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1.  1-Deoxynojirimycins with dansyl capped N-substituents as probes for Morbus Gaucher affected cell lines 
Carbohydrate research  2010;345(10):1371-1376.
Cyclization by double reductive amination of D-xylo-hexos-5-ulose with methyl 6-aminohexanoate gave (methoxycarbonyl)pentyl-1-deoxynojirimycin. Reaction of the terminal carboxylic acid with N-dansyl- 1,6-diaminohexane provided the corresponding chain-extended fluorescent derivative. By reaction with bis(6-dansylaminohexyl)amine, the corresponding branched di-N-dansyl compound was obtained. Both compounds are strong inhibitors of D-glucosidases and could also be shown to distinctly improve, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, the activity of β-glucocerebrosidase in a Gaucher fibroblast (N370S) cell-line through chaperoning of the enzyme to the lysosome.
PMCID: PMC3201982  PMID: 20471633 CAMSID: cams1978
Iminoalditol; N-Alkylation; Glucosidase inhibitor; Molecular chaperone; Gaucher’s disease
2.  1-Deoxy-d-galactonojirimycins with dansyl capped N-substituents as β-galactosidase inhibitors and potential probes for GM1 gangliosidosis affected cell lines 
Carbohydrate Research  2011;346(12):1592-1598.
Graphical abstract
► N-Alkylation of 1-deoxy-D-galactonojirimycin with dansylamino terminated spacer arms provides powerful inhibitors. ► These enhance mutant lysosomal -galactosidase activities in GM1 gangliosidosis cell lines. ► Based on their fluorescence, they can serve as selective intracellular organellar probes.
Two simple and reliably accessible intermediates, N-carboxypentyl- and N-aminohexyl-1-deoxy-d-galactonojirimycin were employed for the synthesis of a set of terminally N-dansyl substituted derivatives. Reaction of the terminal carboxylic acid of N-carboxypentyl-1-deoxy-d-galactonojirimycin with N-dansyl-1,6-diaminohexane provided the chain-extended fluorescent derivative. Employing bis(6-dansylaminohexyl)amine, the corresponding branched di-N-dansyl compound was obtained. Partially protected N-aminohexyl-1-deoxy-d-galactonojirimycin served as intermediate for two additional chain-extended fluorescent 1-deoxy-d-galactonojirimycin (1-DGJ) derivatives featuring terminal dansyl groups in the N-alkyl substituent. These new compounds are strong inhibitors of d-galactosidases and may serve as leads en route to pharmacological chaperones for GM1-gangliosidosis.
PMCID: PMC3158671  PMID: 21645885
Iminoalditol; N-Alkylation; Galactosidase inhibitor; Molecular chaperone; GM1-gangliosidosis
3.  A synchrotron radiation study of the one-dimensional complex of sodium with (1S)-N-carboxyl­ato-1-(9-deaza­adenin-9-yl)-1,4-dide­oxy-1,4-imino-d-ribitol, a member of the ’immucillin’ family 
The sodium salt of [immucillin-A–CO2H]− (Imm-A), namely catena-poly[[[triaqua­disodium(I)](μ-aqua)[μ-(1S)-N-car­box­yl­ato-1-(9-deaza­adenin-9-yl)-1,4-dide­oxy-1,4-imino-d-ribi­tol][triaqua­disodium(I)][μ-(1S)-N-carboxyl­ato-1-(9-deaza­aden­in-9-yl)-1,4-dide­oxy-1,4-imino-d-ribitol]] tetra­hydrate], {[Na2(C12H13N4O6)2(H2O)7]·4H2O}n, (I), forms a polymeric chain via Na+—O inter­actions involving the carboxyl­ate and keto O atoms of two independent Imm-A mol­ecules. Extensive N,O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding utilizing all water H atoms, including four waters of crystallization, provides crystal packing. The structural definition of this novel compound was made possible through the use of synchrotron radiation utilizing a minute fragment (volume ∼2.4 × 10−5 mm−3) on a beamline optimized for protein data collection. A summary of intra-ring conformations for immucillin structures indicates considerable flexibility while retaining similar intra-ring orientations.
PMCID: PMC2855577  PMID: 20203397
4.  Third-Generation Immucillins: Syntheses and Bio-Activities of Acyclic Immucillin Inhibitors of Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2009;52(4):1126-1143.
ImmH (1) and DADMe-ImmH (2) are potent inhibitors of human purine nucleoside phoshorylase (PNP), developed by us and currently in clinical trials for the treatment of a variety of T-cell related diseases. Compounds 1 and 2 were used as templates for the design and synthesis of a series of acyclic immucillin analogues (8–38) in order to identify simplified alternatives to 1 and 2. SerMe-ImmG (8) and DATMe-ImmG (9) displayed the lowest inhibition constants of 2.1 and 3.4 pM, respectively, vs PNP. It was postulated that the flexible natures of 8 and 9 enabled them to adopt conformations resembling those of 1 and 2 within the active site of PNP and that the positioning of two hydroxyl groups was critical for picomolar activity. SerMe-ImmH (10, Kd = 5.2 pM) was shown to be orally available in mice with a long biological residence time on blood PNP.
PMCID: PMC2698043  PMID: 19170524
5.  Transition state analogues in quorum sensing and SAM recycling 
Transition state structures can be derived from kinetic isotope effects and computational chemistry. Molecular electrostatic potential maps of transition states serve as blueprints to guide synthesis of transition state analogue inhibitors of target enzymes. 5’-Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) functions in the polyamine pathway by recycling methylthioadenosine (MTA) and maintaining cellular S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Its transition state structure was used to guide synthesis of MT-DADMe-ImmA, a picomolar inhibitor that shows anticancer effects against solid tumors. Biochemical and genomic analysis suggests that MTAP inhibition acts by altered DNA methylation and gene expression patterns. A related bacterial enzyme, 5’-methylthioadcnosine nucleosidase (MTAN), functions in pathways of quorum sensing involving AI-1 and AI-2 molecules. Transition states have been solved for several bacterial MTANs and used to guide synthesis of powerful inhibitors with dissociation constants in the femtomolar to picomolar range. BuT-DADMe-ImmA blocks quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae without changing bacterial growth rates. Transition state analogue inhibitors show promise as anticancer and antibacterial agents.
PMCID: PMC2725438  PMID: 18776260
6.  l-Enantiomers of Transition State Analogue Inhibitors Bound to Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase 
Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) was crystallized with transition state analogue inhibitors Immucillin-H and DADMe-Immucillin-H synthesized with ribosyl mimics of l-stereochemistry. The inhibitors demonstrate that major driving forces for tight binding of these analogues are the leaving group interaction and the cationic mimicry of the transition state, even though large geometric changes occur with d-Immucillins and l-Immucillins bound to human PNP.
PMCID: PMC2531256  PMID: 18154341
7.  Structure and Inhibition of a Quorum Sensing Target from Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Biochemistry  2006;45(43):12929-12941.
Streptococcus pneumoniae 5′-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (MTAN) catalyzes the hydrolytic deadenylation of its substrates to form adenine and 5-methylthioribose or S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH). MTAN is not found in mammals but is involved in bacterial quorum sensing. MTAN gene disruption affects growth and pathogenicity of bacteria, making it a target for antibiotic design. Kinetic isotope effects and computational studies have established a dissociative SN1 transition state for E. coli MTAN and transition state analogues resembling the transition state are powerful inhibitors of the enzyme (Singh, V., Lee, J. L., Núñez, S., Howell, P. L. and Schramm, V. L. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 11647-11659). The MTAN from S. pneumoniae has 40% sequence identity to E. coli MTAN, but exhibits remarkably distinct kinetic and inhibitory properties. 5′-Methylthio-Immucillin-A (MT-ImmA) is a transition state analogue resembling an early SN1 transition state. It is a weak inhibitor of S. pneumoniae MTAN with a Ki of 1.0 μM. The X-ray structure of S. pneumoniae MTAN with MT-ImmA indicates a dimer with the methylthio group in a flexible hydrophobic pocket. Replacing the methyl group with phenyl (PhT-ImmA), tolyl (p-TolT-ImmA) or ethyl (EtT-ImmA) groups increases the affinity to give Ki values of 335 nM, 60 nM and 40 nM, respectively. DADMe-Immucillins are geometric and electrostatic mimics of a fully-dissociated transition state and bind more tightly than Immucillins. MT-DADMe-Immucillin-A inhibits with a Ki value of 24 nM and replacing the 5′-methyl group with p-Cl-phenyl (p-Cl-PhT-DADMe-ImmA) gave a Ki* value of 0.36 nM. The inhibitory potential of DADMe-Immucillins relative to the Immucillins supports a fully dissociated transition state structure for S. pneumoniae MTAN. Comparison of active site contacts in the X-ray crystal structures of E. coli and S. pneumoniae MTAN with MT-ImmA would predict equal binding, yet most analogues bind 103 to 104 fold more tightly to the E. coli enzyme. Catalytic site efficiency is primarily responsible for this difference since kcat/Km for S. pneumoniae MTAN is <10-2 that of E. coli MTAN.
PMCID: PMC2517848  PMID: 17059210
5′-methylthioadenosine; 5′-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase; quorum sensing; nucleoside hydrolase; transition state; transition state analogue inhibitors; polyamines; MTAN structure; catalytic efficiency
8.  Inhibition and structure of Trichomonas vaginalis purine nucleoside phosphorylase with picomolar transition state analogues† 
Biochemistry  2007;46(3):659-668.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan purine auxotroph possessing a unique purine salvage pathway consisting of a bacterial type purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and a purine nucleoside kinase. Thus, T. vaginalis PNP (TvPNP) functions in the reverse direction relative to PNPs in other organisms. Immucillin-A (ImmA) and DADMe-Immucillin-A (DADMe-ImmA) are transition state mimics of adenosine with geometric and electrostatic features that resemble early and late transition states of adenosine at the transition state stabilized by TvPNP. ImmA demonstrates slow-onset tight-binding inhibition with TvPNP, to give an equilibrium dissociation constant of 87 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 17.2 min and a Km/Kd ratio of 70,100. DADMe-ImmA resembles a late ribooxacarbenium ion transition state for TvPNP to give a dissociation constant of 30 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 64 min and a Km/Kd ratio of 203,300. Tight binding of DADMe-ImmA supports a late SN1 transition state. Despite their tight binding to TvPNP, ImmA and DADMe-ImmA are weak inhibitors of human and P. falciparum PNPs. The crystal structures of the TvPNP•ImmA•PO4 and TvPNP•DADMe-ImmA•PO4 ternary complexes differ from previous structures with substrate analogues. The tight binding with DADMe-ImmA is in part due to a 2.7 Å ionic interaction between a PO4 oxygen and the N1’ cation of the hydroxypyrrolidine and is weaker in the TvPNP•ImmA•PO4 structure at 3.5 Å. However, the TvPNP•ImmA•PO4 structure includes hydrogen bonds between the 2’-hydroxyl and the protein that are not present in TvPNP•DADMe-ImmA•PO4. These structures explain why DADMe-ImmA binds tighter than ImmA. Immucillin-H is a 12 nM inhibitor of TvPNP but a 56 pM inhibitor of human PNP. And this difference is explained by isotope-edited difference infrared spectroscopy with [6-18O]ImmH to establish that O6 is the keto tautomer in TvPNP•ImmH•PO4, causing an unfavorable leaving-group interaction.
PMCID: PMC2517847  PMID: 17223688
10.  A Novel Mechanism for Desulfation of Mucin: Identification and Cloning of a Mucin-Desulfating Glycosidase (Sulfoglycosidase) from Prevotella Strain RS2 
Journal of Bacteriology  2005;187(5):1543-1551.
A novel enzyme which may be important in mucin degradation has been discovered in the mucin-utilizing anaerobe Prevotella strain RS2. This enzyme cleaves terminal 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranoside 6-sulfate (6-SO3-GlcNAc) residues from sulfomucin and from the model substrate 4-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranoside 6-sodium sulfate. The existence of this mucin-desulfating glycosidase (sulfoglycosidase) suggests an alternative mechanism by which this bacterium may desulfate sulfomucins, by glycosidic removal of a sulfated sugar from mucin oligosaccharide chains. Previously, mucin desulfation was thought to take place by the action of a specific desulfating enzyme, which then allowed glycosidases to remove desulfated sugar. Sulfate removal from sulfomucins is thought to be a rate-limiting step in mucin degradation by bacteria in the regions of the digestive tract with a significant bacterial flora. The sulfoglycosidase was induced by growth of the Prevotella strain on mucin and was purified 284-fold from periplasmic extracts. Tryptic digestion and sequencing of peptides from the 100-kDa protein enabled the sulfoglycosidase gene to be cloned and sequenced. Active recombinant enzyme was made in an Escherichia coli expression system. The sulfoglycosidase shows sequence similarity to hexosaminidases. The only other enzyme that has been shown to remove 6-SO3-GlcNAc from glycoside substrates is the human lysosomal enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase A, point mutations in which cause the inheritable, lysosomal storage disorder Tay-Sachs disease. The human enzyme removes GlcNAc from glycoside substrates also, in contrast to the Prevotella enzyme, which acts on a nonsulfated substrate at a rate that is only 1% of the rate observed with a sulfated substrate.
PMCID: PMC1064001  PMID: 15716424

Results 1-10 (10)