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1.  Three-dimensional rotation electron diffraction: software RED for automated data collection and data processing 
Journal of Applied Crystallography  2013;46(Pt 6):1863-1873.
Implementation of the RED software package for automated collection and processing of rotation electron diffraction data is described.
Implementation of a computer program package for automated collection and processing of rotation electron diffraction (RED) data is described. The software package contains two computer programs: RED data collection and RED data processing. The RED data collection program controls the transmission electron microscope and the camera. Electron beam tilts at a fine step (0.05–0.20°) are combined with goniometer tilts at a coarse step (2.0–3.0°) around a common tilt axis, which allows a fine relative tilt to be achieved between the electron beam and the crystal in a large tilt range. An electron diffraction (ED) frame is collected at each combination of beam tilt and goniometer tilt. The RED data processing program processes three-dimensional ED data generated by the RED data collection program or by other approaches. It includes shift correction of the ED frames, peak hunting for diffraction spots in individual ED frames and identification of these diffraction spots as reflections in three dimensions. Unit-cell parameters are determined from the positions of reflections in three-dimensional reciprocal space. All reflections are indexed, and finally a list with hkl indices and intensities is output. The data processing program also includes a visualizer to view and analyse three-dimensional reciprocal lattices reconstructed from the ED frames. Details of the implementation are described. Data collection and data processing with the software RED are demonstrated using a calcined zeolite sample, silicalite-1. The structure of the calcined silicalite-1, with 72 unique atoms, could be solved from the RED data by routine direct methods.
PMCID: PMC3831301  PMID: 24282334
rotation electron diffraction; electron diffraction tomography; three-dimensional electron diffraction; structure analysis; electron diffraction; computer programs
2.  A complicated quasicrystal approximant ∊16 predicted by the strong-reflections approach 
The structure of the quasicrystal approximant ∊16 was predicted by the strong-reflections approach based on the known approximant ∊6.
The structure of a complicated quasicrystal approximant ∊16 was predicted from a known and related quasicrystal approximant ∊6 by the strong-reflections approach. Electron-diffraction studies show that in reciprocal space, the positions of the strongest reflections and their intensity distributions are similar for both approximants. By applying the strong-reflections approach, the structure factors of ∊16 were deduced from those of the known ∊6 structure. Owing to the different space groups of the two structures, a shift of the phase origin had to be applied in order to obtain the phases of ∊16. An electron-density map of ∊16 was calculated by inverse Fourier transformation of the structure factors of the 256 strongest reflections. Similar to that of ∊6, the predicted structure of ∊16 contains eight layers in each unit cell, stacked along the b axis. Along the b axis, ∊16 is built by banana-shaped tiles and pentagonal tiles; this structure is confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The simulated precession electron-diffraction (PED) patterns from the structure model are in good agreement with the experimental ones. ∊16 with 153 unique atoms in the unit cell is the most complicated approximant structure ever solved or predicted.
PMCID: PMC2811402  PMID: 20101079
quasicrystal approximant; strong-reflections approach; electron diffraction; inverse Fourier transformation
3.  Salt bridge dynamics control substrate-induced conformational change in the membrane transporter GlpT 
Journal of molecular biology  2008;378(4):826-837.
Active transport of substrates across cytoplasmic membranes is of great physiological, medical and pharmaceutical importance. The glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) transporter (GlpT) of the E. coli inner membrane is a secondary active antiporter from the ubiquitous major facilitator superfamily that couples the import of G3P to the efflux of inorganic phosphate (Pi) down its concentration gradient. Integrating information from a novel combination of structural, molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical studies, we identify the residues involved directly in binding of substrate to the inward-facing conformation of GlpT, thus defining the structural basis for the substrate-specificity of this transporter. The substrate binding mechanism involves protonation of a histidine residue at the binding site. Furthermore, our data suggest that the formation and breaking of inter- and intradomain salt bridges control the conformational change of the transporter that accompanies substrate translocation across the membrane. The mechanism we propose may be a paradigm for organophosphate/phosphate antiporters.
PMCID: PMC2426824  PMID: 18395745
antiporter; membrane transport; major facilitator superfamily; molecular dynamics simulations; secondary active transport

Results 1-3 (3)