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1.  Parent Perspectives on Community Mental Health Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders 
Journal of child and family studies  2011;21(4):10.1007/s10826-011-9506-8.
The community mental health (CMH) system provides treatment for behavioral and psychiatric problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although parent stakeholder perspectives are important to improving care, these perspectives have not been systematically examined for this population in the CMH sector. Twenty-one semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of children with ASD who received services in CMH clinics. Themes related to child clinical histories, service access and experiences with the CMH system revealed a specific trajectory of service need identification, obtaining a diagnosis, and experience with services. Each trajectory stage was marked by high parent stress. Results provide information about the characteristics of children with ASD served in community mental health clinics and direction for targeted improvement efforts.
doi:10.1007/s10826-011-9506-8
PMCID: PMC3826258  PMID: 24244083
Autism spectrum disorders; Parent perspectives; Community mental health services
3.  Development and validation of an improved algorithm for overlaying flexible molecules 
A program for overlaying multiple flexible molecules has been developed. Candidate overlays are generated by a novel fingerprint algorithm, scored on three objective functions (union volume, hydrogen-bond match, and hydrophobic match), and ranked by constrained Pareto ranking. A diverse subset of the best ranked solutions is chosen using an overlay-dissimilarity metric. If necessary, the solutions can be optimised. A multi-objective genetic algorithm can be used to find additional overlays with a given mapping of chemical features but different ligand conformations. The fingerprint algorithm may also be used to produce constrained overlays, in which user-specified chemical groups are forced to be superimposed. The program has been tested on several sets of ligands, for each of which the true overlay is known from protein–ligand crystal structures. Both objective and subjective success criteria indicate that good results are obtained on the majority of these sets.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10822-012-9573-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10822-012-9573-y
PMCID: PMC3348445  PMID: 22538643
Alignment; Overlay; Pharmacophore
4.  Deducing chemical structure from crystallographically determined atomic coordinates 
An improved algorithm has been written for assigning chemical structures to incoming entries to the Cambridge Structural Database.
An improved algorithm has been developed for assigning chemical structures to incoming entries to the Cambridge Structural Database, using only the information available in the deposited CIF. Steps in the algorithm include detection of bonds, selection of polymer unit, resolution of disorder, and assignment of bond types and formal charges. The chief difficulty is posed by the large number of metallo-organic crystal structures that must be processed, given our aspiration that assigned chemical structures should accurately reflect properties such as the oxidation states of metals and redox-active ligands, metal coordination numbers and hapticities, and the aromaticity or otherwise of metal ligands. Other complications arise from disorder, especially when it is symmetry imposed or modelled with the SQUEEZE algorithm. Each assigned structure is accompanied by an estimate of reliability and, where necessary, diagnostic information indicating probable points of error. Although the algorithm was written to aid building of the Cambridge Structural Database, it has the potential to develop into a general-purpose tool for adding chemical information to newly determined crystal structures.
doi:10.1107/S0108768111024608
PMCID: PMC3143025  PMID: 21775812
Cambridge Structural Database; structure assignment; catena structure; disorder resolution; Bayesian statistics
5.  Novel acridone-modified MCM-41 type silica: Synthesis, characterization and fluorescence tuning 
Summary
A Mobil Composition of Matter (MCM)-41 type mesoporous silica material containing N-propylacridone groups has been successfully prepared by co-condensation of an appropriate organic precursor with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) under alkaline sol–gel conditions. The resulting material was fully characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2-adsorption–desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), IR and UV–vis spectroscopy, as well as 29Si and 13C CP-MAS NMR techniques. The material features a high inner surface area and a highly ordered two-dimensional hexagonal pore structure. The fluorescence properties of the organic chromophore can be tuned via complexation of its carbonyl group with scandium triflate, which makes the material a good candidate for solid state sensors and optics. The successful synthesis of highly ordered MCM materials through co-condensation was found to be dependent on the chemical interaction of the different precursors.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.2.33
PMCID: PMC3148056  PMID: 21977441
acridone; co-condensation; fluorescence; scandium; MCM-41
6.  Methodological Challenges of Characterizing Usual Care Psychotherapeutic Practice 
There is minimal existing research providing detailed, reliable data characterizing usual community-based psychotherapy practice, and, thus, limited established methods for such research. This article identifies methodological challenges of usual care descriptive research, including, (a) general design considerations, (b) measurement, (c) data analytic, and (d) ethical challenges. Case examples drawn from studies reported in this special issue are used to illustrate the implications, strengths, and weaknesses of different methodological decisions. Central themes include achieving an acceptable balance of scientific rigor, feasibility, and generalizable practice relevance, as well as working collaboratively with practice partners to select and implement study methods.
doi:10.1007/s10488-009-0237-8
PMCID: PMC2877339  PMID: 19757021
Research methods; Usual care; Psychotherapy
7.  The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal 
Background
This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi) serve as the local medical experts.
Methods
Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal.
Results
We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration.
Conclusions
The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal species are necessary.
doi:10.1186/1746-4269-6-14
PMCID: PMC2856531  PMID: 20370901
8.  Characterizing Community-Based Mental Health Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Disruptive Behavior Problems 
This study describes the characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with disruptive behavior problems served in community-based mental health clinics, characterizes psychotherapy process and outcome, and examines differences between children with ASD and a non-ASD comparison group. Results indicate that children with ASD served in this setting are high functioning and diagnostically complex. Certain research-based behavioral and cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic strategies were observed frequently, while parent training strategies and active teaching strategies were observed less frequently. The intensity or thoroughness with which strategies were pursued was relatively low. Outcome analyses indicate improvement in child symptoms and family functioning. Treatment delivery and outcome were similar for children with and without ASD. These findings represent the first detailed observational data characterizing community-based mental health services for children with ASD.
doi:10.1007/s10803-010-0976-0
PMCID: PMC2943583  PMID: 20204690
Autism spectrum disorders; Behavior problems; Community services; Psychotherapy
9.  Therapists' Attitudes Towards Psychotherapeutic Strategies in Community-Based Psychotherapy with Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems 
Little is known about what individual treatment strategies therapists providing usual care psychotherapy consider the most valuable to their practice. The Therapeutic Strategies Survey (TSS) assesses therapists' attitudes about the value of 27 individual treatment strategies in their practice with children with disruptive behavior problems in community-based outpatient psychotherapy. Findings indicate that therapists from multiple professional disciplines highly value many individual psychotherapeutic strategies, and consider strategies common to a majority of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for this population at least as important as strategies not emphasized in EBPs. Implications for developing therapist training and implementation of EBPs are discussed.
doi:10.1007/s10488-008-0195-6
PMCID: PMC2657660  PMID: 19016320
Children's mental health services; Therapist attitudes; Psychotherapy strategies; Evidence-based practices
10.  Methodological Challenges of Characterizing Usual Care Psychotherapeutic Practice 
There is minimal existing research providing detailed, reliable data characterizing usual community-based psychotherapy practice, and, thus, limited established methods for such research. This article identifies methodological challenges of usual care descriptive research, including, (a) general design considerations, (b) measurement, (c) data analytic, and (d) ethical challenges. Case examples drawn from studies reported in this special issue are used to illustrate the implications, strengths, and weaknesses of different methodological decisions. Central themes include achieving an acceptable balance of scientific rigor, feasibility, and generalizable practice relevance, as well as working collaboratively with practice partners to select and implement study methods.
doi:10.1007/s10488-009-0237-8
PMCID: PMC2877339  PMID: 19757021
Research methods; Usual care; Psychotherapy
11.  Rapsyn C-terminal domains mediate MuSK-induced phosphorylation of the muscle acetylcholine receptor 
Neuroscience  2008;153(4):997-1007.
At the developing vertebrate neuromuscular junction, postsynaptic localization of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is regulated by agrin signaling via the muscle specific kinase (MuSK) and requires an intracellular scaffolding protein called rapsyn. In addition to its structural role, rapsyn is also necessary for agrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the AChR, which regulates some aspects of receptor localization. Here, we have investigated the molecular mechanism by which rapsyn mediates AChR phosphorylation. In a heterologous COS cell system, we show that MuSK and rapsyn induced phosphorylation of β subunit tyrosine 390 (Y390) and δ subunit Y393, as in muscle cells. Mutation of β Y390 or δ Y393 did not inhibit MuSK/rapsyn-induced phosphorylation of the other subunit in COS cells, and mutation of β Y390 did not inhibit agrin-induced phosphorylation of the δ subunit in Sol8 muscle cells; thus, their phosphorylation occurs independently, downstream of MuSK activation. In COS cells, we further show that MuSK-induced phosphorylation of the β subunit was mediated by rapsyn, as MuSK plus rapsyn increased β Y390 phosphorylation more than rapsyn alone and MuSK alone had no effect. Intriguingly, MuSK also induced tyrosine phosphorylation of rapsyn itself. We then used deletion mutants to map the rapsyn domains responsible for activation of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that phosphorylate the AChR subunits. We found that rapsyn C-terminal domains (amino acids 212–412) are both necessary and sufficient for activation of tyrosine kinases and induction of cellular tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, deletion of the rapsyn RING domain (365–412) abolished MuSK-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the AChR β subunit. Together, these findings suggest that rapsyn facilitates AChR phosphorylation by activating or localizing tyrosine kinases via its C-terminal domains.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.03.009
PMCID: PMC2587422  PMID: 18436384
neuromuscular junction; synaptogenesis; agrin; postsynaptic membrane
12.  A novel inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement reverses inflammation and bone destruction in experimental arthritis 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2007;204(6):1319-1325.
Complement is an important component of the innate and adaptive immune response, yet complement split products generated through activation of each of the three complement pathways (classical, alternative, and lectin) can cause inflammation and tissue destruction. Previous studies have shown that complement activation through the alternative, but not classical, pathway is required to initiate antibody-induced arthritis in mice, but it is unclear if the alternative pathway (AP) plays a role in established disease. Previously, we have shown that human complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg) is a selective inhibitor of the AP of complement. Here, we present the crystal structure of murine CRIg and, using mutants, provide evidence that the structural requirements for inhibition of the AP are conserved in human and mouse. A soluble form of CRIg reversed inflammation and bone loss in two experimental models of arthritis by inhibiting the AP of complement in the joint. Our data indicate that the AP of complement is not only required for disease induction, but also disease progression. The extracellular domain of CRIg thus provides a novel tool to study the effects of inhibiting the AP of complement in established disease and constitutes a promising therapeutic with selectivity for a single complement pathway.
doi:10.1084/jem.20070432
PMCID: PMC2118595  PMID: 17548523
13.  Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Manang district, central Nepal 
Background
The district of Manang (2000 – 6000 m) is located in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. The majority of local inhabitants of the area are Gurungs, of Tibetan origin. The remoteness of the region has resulted in continued use of plants as medicine in an area where the ethnobotany has sparsely been documented.
Methods
Interviews were conducted with amchi (Tibetan medicinal practitioners), local healers (including priests locally known as 'lamas'), plant traders, and knowledgeable villagers (including herders) regarding local plant names and their medicinal uses during several field visits (2002–2005). When convenient to the locals, a jungle or forest walk was done with the healers, allowing for both plant collection and detailed information gathering.
Results
This present research documented 91 ethnomedicinal plant species, belonging to 40 families under 73 genera, and 45 new ethnomedicinal plant species are added. These 91 locally used medicinal plants are found to treat 93 ailments. This study provides information on 45 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in Manang. The indication for use, mode of preparation, dose and administration of medicine are described in detail for each species.
Conclusion
This wealth of ethnobotanical knowledge persists, and is being transferred to the next generation in some areas in upper Manang, in a country where this is often not the case. The senior amchi of the area (Karma Sonam Lama), who has been practicing Tibetan medicine for three generations, feels that it is of utmost importance to conserve the traditional healing system and to pass his knowledge on to the local community about the importance of medicinal plants. He hopes that this will lead to the conservation and sustainable management of medicinal plants in the villages. Over the duration of this research, the prices of several rare medicinal plants of Manang increased dramatically, highlighting both the scarcity and the quick disappearance of the species. This is only one example of a worrying trend of over harvesting of medicinal plants, and highlights the need for conservation and management of medicinal plants of Manang district.
doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-41
PMCID: PMC1618386  PMID: 17020612
14.  David Somerset Short 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2005;330(7503):1333.
Cardiologist who gave one of the earliest descriptions of the sick sinus syndrome and who fostered the spiritual life in hospitals
PMCID: PMC558223
15.  Development and Application of an Assay for Uranyl Complexation by Fungal Metabolites, Including Siderophores 
An assay to detect UO22+ complexation was developed based on the chrome azurol S (CAS) assay for siderophores (B. Schwyn and J. B. Neilands, Anal. Biochem. 160:47-56, 1987) and was used to investigate the ability of fungal metabolites to complex actinides. In this assay the discoloration of two dyed agars (one containing a CAS-Fe3+ dye and the other containing a CAS-UO22+ dye) caused by ligands was quantified. The assay was tested by using the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFO), and the results showed that there was a regular, reproducible relationship between discoloration and the amount of siderophore added. The ratio of the discoloration on the CAS-UO22+ agar to the discoloration on the CAS-Fe3+ agar was independent of the amount of siderophore added. A total of 113 fungi and yeasts were isolated from three soil samples taken from the Peak District National Park. The fungi were screened for the production of UO22+ chelators by using the CAS-based assay and were also tested specifically for hydroxamate siderophore production by using the hydroxamate siderophore auxotroph Aureobacterium flavescens JG-9. This organism is highly sensitive to the presence of hydroxamate siderophores. However, the CAS-based assay was found to be less sensitive than the A. flavescens JG-9 assay. No significant difference between the results for each site for the two tests was found. Three isolates were selected for further study and were identified as two Pencillium species and a Mucor species. Our results show that the new assay can be effectively used to screen fungi for the production of UO22+ chelating ligands. We suggest that hydroxamate siderophores can be produced by mucoraceous fungi.
doi:10.1128/AEM.69.6.3600-3606.2003
PMCID: PMC161541  PMID: 12788768

Results 1-15 (15)