Researchers have suggested that certain individuals may show a self-positivity bias, rating themselves as possessing more positive personality traits than others. Previous evidence has shown that people evaluate self-related information in such a way as to maintain or enhance self-esteem. However, whether self-esteem would modulate the time course of self-positivity bias in explicit self-evaluation has never been explored. In the present study, 21 participants completed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and then completed a task where they were instructed to indicate to what extent positive/negative traits described themselves. Behavioral data showed that participants endorsed positive traits as higher in self-relevance compared to the negative traits. Further, participants’ self-esteem levels were positively correlated with their self-positivity bias. Electrophysiological data revealed smaller N1 amplitude and larger late positive component (LPC) amplitude to stimuli consistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-high self-relevant stimuli) when compared to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Moreover, only in individuals with low self-esteem, the latency of P2 was more pronounced in processing stimuli that were consistent with the self-positivity bias (negative-low self-relevant stimuli) than to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Overall, the present study provides additional support for the view that low self-esteem as a personality variable would affect the early attentional processing.
The influence of topography on the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg) has received relatively little attention. Here, we report the measurement of Hg species and their corresponding isotope composition in soil sampled along an elevational gradient transect on Mt. Leigong in subtropical southwestern China. The data are used to explain orography-related effects on the fate and behaviour of Hg species in montane environments. The total- and methyl-Hg concentrations in topsoil samples show a positive correlation with elevation. However, a negative elevation dependence was observed in the mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures of Hg isotopes. Both a MIF (Δ199Hg) binary mixing approach and the traditional inert element method indicate that the content of Hg derived from the atmosphere distinctly increases with altitude.
A relationship between status epilepticus (SE) and oxidative stress has recently begun to be recognized. To explore whether the flavonoids extracted from licorice (LFs) have any protective effect on kainate (KA)-induced seizure in mice, we treated mice with LFs before and after KA injection. In KA-treated mice, we found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased immediately after the onset of seizure at 1 h and then increased at 6 h. It returned to baseline 1 d after seizure and then increased again at 3, 7, and 28 d, while malondialdehyde (MDA) content remained at a high level at 1 h, 6 h, 3 d, 7 d, and 28 d, indicating a more oxidized status related to the presence of more reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment with LFs before KA injection reversed the seizure-induced change in SOD activity and MDA content at 1 h, 6 h, 3 d, 7 d, and 28 d. Treatment with LFs after seizure decreased KA-induced SOD activity and MDA content at 7 and 28 d. Also, LF pre- and post-KA treatments decreased seizure-induced neuronal cell death. Subsequently, Morris water maze tests revealed that the escape latency was significantly decreased and the number of target quadrant crossings was markedly increased in the LF-treated groups. Thus, our data indicate that LFs have protective effects on seizure-induced neuronal cell death and cognitive impairment through their anti-oxidative effects.
Seizure; Kainate; Flavonoid; Licorice; Antioxidant; Malondialdehyde (MDA); Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
Artificial APCs (aAPCs) genetically modified to express selective costimulatory molecules provide a reproducible, cost-effective, and convenient method for polyclonal and Ag-specific expansion of human T cells for adoptive immunotherapy. Among the variety of aAPCs that have been studied, acellular beads expressing anti-CD3/anti-CD28 efficiently expand CD4+ cells, but not CD8+ T cells. Cell-based aAPCs can effectively expand cytolytic CD8+ cells, but optimal costimulatory signals have not been defined. 4-1BB, a costimulatory molecule expressed by a minority of resting CD8+ T cells, is transiently up-regulated by all CD8+ T cells following activation. We compared expansion of human cytolytic CD8+ T cells using cell-based aAPCs providing costimulation via 4-1BB vs CD28. Whereas anti-CD3/anti-CD28 aAPCs mostly expand naive cells, anti-CD3/4-1BBL aAPCs preferentially expand memory cells, resulting in superior enrichment of Ag-reactive T cells which recognize previously primed Ags and efficient expansion of electronically sorted CD8+ populations reactive toward viral or self-Ags. Using HLA-A2-Fc fusion proteins linked to 4-1BBL aAPCs, 3-log expansion of Ag-specific CD8+ CTL was induced over 14 days, whereas similar Ag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion did not occur using HLA-A2-Fc/anti-CD28 aAPCs. Furthermore, when compared with cytolytic T cells expanded using CD28 costimulation, CTL expanded using 4-1BB costimulation mediate enhanced cytolytic capacity due, in part, to NKG2D up-regulation. These results demonstrate that 4-1BB costimulation is essential for expanding memory CD8+ T cells ex vivo and is superior to CD28 costimulation for generating Ag-specific products for adoptive cell therapy.
To evaluate the changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and their associations with the prevalence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Chinese adults.
2 consecutive population-based cross-sectional surveys.
A total of 12 districts and seven counties in Shanghai, China.
12 329 randomly selected participants of the survey in 2002–2003, and 7423 randomly selected participants of the survey in 2009. All participants were residents of Shanghai aged 35–74 years.
Measured BMI and WC. Previously diagnosed and newly identified hypertension and T2DM by measured blood pressure, fasting and postload glucose.
While the participants of the two surveys were comparable in BMI in each age group, the participants of the 2009 survey had significantly larger WC than those of the 2002–2003 survey, with an annual percentage change being higher among participants aged 45–49 years in men and women. The increase in prevalence of T2DM was observed in all age groups and also appeared more evident in participants aged 45–49 years. The prevalence of hypertension was observed to increase more rapidly in elderly men and middle-aged women. Obesity, both overt and central, was associated with the risk of the two diseases, but BMI was more strongly linked to hypertension while WC appeared more evidently related with T2DM.
The prevalence of central obesity and related chronic diseases has been increasing in Shanghai, China. Our findings provide useful information for the projection of the growing burden of T2DM and hypertension in Chinese adults.
Epidemiology; Public Health
Ligand-conjugated liposomes and other nano-sized constructs are attractive drug carriers due to their extended plasma circulation; however, limited data are available as to whether their cargo can traverse the endothelium of solid organs. To determine whether the cargo of endothelially-targeted liposomes is internalized by endothelial cells and transported into tissue, and to evaluate whether such liposomes can accumulate in models of cardiovascular disease, we tracked the fate of the cargo (a hydrophilic fluorescent dye) and shell (conjugated with a radioisotope) of a heart-homing liposome (CRPPR-conjugated). The ex vivo heart was imaged with confocal microscopy and the in vivo heart with positron emission tomography in sham treated mice and models of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and myocardial infarction (MI). Within 30 min of injection of 20mg/kg CRPPR-liposomes, fluorescence increased by 47 fold in the tissue surrounding the vascular lumen, as compared with non-targeted liposomes. Both the accumulation on the endothelium and the interstitial fluorescence saturated at an injected dose of 20 mg/kg. In both I/R and MI models, CRPPR-liposomes accumulated in diseased sites, although less than in surrounding healthy tissue. The accumulation in the diseased sites increased with time post injury: the ratio of accumulated radioactivity in the diseased and healthy cardiac tissue increased from 0.20±0.04, to 0.58±0.12 and 0.61±0.19 for 1, 7, and 99 days post MI, indicating the potential for adequate delivery and therapeutic efficacy if the targeted particles are injected at 7 or more days post MI. In summary, CRPPR- liposomes accumulated in normal and diseased hearts, and the cargo accumulated in the tissue within minutes and remained detectable after 24 hours.
endothelium targeting; cell penetrating peptides; cardiovascular diseases; targeted delivery
Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a specific group of nonautonomous DNA transposons, and they are distributed in a wide range of hosts. However, the origin and evolutionary history of MITEs in eukaryotic genomes remain unclear. In this study, six MITEs were identified in the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Five elements are grouped into four known superfamilies of DNA transposons, and one represents a novel class of MITEs. Unexpectedly, six similar MITEs are also present in the triatomine bug (Rhodnius prolixus) that diverged from the common ancestor with the silkworm about 370 Ma. However, they show different lengths in two species, suggesting that they are different derivatives of progenitor transposons. Three direct progenitor transposons (Sola1, hobo/Ac/Tam [hAT], and Ginger2) are also identified in some other organisms, and several lines of evidence suggested that these autonomous elements might have been independently and horizontally transferred into their hosts. Furthermore, it is speculated that the twisted-wing parasites may be the candidate vectors for these horizontal transfers. The data presented in this study provide some new insights into the origin and evolutionary history of MITEs in the silkworm and triatomine bug.
MITEs; origin; evolution; Bombyx mori; Rhodnius prolixus
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been applied to identify type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the U.S. and European countries. It has not been used in China mainly due to lack of a standardized approach to measure HbA1c, short of knowledge about racial-specific standard and deficiency of an optimal cut-off point.
To evaluate combination of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in diagnosing T2DM in Chinese adults, a multistage sampling cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2009. The FPG measurement, HbA1c assay, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed in 6,661 Chinese adults (3057 men, 3604 women) who had no prior history of diabetes to identify the unrecognized T2DM.
A total of 454 participants were identified as T2DM based on the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Of these patients, 239 were detected using an FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l and 141 were further identified using an HbA1c ≥ 43 mmol/mol (6.1%), achieving a sensitivity of 83.7% and a specificity of 89.3% for combining use of FPG and HbA1c. In subjects at high risk of diabetes, the combining use of FPG and HbA1c produced a higher sensitivity and an improved positive predictive value (PPV), and had a satisfactory specificity and negative predictive value (NPV).
The combining use of FPG and HbA1c is a potential screening and diagnosis approach for T2DM in Chinese adults, especially among those at high risk of the disease.
Type 2 diabetes; Diagnosis; Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c; Fasting plasma glucose; Chinese adults
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant global health problem, especially in China. Chronic liver disease affects health related quality of life (HRQOL). The intervention method to improve HRQOL in patients with hepatitis B has been one-dimensional with inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of comprehensive intervention on health-related quality of life and provide guidance on improving HRQOL for patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Patients with chronic hepatitis B eligible for our study were randomly selected in three model regions of Jiangsu Province in June 2010. 272 patients were invited and 254 took part, with a refusal rate of 6.62%. Comprehensive intervention included government support, technical guidance from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, standardised medical care, and community involvement. HRQOL before and 1 year after intervention was measured with the Short Form 36 and HBV-specific health surveys. Chi-square test, t-test and multiple linear regressive analyses were used.
After comprehensive intervention, the HRQOL in patients with chronic hepatitis B showed significantly improvements in bodily pain, vitality, social functioning, and mental, as well as physical and mental component score (p < 0.05). Family and social support increased, and financial concerns decreased (p < 0.05). Marital status, duration of illness-related absence from work, education level, family financial status, and health insurance type were important factors affecting HRQOL change between the baseline and final assessment in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
The comprehensive intervention was effective in improving the HRQOL of patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Comprehensive intervention; Health-related quality of life; Chronic hepatitis B patients; SF-36; HBV-specific health survey
Nanocarriers represent an attractive means of drug delivery, but their biosafety must be established before their use in clinical research.
Four kinds of amphiphilic polymeric (PEG-PG-PCL, PEEP-PCL, PEG-PCL and PEG-DSPE) micelles with similar hydrophilic or hydrophobic structure were prepared and their in vitro and in vivo safety were evaluated and compared.
In vitro nanotoxicity evaluations included assessments of cell morphology, cell volume, inflammatory effects, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and membrane fluidity. An umbilical vein cell line (Eahy.926) and a kind of macrophages (J774.A1) were used as cell models considering that intravenous route is dominant for micelle delivery systems. In vivo analyses included complete blood count, lymphocyte subset analysis, detection of plasma inflammatory factors and histological observations of major organs after intravenous administration to KM mice.
All the micelles enhanced inflammatory molecules in J774.A1 cells, likely resulting from the increased ROS levels. PEG-PG-PCL and PEEP-PCL micelles were found to increase the J774.A1 cell volume. This likely correlated with the size of PEG-PG-PCL micelles and the polyphosphoester structure in PEEP-PCL. PEG-DSPE micelles inhibited the growth of Eahy.926 cells via inducing apoptosis. This might relate to the structure of DSPE, which is a type of phospholipid and has good affinity with cell membrane. No evidence was found for cell membrane changes after treatment with these micelles for 24 h. In the in vivo study, during 8 days of 4 time injection, each of the four nanocarriers altered the hematic phase differently without changes in inflammatory factors or pathological changes in target organs.
These results demonstrate that the micelles investigated exhibit diverse nanotoxicity correlated with their structures, their biosafety is different in different cell model, and there is no in vitro and in vivo correlation found. We believe that this study will certainly provide more scientific understandings on the nanotoxicity of amphiphilic polymeric micelles.
Nanotoxicity; Amphiphilic polymeric micelles; J774.A1 cells; Eahy.926 cells; KM mice
Isoalantolactone is a sesquiterpene lactone compound isolated from the roots of Inula helenium L. Previous studies have demonstrated that isoalantolactone possesses antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-helminthic and anti-proliferative properties in a variety of cells, but there are no studies concerning its effects on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, an MTT assay demonstrated that isoalantolactone has anti-proliferative activity against the HNSCC cell line (UM-SCC-10A). Immunostaining identified that this compound induced UM-SCC-10A cell apoptosis but not necrosis. To explain the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects, flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that the apoptosis was associated with cell cycle arrest during the G1 phase, up-regulation of p53 and p21, and down-regulation of cyclin D. Furthermore, our results revealed that induction of apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway led to up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression (Bax), down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein expression (Bcl-2), mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (Cyto c), reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 (Casp-3). Involvement of the caspase apoptosis pathway was confirmed using caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK pretreatment. Together, our findings suggest that isoalantolactone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway and was associated with cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in UM-SCC-10A cells. Therefore, isoalantolactone may become a potential drug for treating HNSCC.
VO2 (M) STF through reduction of V2O5 STF was prepared. The results illustrate that V2O5 STF can be successfully obtained by oblique angle thermal evaporation technique. After annealing at 550°C/3 min, the V2O5 STF deposited at 85° can be easily transformed into VO2 STF with slanted columnar structure and superior thermochromic properties. After deposition SiO2 antireflective layer, Tlum of VO2 STF is enhanced 26% and ΔTsol increases 60% compared with that of normal VO2 thin films. Due to the anisotropic microstructure of VO2 STF, angular selectivity transmission of VO2 STF is observed and the solar modulation ability is further improved from 7.2% to 8.7% when light is along columnar direction. Moreover, the phase transition temperature of VO2 STF can be depressed into 54.5°C without doping. Considering the oblique incidence of sunlight on windows, VO2 STF is more beneficial for practical application as smart windows compared with normal homogenous VO2 thin films.
Radiation dose has raised significant concerns to patients and operators in modern x-ray computed tomography (CT) examinations. A simple and cost-effective means to perform a low-dose CT scan is to lower the milliampere-seconds (mAs) as low as reasonably achievable in data acquisition. However, the associated image quality with lower-mAs scans (or low-dose scans) will be unavoidably degraded due to the excessive data noise, if no adequate noise control is applied during image reconstruction. For image reconstruction with low-dose scans, sinogram restoration algorithms based on modeling the noise properties of measurement can produce an image with noise-induced artifact suppression, but they often suffer noticeable resolution loss. As an alternative method, the noise-reduction algorithms via edge-preserving image filtering can yield an image without noticeable resolution loss, but they often do not completely eliminate the noise-induced artifacts. With above observations, in this paper, we present a sinogram restoration induced non-local means (SR-NLM) image filtering algorithm to retain the CT image quality by fully considering the advantages of the sinogram restoration and image filtering algorithms in low-dose image reconstruction. Extensive experimental results show that the present SR-NLM algorithm outperforms the existing methods in terms of visual inspection, noise reduction, contrast-to-ratio measure, noise-resolution tradeoff and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
CT; low-dose; sinogram restoration; non-local means; image filtering
A candidate vaccine, live attenuated Vibrio anguillarum developed in our laboratory could prevent vibriosis of fish resulted from V. anguillarum and V. alginolyticus. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the vaccine protection, we used microarray technology to compare the spleen transcriptomes of bath-vaccinated and unvaccinated zebrafish at 28 days post vaccination.
A total of 2164 genes and transcripts were differentially expressed, accounting for 4.9% of all genes represented on the chip. In addition to iron metabolism related to the innate immunity and the signaling pathways, these differentially expressed genes also involved in the adaptive immunity, mainly including the genes associated with B and T cells activation, proliferation and expansion. Transcription profiles of Th17-related transcription factors, cytokines and cytokine receptors during 35 days post-vaccination implied that Th17 cells be activated in bath-vaccinated zebrafish.
The transcriptome profiling with microarray revealed the Th17-like immune response to bath-vaccination with the live attenuated V. anguillarum in zebrafish.
Longikaurin A is a natural ent-kaurene diterpenoid isolated from Isodon genus. The ent-kaurene diterpenoids isolated from medicinal plants have been shown to have anti-disease effects. The present study was designed to examine the anti-tumour effects of longikaurin A (LK-A) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined by flow cytometry analysis of the cells treated with Longikaurin A. The proteins of apoptosis signaling pathway were detected by western blotting analysis. Finally, we examined whether LK-A exhibits anti-tumour activity in xenograft models.
Longikaurin A inhibited the cell growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. At low concentrations, longikaurin A induced S phase arrest and at higher concentrations, longikaurin A induced caspase-dependent apoptosis by regulating apoptotic molecules. Finally, longikaurin A significantly inhibited the tumour growth of CNE2 xenografts in vivo and showed no obvious effect on the body weights of the mice.
Our results suggest that Longikaurin A exhibited anti-tumour activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Longikaurin A (LK-A); Apoptosis; Caspase; Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
A straight-forward analytical strategy called internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS), which combines solvent extraction of chemicals inside a bulk sample with in situ electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, has been established to directly characterize the interior of a bulk sample with molecular specificity. The method allows both qualitative and quantitative analysis of analytes distributed in a 3-dimensional volume (e.g., 1 ~ 100 mm3) of various synthetic and biological matrices (e.g., chewing gum, leaves, fruits, roots, pork, lung tissues) without either mashing the sample or matrix separation. Using different extraction solvents, online chromatographic separation of chemicals inside the sample volume was observed during iEESI-MS analysis. The presented method is featured by the high speed of analysis, high sensitivity, low sample consumption and minimal sample preparation and/or degradation, offering unique possibilities for advanced applications in plant science, clinical diagnosis, catalyst studies, and materials science.
In this study, we mainly investigate the role of Th17 cells, Th1 cells, and their related cytokines in the pathophysiology of AML. BM and PB were extracted from ND, CR, and relapsed-refractory AML patients and controls. Th subsets frequencies were examined by flow cytometry. BM plasma Th-associated cytokines levels were determined by ELISA. The frequencies of Th17 and Th1, and IFN-γ or TGF-β concentrations were significantly decreased in ND compared with CR patients or controls. Th17 percentage was significantly lower in BM than in PB for ND patients but was higher in BM for CR patients. However, in CR or relapsed-refractory patients, Th1 percentage in BM was higher than that in PB. Moreover, BM IL-17A level showed a decreased trend in ND patients. A significant elevation of plasma IL-6 level was found in ND compared with CR patients or controls. IL-17A showed the positive correlation with IL-6 concentration. And Th17 cells frequencies and TGF-β1 concentration were increased in BM from AML patients achieving CR after chemotherapy. Moreover, a significant decrease of BM plasma TGF-β1 level was found in M3 patients compared with the other subtypes. Our findings suggest that Th17 and related cytokines may be implicated in AML pathogenesis.
Gliomas are the leading cause of death among adults with primary brain malignancies. Treatment for malignant gliomas remains limited, and targeted therapies have been incompletely explored. In this study, we found that the protein expression of presenilin 2 (PS2) was significantly increased in glioma tissues, at least partially because of promoter demethylation. We further evaluated the biological functions of PS2 in U251 glioma cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumor growth in vivo by specific inhibition of PS2 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). We found that PS2 depletion inhibited glioma cell growth as the result of inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. PS2 depletion also decreased the invasive capability of glioma cells and anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar. Moreover, suppression of PS2 expression significantly impaired the growth of glioma xenografts in nude mice. Finally, the decrease in glioma cell growth caused by PS2 depletion seems to involve Nrg1/ErbB signaling. In summary, our data highlight the use of RNA interference (RNAi) as a tool to better understand the molecular basis of PS2 in glioma progression and to uncover new targets for the treatment of glioma.
glioma; invasion; Nrg1/ErbB; presenilin 2; proliferation; RNAi
We report a simple and efficient approach for fabrication of novel graphene-polysulfide (GPS) anode materials, which consists of conducting graphene network and homogeneously distributed polysulfide in between and chemically bonded with graphene sheets. Such unique architecture not only possesses fast electron transport channels, shortens the Li-ion diffusion length but also provides very efficient Li-ion reservoirs. As a consequence, the GPS materials exhibit an ultrahigh reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and superior long-term cycling performance in terms of 1600, 550, 380 mAh g−1 after 500, 1300, 1900 cycles with a rate of 1, 5 and 10 A g−1 respectively. This novel and simple strategy is believed to work broadly for other carbon-based materials. Additionally, the competitive cost and low environment impact may promise such materials and technique a promising future for the development of high-performance energy storage devices for diverse applications.
Cotton is the source of the most important, renewable natural textile fiber and oil in the world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, approximately 18–24 nucleotides long RNAs and function in the negative regulation of their target genes. Two mostly overlapping libraries of small RNA molecules were constructed and sequenced, and served as repetition sets of data to identify miRNAs involved in fiber initiation and seed development. The D genome sequence of Gossypium raimondii was used in conjunction with EST sequences to predict miRNA precursors. Overall, 93 new miRNA precursors were identified, of which 28 belonged to 10 known families and the other 65 were considered to be novel miRNAs. Seven hundred EST sequences were proposed to be candidate target genes which involved in the regulation of a diverse group of genes with diverse functions and transcription factors. Some of the novel miRNAs and candidate target genes were validated by the Northern blot and rapid amplification of 5′ cDNA ends (5′ RACE).
The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the major insect model organisms, and its draft and fine genome sequences became available in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute ∼40% of the silkworm genome. To better understand the roles of TEs in organization, structure and evolution of the silkworm genome, we used a combination of de novo, structure-based and homology-based approaches for identification of the silkworm TEs and identified 1308 silkworm TE families. These TE families and their classification information were organized into a comprehensive and easy-to-use web-based database, BmTEdb. Users are entitled to browse, search and download the sequences in the database. Sequence analyses such as BLAST, HMMER and EMBOSS GetORF were also provided in BmTEdb. This database will facilitate studies for the silkworm genomics, the TE functions in the silkworm and the comparative analysis of the insect TEs.
Database URL: http://gene.cqu.edu.cn/BmTEdb/.
Radon is naturally released from the soil into the surface layer of the atmosphere, and by monitoring the natural radioactivity data of radon and its shot-live decay products we can get valuable information about the dilution properties of the lower boundary layer. This paper explores the dispersion characteristics of the lower layer of the atmosphere in Lanzhou, China, and the close relationship with the patterns of primary pollutants' concentrations. Measurements were conducted from July 2007 to May 2008 at one station and a fifty-day campaign was carried out at two stations in Lanzhou. The interpretation of radon radioactivity measurement showed that the measured atmospheric stability index (ASI) data at two stations in Lanzhou had statistically significant correlation, and well described the lower atmospheric layer mixing property in the area. The temporal trend of PM10 data was consistent with the temporal trend of ASI, with almost twice as high values in December than it in August. The results show that the ASI allows to highlight the dilution factor playing an important role in determining primary pollution events, and the mixing properties of the lower boundary layer is the key factor determining PM10 concentration in urban areas.
Invasion of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) is critical in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The metalloproteinases (MMPs) and activator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway play a critical role in RA-FLS invasion induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present study aimed to explore the anti-invasive activity of celastrol on LPS-stimulated human RA-FLSs, and to elucidate the mechanism involved. We investigated the effect of celastrol on LPS-induced FLS migration and invasion as well as MMP expression and explored the upstream signal transduction. Results showed that celastrol suppressed LPS-stimulated FLS migration and invasion by inhibiting MMP-9 expression and activity. Furthermore, our results revealed that celastrol inhibited the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppressing the binding activity of NF-κB in the MMP-9 promoter, and suppressed the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. Administration of celastrol (0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) daily for 3 weeks in a collagen-induced arthritis rat model markedly alleviated the clinical signs, synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration of joints. In conclusion, celastrol might inhibit FLS migration and invasion induced by LPS by suppressing TLR4/NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, providing a theoretical foundation for the clinical treatment of RA with celastrol.
Potassium (K+) ions released into brain extracellular space (ECS) during neuroexcitation are efficiently taken up by astrocytes. Deletion of astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in mice alters neuroexcitation by reducing ECS [K+] accumulation and slowing K+ reuptake. These effects could involve AQP4-dependent: (a) K+ permeability, (b) resting ECS volume, (c) ECS contraction during K+ reuptake, and (d) diffusion-limited water/K+ transport coupling. To investigate the role of these mechanisms, we compared experimental data to predictions of a model of K+ and water uptake into astrocytes after neuronal release of K+ into the ECS. The model computed the kinetics of ECS [K+] and volume, with input parameters including initial ECS volume, astrocyte K+ conductance and water permeability, and diffusion in astrocyte cytoplasm. Numerical methods were developed to compute transport and diffusion for a nonstationary astrocyte–ECS interface. The modeling showed that mechanisms b–d, together, can predict experimentally observed impairment in K+ reuptake from the ECS in AQP4 deficiency, as well as altered K+ accumulation in the ECS after neuroexcitation, provided that astrocyte water permeability is sufficiently reduced in AQP4 deficiency and that solute diffusion in astrocyte cytoplasm is sufficiently low. The modeling thus provides a potential explanation for AQP4-dependent K+/water coupling in the ECS without requiring AQP4-dependent astrocyte K+ permeability. Our model links the physical and ion/water transport properties of brain cells with the dynamics of neuroexcitation, and supports the conclusion that reduced AQP4-dependent water transport is responsible for defective neuroexcitation in AQP4 deficiency.
Histone acetylation/deacetylation is an important chromatin modification for epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Silent information regulation2 (Sir2)-related sirtuins are nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent histone deacetylases (HDAC). The mammalian sirtuin family comprises 7 members (SIRT1-7) that act in different cellular compartments to regulate metabolism and aging. The rice genome contains only two Sir2-related genes: OsSRT1 (or SRT701) and OsSRT2 (orSRT702). OsSRT1 is closely related to the mammalian SIRT6, while OsSRT2 is homologous to SIRT4. Previous work has shown that OsSRT1 is required for the safeguard against genome instability and cell damage in rice plant. In this work we investigated the role of OsSRT1 on genome-wide acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) and studied the genome-wide binding targets of OsSRT1. The study reveals that OsSRT1 binds to loci with relatively low levels of H3K9ac and directly regulates H3K9ac and expression of many genes that are related to stress and metabolism, indicating that OsSRT1 is an important site-specific histone deacetylase for gene regulation in rice. In addition, OsSRT1 is found to also target to several families of transposable elements, suggesting that OsSRT1 is directly involved in transposable element repression.