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author:("Das, pradier")
1.  Tetra­kis(μ2-4-amino­benzoato)di-μ3-oxido-tetra­kis[dibutyl­tin(IV)] 
The mol­ecule of the title compound, [Sn4(C4H9)8(C7H6NO2)4O2], lies about an inversion centre and is a tetra­nuclear bis­(tetra­butyl­dicarboxyl­ato­distannoxane) complex containing a planar Sn4O2 core in which two μ3-oxide O atoms connect an Sn2O2 ring to two exocyclic Sn atoms. Each Sn atom has a highly distorted octa­hedral coordination. In the mol­ecule, the carboxyl­ate groups of two amino­benzoate ligands bridge the central and exocyclic Sn atoms, while two further amino­benzoate ligands have highly asymmetric bidentate chelation to the exocyclic Sn atoms plus long O⋯Sn inter­actions with the central Sn atoms. Each Sn atom is also coordinated by two pendant n-butyl ligands, which extend roughly perpendicular to the plane of the Sn4O10 core. Only one of the four unique hydrogen-bond donor sites is involved in a classic N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, and the resulting supra­molecular hydrogen-bonded structure is an extended two-dimensional network which lies parallel to the (100) plane and consists of a checkerboard pattern of four-connected mol­ecular cores acting as nodes. The amine groups not involved in the hydrogen-bonding inter­actions have significant N—H⋯π inter­actions with neighbouring amino­benzene rings.
doi:10.1107/S0108270110003033
PMCID: PMC2855585  PMID: 20203395
2.  Electrocardiogram of Clinically Healthy Mithun (Bos frontalis): Variation among Strains 
A study was conducted to establish the normal electrocardiogram in four different genetic strains of mithun (Bos frontalis). Electrocardiography, cardiac electrical axis, heart rate, rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded in a total of 32 adult male mithun of four strains (n = 8 each). It was found that the respiration and heart rates were higher (P < .05) in Manipur than other three strains. Amplitude (P < .05) and duration of P wave and QRS complex differed (P < .01) among the strains. Mizoram strain had the highest amplitude and duration of P wave and QRS complex. On the other hand, higher (P < .05) amplitude and duration of T wave were recorded in Arunachalee and Mizoram strains. The mean electrical axis of QRS complex that were recorded for Arunachalee and Manipur strains were similar to that reported for other bovine species; whereas the electrical axis of QRS for Nagamese and Mizoram strains were more close to feline and caprine species, respectively. In conclusion, electrocardiogram of mithun revealed that the amplitude and duration of P wave, QRS complex and T wave were different among four different genetic strains of mithun and the electrical axis of QRS complex for Nagamese and Mizoram mithuns are dissimilar to bovine species.
doi:10.4061/2010/790310
PMCID: PMC2945656  PMID: 20886013
3.  Inhibition of ABC Transporters Abolishes Antimony Resistance in Leishmania Infection▿  
The emergence of antimony (Sb) resistance has jeopardized the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in various countries. Previous studies have considered the part played by leishmanial parasites in antimony resistance, but the involvement of host factors in the clinical scenario remained to be investigated. Here we show that unlike infection with Sb-sensitive (Sbs) Leishmania donovani, infection with Sb-resistant (Sbr) L. donovani induces the upregulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) in host cells, resulting in a nonaccumulation of intracellular Sb following treatment with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) favoring parasite replication. The inhibition of MRP1 and P-gp with resistance-modifying agents such as lovastatin allows Sb accumulation and parasite killing within macrophages and offers protection in an animal model in which infection with Sbr L. donovani is otherwise lethal. The occurrence of a similar scenario in clinical cases is supported by the findings that unlike monocytes from SAG-sensitive kala-azar (KA) patients, monocytes from SAG-unresponsive KA patients overexpress P-gp and MRP1 and fail to accumulate Sb following in vitro SAG treatment unless pretreated with inhibitors of ABC transporters. Thus, the expression status of MRP1 and P-gp in blood monocytes may be used as a diagnostic marker for Sb resistance and the treatment strategy can be designed accordingly. Our results also indicate that lovastatin, which can inhibit both P-gp and MRP1, might be beneficial for reverting Sb resistance in leishmaniasis as well as drug resistance in other clinical situations, including cancer.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01196-07
PMCID: PMC2258502  PMID: 18056276
4.  A flow cytometry based method for studying embryogenesis and immune reactivity to embryogenic stages in filarial parasites 
Filaria Journal  2005;4:11.
Background
In the absence of intermediate animal hosts, the process of embryogenesis leading to fecundity of adult female filarial worms is very critical for persistence of these obligate parasites in human communities. Embryogenesis in adult female filarial parasites involves fertilization of eggs or oocytes by sperms and their subsequent development into motile microfilariae inside the uterine cavity of worms. Development of assays for monitoring embryogenesis in adult female worms is a critical requirement in filariasis research – filarial worms are known to harbour endosymbionts such as Wolbachia which play a significant role in fecundity. Tetracycline or doxycycline treatment of the infected hosts effectively eliminates the endosymbionts resulting in inhibition of embryogenesis in female worms. Currently, inhibition of embryogenesis in adult filarial worms can be monitored only by microscopic examination of in vitro harvested intrauterine stages.
Methods
Adult female filarial worms of bovine filarial parasites, Setaria digitata were collected from the peritoneum of infected animals and intrauterine stages were harvested in culture medium and were analyzed for forward and side scatter by flowcytometry using a BD FACS Calibur. Different populations were gated, sorted and identified by phase microscopy. Binding of biotinylated lectins to intra uterine stages was monitored using FITC labeled Avidin and monitored by flow cytometry of gated populations. Similarly, binding of antibodies in human filarial sera to intrauterine stages was monitored using FITC labeled anti-human immunoglobulins.
Results
The forward and side scatter for intrauterine stages delineated 3 distinct populations labeled as R1, R2 and R3. The three populations were sorted and identified to be a) fully stretched microfilariae, b) early and c) late developmental stages of eggs respectively. Lectins such as Wheat Germ agglutinin or Concanavalin-A were found to bind strongly to egg stages and less prominently to intra-uterine microfilariae. Similarly the binding of antibodies in filarial sera to the three intra-uterine stages could also be precisely quantified.
Conclusion
The manuscript reports a novel flow cytometry based method to monitor progression of embryogenesis in adult filarial worms. Apart from relative quantification of different intra uterine developmental stages, the assay allows quantitative binding of lectins and antibodies to each of the intrauterine stages. It may now be possible to quantify levels of antibodies in infected and immune hosts to monitor anti-fecundity immunity in filariasis – the assay can thus be used as a powerful tool for drug development and in immunological studies in human and experimental filariasis.
doi:10.1186/1475-2883-4-11
PMCID: PMC1291383  PMID: 16274474

Results 1-4 (4)