded pet foods; Dog feeding trials; Storage stability
9.  Evolutionary Implications and Physicochemical Analyses of Selected Proteins of Type III Polyketide Synthase Family 
Type III polyketide synthases have a substantial role in the biosynthesis of various polyketides in plants and microorganisms. Comparative proteomic analysis of type III polyketide synthases showed evolutionarily and structurally related positions in a compilation of amino acid sequences from different families. Bacterial and fungal type III polyketide synthase proteins showed <50% similarity but in higher plants, it exhibited >80% among chalcone synthases and >70% in the case of non-chalcone synthases. In a consensus phylogenetic tree based on 1000 replicates; bacterial, fungal and plant proteins were clustered in separate groups. Proteins from bryophytes and pteridophytes grouped immediately near to the fungal cluster, demonstrated how evolutionary lineage has occurred among type III polyketide synthase proteins. Upon physicochemical analysis, it was observed that the proteins localized in the cytoplasm and were hydrophobic in nature. Molecular structural analysis revealed comparatively stable structure comprising of alpha helices and random coils as major structural components. It was found that there was a decline in the structural stability with active site mutation as prophesied by the in silico mutation studies.
doi:10.4137/EBO.S6854
PMCID: PMC3118698  PMID: 21697991
type III polyketide synthase; CHS; PKS; non-CHS; molecular phylogeny; chalcone synthase
10.  Di­hydrogen phosphate mediated supra­molecular frameworks in 2- and 4-chloro­anilinium dihydrogen phosphate salts 
The title compounds, 2-chloro­anilinium dihydrogen phosphate (2CADHP) and 4-chloro­anilinium di­hydrogen phosphate (4CADHP), both C6H7NCl+·H2PO4 −, form two-dimensional supra­molecular organic–inorganic hybrid frameworks. In 2CADHP, the dihydrogen phosphate anions form a double-stranded anionic chain generated parallel to the [010] direction through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, whereas in 4CADHP they form a two-dimensional supra­molecular net extending parallel to the crystallographic (001) plane into which the cations are linked through strong N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S0108270110001940
PMCID: PMC2855582  PMID: 20203405
11.  1,3-Dicyclo­hexyl-1-(4-nitro­benzo­yl)urea 
In the title compound, C20H27N3O4, both cyclo­hexane rings adopt chair conformations. The benzene ring and the amide group are oriented at a dihedral angle of 62.1 (2)°. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into chains propagating in [010], which contain R 2 2(12) ring motifs.
doi:10.1107/S1600536810016107
PMCID: PMC2979486  PMID: 21579388
12.  Probiotics in aquaculture: importance and future perspectives 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2008;48(3):299-308.
Aquaculture is one of the fastest developing growth sectors in the world and Asia presently contributes about 90% to the global production. However, disease outbreaks are constraint to aquaculture production thereby affects both economic development of the country and socio-economic status of the local people in many countries of Asia-Pacifi c region. Disease control in aquaculture industry has been achieved by following different methods using traditional ways, synthetic chemicals and antibiotics. However, the use of such expensive chemotherapeutants for controlling diseases has been widely criticized for their negative impacts like accumulation of residues, development of drug resistance, immunosuppressants and reduced consumer preference for aqua products treated with antibiotics and traditional methods are ineffective against controlling new diseases in large aquaculture systems. Therefore, alternative methods need to be developed to maintain a healthy microbial environment in the aquaculture systems there by to maintain the health of the cultured organisms. Use of probiotics is one of such method that is gaining importance in controlling potential pathogens. This review provides a summary of the criteria for the selection of the potential probiotics, their importance and future perspectives in aquaculture industry.
doi:10.1007/s12088-008-0024-3
PMCID: PMC3476780  PMID: 23100726
Probiotics; Aquaculture; Finfish; Shellfish
13.  10-[2-(Dimethyl­amino)eth­yl]-9-(4-methoxy­phen­yl)-3,3,6,6-tetra­methyl-3,4,6,7,9,10-hexa­hydro­acridine-1,8(2H,5H)-dione 
In the title compound, C28H38N2O3, the central ring of the acridinedione system adopts a boat conformation, while one of the outer rings adopts a half-chair conformation and the conformation of the other outer ring is between a sofa and a half-chair. The acridinedione system is buckled, with an angle of 22.01 (3)°. The crystal packing comprises layers of mol­ecules laid parallel to the ac plane, being reinforced by an intermolecular C—H⋯O interaction.
doi:10.1107/S1600536808043882
PMCID: PMC2968240  PMID: 21581885
14.  Research on marine actinobacteria in India 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2007;47(3):186-196.
Marine actinobacteriology is one of the major emerging areas of research in tropics. Marine actinobacteria occur on the sediments and in water and also other biomass (mangrove) and substrates (animal). These organisms are gaining importance not only for their taxonomic and ecological perspectives, but also for their unique metabolites and enzymes. Many earlier studies on these organisms were confined only to the temperate regions. In tropical environment, investigations on them have gained importance only in the last two decades. So far, from the Indian peninsula, 41 species of actinobacteria belonging to 8 genera have been recorded. The genus, Streptomyces of marine origin has been more frequently recorded. Of 9 maritime states of India, only 4 have been extensively covered for the study of marine actinobacteria. Most of the studies conducted pertain to isolation, identification and maintenance of these organisms in different culture media. Further, attention has been focused on studying their antagonistic properties against different pathogens. Their biotechnological potentials are yet to be fully explored.
doi:10.1007/s12088-007-0039-1
PMCID: PMC3450339  PMID: 23100666
Marine actinobacteria; Diversity; Antibiotics; Anticancer compounds; Enzymes
15.  Diaphragmatic crural eventration 
Aim:
We evaluated patients with gastric volvulus secondary to diaphragmatic pathology.
Materials and Methods:
Eight patients (5 males and 3 females) presented to the author in a tertiary care center during 1997-2006 were analyzed in terms of age, sex, symptomatology, diagnosis and predisposing factors.
Observations:
Six had an acute presentation and rest had chronic symptomatology. The two patients who had total gangrene stomach died postoperatively and one patient died preoperatively due to aspiration. All the cases presented with acute symptoms had diaphragmatic pathology, and out of these, three cases had the specific entity, which is named as diaphragmatic crural eventration.
Conclusions:
Diaphragmatic crural eventration is characterized by the defective development of the right crus of diaphragm, and this is embryologically significant as the right crus and ligaments of the stomach develop from dorsal mesoesophagus and mesogastrium. The author recommends a closer look for this defect of diaphragm while operating a case of gastric volvulus.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.42568
PMCID: PMC2810818  PMID: 20177481
Diaphragmatic defects; gastric volvulus; right crus of diaphragm
16.  A Survey of Nucleotide Cyclases in Actinobacteria: Unique Domain Organization and Expansion of the Class III Cyclase Family in Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Cyclic nucleotides are well-known second messengers involved in the regulation of important metabolic pathways or virulence factors. There are six different classes of nucleotide cyclases that can accomplish the task of generating cAMP, and four of these are restricted to the prokaryotes. The role of cAMP has been implicated in the virulence and regulation of secondary metabolites in the phylum Actinobacteria, which contains important pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, M. bovis and Corynebacterium, and industrial organisms from the genus Streptomyces. We have analysed the actinobacterial genome sequences found in current databases for the presence of different classes of nucleotide cyclases, and find that only class III cyclases are present in these organisms. Importantly, prominent members such as M. tuberculosis and M. leprae have 17 and 4 class III cyclases, respectively, encoded in their genomes, some of which display interesting domain fusions seen for the first time. In addition, a pseudogene corresponding to a cyclase from M. avium has been identified as the only cyclase pseudogene in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. The Corynebacterium and Streptomyces genomes encode only a single adenylyl cyclase each, both of which have corresponding orthologues in M. tuberculosis. A clustering of the cyclase domains in Actinobacteria reveals the presence of typical eukaryote-like, fungi-like and other bacteria-like class III cyclase sequences within this phylum, suggesting that these proteins may have significant roles to play in this important group of organisms.
doi:10.1002/cfg.349
PMCID: PMC2447327  PMID: 18629044
18.  Cost Containment in Eye Care 
Community Eye Health  2001;14(37):4-6.
PMCID: PMC1705911  PMID: 17491900
19.  Metabolic abnormalities in skeletal muscle of patients receiving zidovudine therapy observed by 31P in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;96(1):126-131.
Patients on long-term zidovudine (AZT) therapy experience muscle fatigue and weakness attributed to AZT-induced mitochondrial toxicity in skeletal muscle. To determine if the clinico-pathological abnormalities in these patients correspond to abnormal muscle energy metabolism, we used 31P in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy to follow phosphorylated metabolites during exercise. We studied 19 normal volunteers, 6 HIV-positive patients never treated with AZT, and 9 HIV-positive patients who had been treated with AZT for a mean period of 33 mo (range 12-48 mo) and had muscle biopsy-proven AZT-myopathy with abnormal mitochondria. Changes in phosphocreatine, ATP, and intracellular pH in the gastrocnemius muscle were followed during a graded steady state exercise protocol, and the recovery of phosphocreatine was followed on cessation of exercise. We found that graded steady state exercise produced a greater depletion of muscle phosphocreatine levels in the AZT-treated patients, compared to either HIV-positive patients who were not treated with AZT or normal controls. No differences in the effects of steady state exercise on muscle phosphocreatine levels were observed between the control group and the HIV-positive patients who had not been treated with AZT. The results suggest that the effect of AZT on muscle energy metabolism is significant, and similar to the effect observed in patients with known mitochondrial myopathies. Using a well-known model for control of mitochondrial metabolism, the observed differences in steady state phosphocreatine levels during exercise suggest that AZT treatment decreases the maximal work output and the maximal rate of muscle ATP synthesis.
PMCID: PMC185180  PMID: 7615782
21.  Colposcopy in teenagers. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1990;66(3):228.
PMCID: PMC1194510  PMID: 2370069
23.  Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a lesbian. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1989;65(6):399-400.
PMCID: PMC1194414  PMID: 2613220

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