Ligand-mediated prostate cancer (PCa)-targeting gene delivery is one of the focuses of research in recent years. Our previous study reported the successful preparation of aptamer-modified nanoparticles (APT-NPs) in our laboratory and demonstrated their PCa-targeting ability in vitro. However, the mechanism underlying this PCa-targeting effect and their anticancer ability in vivo have not yet been elucidated. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using APT-NPs to deliver micro RNA (miRNA) systemically to PCa cells, to testify their tumor-targeting efficiency, and to observe their biodistribution after systemic administration to a xenograft mouse model of PCa. In addition, the effect of APT depletion and endocytosis inhibitors on cellular uptake was also evaluated quantitatively in LNCaP cells to explore the internalization mechanism of APT-NPs. Finally, blood chemistry, and renal and liver function parameters were measured in the xenograft mouse model of PCa to see whether APT-NPs had any demonstrable toxicity in mice in vivo. The results showed that APT-NPs prolonged the survival duration of the PCa tumor-bearing mice as compared with the unmodified NPs. In addition, they had a potential PCa-targeting effect in vivo. In conclusion, this research provides a prototype for the safe and efficient delivery of miRNA expression vectors to PCa cells, which may prove useful for preclinical and clinical studies on the treatment of PCa.
miRNA; aptamer; polyamidoamine; prostate-specific membrane antigen; targeted delivery; prostate cancer
Background and Objectives. Curcumin has long been used to treat age-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In this study, we explored the effects of curcumin on the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods. ApoE−/− mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: AngII group, AngII + curcumin (AngII + Cur) group (100 mg/kg/d), and the control group. Miniosmotic pumps were implanted subcutaneously in ApoE−/− mice to deliver AngII for 28 days. After 4-week treatment, abdominal aortas with AAA were obtained for H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Results. The results showed that curcumin treatment significantly decreased the occurrence of AAA. The levels of macrophage infiltration, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α) were significantly lower in AngII + Cur group than those in AngII group (all P < 0.01). The level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly higher in AngII + Cur group than those in AngII group (P < 0.01). The ERK1/2 phosphorylation in AngII + Cur group was significantly lower than that in AngII group (P < 0.01). Conclusions. These results suggested that curcumin can inhibit the AngII-induced AAA in ApoE−/− mice, whose mechanisms include the curcumin anti-inflammation, antioxidative stress, and downregulation of ERK signaling pathway.
Saccharomonospora viridis is a thermophilic actinomycete that may have biotechnological applications because of its dye decolorizing activity, though the enzymatic oxidative system responsible for this activity remains elusive. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a DyP-type peroxidase gene in the genome of S. viridis DSM 43017 with sequence similarity to peroxidase from dye-decolorizing microbes. This gene, svidyp, consists of 1,215 bp encoding a polypeptide of 404 amino acids. The gene encoding SviDyP was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified. The recombinant protein could efficiently decolorize several triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinonic and azo dyes under neutral to alkaline conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for SviDyP was pH 7.0 and 70°C, respectively. Compared with other DyP-type peroxidases, SviDyP was more active at high temperatures, retaining>63% of its maximum activity at 50–80°C. It also showed broad pH adaptability (>35% activity at pH 4.0–9.0) and alkali-tolerance (>80% activity after incubation at pH 5–10 for 1 h at 37°C), and was highly thermostable (>60% activity after incubation at 70°C for 2 h at pH 7.0). SviDyP had an accelerated action during the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp, resulting in a 21.8% reduction in kappa number and an increase of 2.98% (ISO) in brightness. These favorable properties make SviDyP peroxidase a promising enzyme for use in the pulp and paper industries.
In February 2014, while investigating the source of a human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus in northern China, we isolated subtypes H7N2 and H9N2 viruses from chickens on the patient’s farm. Sequence analysis revealed that the H7N2 virus is a novel reassortant of H7N9 and H9N2 viruses. Continued surveillance is needed.
influenza virus; H7N2 reassortant; H7N9; H9N2; influenza; viruses; China; chickens
Migration and invasion inhibitor protein (MIIP) was initially identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Recently, MIIP has emerged as a key protein in regulating cell migration and invasion. However, the MIIP expression profile in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been analyzed. In the present study, MIIP mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR Green quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method in 37 NSCLC specimens and matched normal tissue samples. MIIP protein expression in a further 94 NSCLC specimens was examined with immunohistochemistry. Patient survival data were collected retrospectively, and the association between MIIP protein expression and the five-year overall survival rate was evaluated. The results revealed that MIIP mRNA and protein expression were downregulated in cancer tissues, as compared with the matched normal tissues. MIIP expression levels were significantly associated with pathology and tumor stage, with reduced MIIP mRNA expression levels detected in advanced tumor stage samples. Furthermore, patients with MIIP-positive protein expression had an improved prognosis as compared with those patients with MIIP-negative protein expression, with five-year survival rates of 41.7 and 22.4%, respectively (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank, P=0.028). A significant association between MIIP protein expression and improved prognosis was also demonstrated using univariate and multivariate analyses (P=0.033 and P=0.040, respectively). These results suggest that MIIP may have a potential role in the pathogenesis of NSCLC and also confirm that MIIP is a putative tumor-suppressor gene. Therefore, MIIP may be identified as a functional genetic marker of NSCLC development and prognosis, and may be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer.
non-small-cell lung cancer; migration and invasion inhibitor protein; real-time polymerase chain reaction; immunohistochemistry; prognosis
CD4+ T cell is acknowledged as a key factor in the initiation phase of liver ischemia reperfusion injury. The purpose of current study is to demonstrate the effect of antecedent near-term anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody treatment on IR-induced liver injury by modulation of CD4+ T cells.
70% liver warm IR was induced in male C57BL/6 mice after anti-CD25 mAb or non-specific IgG administration. Liver function, histological damage, in
vitro Proliferation, FACS, cytokine production, and immunofluorescence were assessed to evaluate the impact of antecedent near-term PC61 treatment on IR-induced liver injury.
After 70% liver ischemia, mice preconditioned with PC61 displayed significantly preserved liver function as characterized by less histological damage and reduced serum enzymes level. Mechanistic studies revealed that the protection effect of anti-CD25 mAb was associated with ameliorated intrahepatic inflammatory milieu and reduced CD4+ T lymphocytes as manifested by the decrease of proinflammatory cytokine production (less expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-6) and the lower CD4/CD8 proportion.
Our results provide first line of evidence indicating that near-term treatment with anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody might provide protection for livers against IR-induced injury by reducing CD4+ T cells, but not influencing functional Treg population. Therefore, our results demonstrate a potential function of anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody which was neglected in the past, and may be helpful in various clinical conditions, particularly in liver and kidney transplantations.
Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-associated death. Accordingly, identification of the regulatory mechanisms that control whether or not tumor cells become “directed walkers” is a crucial issue of cancer research. The deregulation of cell migration during cancer progression determines the capacity of tumor cells to escape from the primary tumors and invade adjacent tissues to finally form metastases. The ability to switch from a predominantly oxidative metabolism to glycolysis and the production of lactate even when oxygen is plentiful is a key characteristic of cancer cells. This metabolic switch, known as the Warburg effect, was first described in 1920s, and affected not only tumor cell growth but also tumor cell migration. In this review, we will focus on the recent studies on how cancer cell metabolism affects tumor cell migration and invasion. Understanding the new aspects on molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways controlling tumor cell migration is critical for development of therapeutic strategies for cancer patients.
cancer cell metabolism; cell migration; metastasis; glycolysis; glutamine
This study aimed to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of Arcobacter species. Specific primers targeting the 23S ribosomal RNA gene were used to detect Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii. The specificity of the LAMP primer set was assessed using DNA samples from a panel of Arcobacter and Campylobacter species, and the sensitivity was determined using serial dilutions of Arcobacter species cultures. LAMP showed a 10- to 1,000-fold-higher sensitivity than multiplex PCR, with a detection limit of 2 to 20 CFU per reaction in vitro. Whereas multiplex PCR showed cross-reactivity with Campylobacter species, the LAMP method developed in this study was more sensitive and reliable than conventional PCR or multiplex PCR for the detection of Arcobacter species.
Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001–December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection.
To develop an optical coherence tomography (OCT) pachymetry map based keratoconus risk scoring system.
This multi-center study was conducted in Doheny Eye Institute, University of Southern California (Los Angeles, CA, USA), Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College (Wenzhou, China), and Brass Eye Center (New York, NY, USA).
Prospective cross-sectional observational study.
A Fourier-domain OCT was used to acquire corneal pachymetry map in normal and keratoconus subjects. Pachymetric variables were: minimum, minimum-median, superior - inferior (S-I), superonasal - inferotemporal (SN-IT), and the vertical location of the thinnest cornea (Ymin). A logistic regression formula and a scoring system were developed based on these variables. Keratoconus diagnostic accuracy was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC).
One hundred thirty-three eyes from 67 normal subjects, 84 eyes from 52 keratoconus subjects were recruited. The keratoconus logistic regression formula = 0.543 × minimum + 0.541 × (S-I) − 0.886 × (SN-IT) + 0.886 × (minimum-median) + 0.0198 × Ymin. The formula gave better diagnostic power with AROC than the best single variable (formula = 0.975, minimum = 0.942, P < 0.01). The diagnostic power with AROC of the keratoconus risk score (0.949) was similar to that of the formula (P = 0.08).
The OCT corneal pachymetry map based logistic regression formula and the keratoconus risk scoring system provided high accuracy in keratoconus detection. These normal methods may be useful in keratoconus screening.
X-ray diffraction patterns may be obtained from individual submicron protein nanocrystals using a femtosecond pulse from a free-electron X-ray laser. Many “single-shot” patterns are read out every second from a stream of nanocrystals lying in random orientations. The short pulse terminates before significant atomic (or electronic) motion commences, minimizing radiation damage. Simulated patterns for Photosystem I nanocrystals are used to develop a method for recovering structure factors from tens of thousands of snapshot patterns from nanocrystals varying in size, shape and orientation. We determine the number of shots needed for a required accuracy in structure factor measurement and resolution, and investigate the convergence of our Monte-Carlo integration method.
At synapses, sodium-coupled transporters remove released neurotransmitters, thereby recycling them and maintaining a low extracellular concentration of the neurotransmitter. The molecular mechanism underlying sodium-coupled neurotransmitter uptake is not completely understood. Several structures of homologues of human neurotransmitter transporters have been solved with X-ray crystallography. These crystal structures have spurred a plethora of computational and experimental work to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying sodium-coupled transport. Here, we compare the structures of GltPh, a glutamate transporter homologue, and LeuT, a homologue of neurotransmitter transporters for the biogenic amines and inhibitory molecules GABA and glycine. We relate these structures to data obtained from experiments and computational simulations, to draw conclusions about the mechanism of uptake by sodium-coupled neurotransmitter transporters. We here propose how sodium and substrate binding is coupled and how binding of sodium and substrate opens and closes the gates in these transporters, thereby leading to an efficient coupled transport.
Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays important roles in plant growth, development and adaptation to various stresses. RCAR1/PYL9 has been known as a cytoplasm and nuclear ABA receptor in Arabidopsis. To obtain further insight into the regulatory mechanism of RCAR1/PYL9, a yeast two-hybrid approach was performed to screen for RCAR1/PYL9-interacting proteins and an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, AtMYB44, was identified. The interaction between RCAR1/PYL9 and AtMYB44 was further confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. Gene expression analysis showed that AtMYB44 negatively regulated the expression of ABA-responsive gene RAB18, in contrast to the opposite role reported for RCAR1/PYL9. Competitive GST pull-down assay and analysis of phosphatase activity demonstrated that AtMYB44 and ABI1 competed for binding to RCAR1/PYL9 and thereby reduced the inhibitory effect of RCAR1/PYL9 on ABI1 phosphatase activity in the presence of ABA in vitro. Furthermore, transient activation assay in protoplasts revealed AtMYB44 probably also decreased RCAR1/PYL9-mediated inhibition of ABI1 activity in vivo. Taken together, our work provides a reasonable molecular mechanism of AtMYB44 in ABA signaling.
ABA; signaling; RCAR1/PYL9; receptor; AtMYB44; ABI1
Organogenesis is an important process for plant regeneration by tissue or cell mass differentiation to regenerate a complete plant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in regulating plant development by mediating target genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, but the diversity of miRNAs and their potential roles in organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa have rarely been investigated. In this study, approximately 10 million sequence reads were obtained from a small RNA library, from which 189 conserved miRNAs from 57 miRNA families, and 7 novel miRNAs from 5 families, were identified from A. crassicarpa organogenetic tissues. Target prediction for these miRNAs yielded 237 potentially unique genes, of which 207 received target Gene Ontology annotations. On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis, one novel and 13 conserved miRNAs were selected to investigate their possible roles in A. crassicarpa organogenesis by qRT-PCR. The stage-specific expression patterns of the miRNAs provided information on their possible regulatory functions, including shoot bud formation, modulated function after transfer of the culture to light, and regulatory roles during induction of organogenesis. This study is the first to investigate miRNAs associated with A. crassicarpa organogenesis. The results provide a foundation for further characterization of miRNA expression profiles and roles in the regulation of diverse physiological pathways during adventitious shoot organogenesis of A. crassicarpa.
Metal-enhanced fluorescence of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPs) is realized using a simple, green hybrid Ag nanocomposite film. Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are pre-prepared by sodium citrate reduction and incorporated into agarose by mixing to form an Ag-containing agarose film (Ag@agarose). Through variation of the amount of Ag NPs in the Ag@agarose film as well as the thickness of the interlayer between CPs and the Ag@agarose film prepared of layer-by-layer assembly of chitosan and sodium alginate, a maximum 8.5-fold increase in the fluorescence of CPs is obtained. After introducing tyrosinase, this system also can be used to detect phenolic compounds with high sensitivity and good visualization under ultraviolet light.
Human noroviruses are the primary cause of severe childhood diarrhea in the United States, and they are of particular clinical importance in pediatric populations in the developing world. A major contributing factor to the general increased severity of infectious diseases in these regions is malnutrition—nutritional status shapes host immune responses and the composition of the host intestinal microbiota, both of which can influence the outcome of pathogenic infections. In terms of enteric norovirus infections, mucosal immunity and intestinal microbes are likely to contribute to the infection outcome in substantial ways. We probed these interactions using a murine model of malnutrition and murine norovirus infection. Our results reveal that malnutrition is associated with more severe norovirus infections as defined by weight loss, impaired control of norovirus infections, reduced antiviral antibody responses, loss of protective immunity, and enhanced viral evolution. Moreover, the microbiota is dramatically altered by malnutrition. Interestingly, murine norovirus infection also causes changes in the host microbial composition within the intestine but only in healthy mice. In fact, the infection-associated microbiota resembles the malnutrition-associated microbiota. Collectively, these findings represent an extensive characterization of a new malnutrition model of norovirus infection that will ultimately facilitate elucidation of the nutritionally regulated host parameters that predispose to more severe infections and impaired memory immune responses. In a broad sense, this model may provide insight into the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in malnourished hosts and the potential for malnourished individuals to act as reservoirs of emergent virus strains.
Malnourished children in developing countries are susceptible to more severe infections than their healthy counterparts, in particular enteric infections that cause diarrhea. In order to probe the effects of malnutrition on an enteric infection in a well-controlled system devoid of other environmental and genetic variability, we studied norovirus infection in a mouse model. We have revealed that malnourished mice develop more severe norovirus infections and they fail to mount effective memory immunity to a secondary challenge. This is of particular importance because malnourished children generally mount less effective immune responses to oral vaccines, and we can now use our new model system to probe the immunological basis of this impairment. We have also determined that noroviruses evolve more readily in the face of malnutrition. Finally, both norovirus infection and malnutrition independently alter the composition of the intestinal microbiota in substantial and overlapping ways.
Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha−1 in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations.
In Arabidopsis, trichome formation is regulated by the interplay of R3 MYBs and several others transcription factors including the WD40-repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), the R2R3 MYB transcription factor GLABRA1 (GL1), the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3) or ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3), and the homeodomain protein GLABRA2 (GL2). R3 MYBs including TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1), TCL2, TRYPTICHON (TRY), CAPRICE (CPC), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1), ETC2 and ETC3 negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GL1 for binding GL3 or EGL3, thus blocking the formation of TTG1–GL3/EGL3–GL1, an activator complex required for the activation of the trichome positive regulator gene GL2. However, it is largely unknown if R3 MYBs in other plant species especially woody plants have similar functions. By BLASTing the Populus trichocarpa protein database using the entire amino acid sequence of TCL1, an Arabidopsis R3 MYB transcription factor, we identified a total of eight R3 MYB transcription factor genes in poplar, namely P. trichocarpa TRICHOMELESS1 through 8 (PtrTCL1–PtrTCL8). The amino acid signature required for interacting with bHLH transcription factors and the amino acids required for cell-to-cell movement of R3 MYBs are not fully conserved in all PtrTCLs. When tested in Arabidopsis protoplasts, however, all PtrTCLs interacted with GL3. Expressing each of the eight PtrTCL genes in Arabidopsis resulted in either glabrous phenotypes or plants with reduced trichome numbers, and expression levels of GL2 in all transgenic plants tested were greatly reduced. Expression of PtrTCL1 under the control of TCL1 native promoter almost completely complemented the mutant phenotype of tcl. In contrast, expression of PtrTCL1 under the control of TRY native promoter in the try mutant, or under the control of CPC native promoter in the cpc mutant resulted in glabrous phenotypes, suggesting that PtrTCL1 functions similarly to TCL1, but not TRY and CPC.
trichome formation; R3 MYBs; transcription factors; Arabidopsis; Populus trichocarpa
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating intestinal disease affecting preterm infants. In addition to being associated with short term mortality and morbidity, survivors are left with significant long term sequelae. The cost of caring for these infants is high. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that use of antibiotics and type of feeding may cause an intestinal dysbiosis important in the pathogenesis of NEC, but the contribution of specific infectious agents is poorly understood. Fecal samples from preterm infants ≤32 weeks gestation were analyzed using 16S rRNA based methods at 2, 1, and 0 weeks, prior to diagnosis of NEC in 18 NEC cases and 35 controls. Environmental factors such as antibiotic usage, feeding type (human milk versus formula) and location of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were also evaluated. Microbiota composition differed between the three neonatal units where we observed differences in antibiotic usage. In NEC cases we observed a higher proportion of Proteobacteria (61%) two weeks and of Actinobacteria (3%) 1 week before diagnosis of NEC compared to controls (19% and 0.4%, respectively) and lower numbers of Bifidobacteria counts and Bacteroidetes proportions in the weeks before NEC diagnosis. In the first fecal samples obtained during week one of life we detected a novel signature sequence, distinct from but matching closest to Klebsiella pneumoniae, that was strongly associated with NEC development later in life. Infants who develop NEC exhibit a different pattern of microbial colonization compared to controls. Antibiotic usage correlated with these differences and combined with type of feeding likely plays a critical role in the development of NEC.
Large-conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels display near linear current–voltage (I-V) plots for voltages between −100 and +100 mV, with an increasing sublinearity for more positive potentials. As is the case for many types of channels, BK channels are blocked at positive potentials by intracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+. This fast block progressively reduces single-channel conductance with increasing voltage, giving rise to a negative slope in the I-V plots beyond about +120 mV, depending on the concentration of the blockers. In contrast to these observations of pronounced differences in the magnitudes and shapes of I-V plots in the absence and presence of intracellular blockers, Schroeder and Hansen (2007. J. Gen. Physiol.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.200709802) have reported identical I-V plots in the absence and presence of blockers for BK channels, with both plots having reduced conductance and negative slopes, as expected for blockers. Schroeder and Hansen included both Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the intracellular solution rather than a single blocker, and they also studied BK channels expressed from α plus β1 subunits, whereas most previous studies used only α subunits. Although it seems unlikely that these experimental differences would account for the differences in findings between previous studies and those of Schroeder and Hansen, we repeated the experiments using BK channels comprised of α plus β1 subunits with joint application of 2.5 mM Ca2+ plus 2.5 mM Mg2+, as Schroeder and Hansen did. In contrast to the findings of Schroeder and Hansen of identical I-V plots, we found marked differences in the single-channel I-V plots in the absence and presence of blockers. Consistent with previous studies, we found near linear I-V plots in the absence of blockers and greatly reduced currents and negative slopes in the presence of blockers. Hence, studies of conductance mechanisms for BK channels should exclude intracellular Ca2+/Mg2+, as they can reduce conductance and induce negative slopes.
X-ray free-electron lasers deliver intense femtosecond pulses that promise to yield high resolution diffraction data of nanocrystals before the destruction of the sample by radiation damage. Diffraction intensities of lysozyme nanocrystals collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source using 2 keV photons were used for structure determination by molecular replacement and analyzed for radiation damage as a function of pulse length and fluence. Signatures of radiation damage are observed for pulses as short as 70 fs. Parametric scaling used in conventional crystallography does not account for the observed effects.
The aim of this study was to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at the ST36 acupoint on the firing rate of gastric-related neurons in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). There were different effects of gastric distention in SDH and NTS in 46 male Sprague-Dawley rats. In 10 excitatory neurons in SDH, most of the neurons were inhibited by homolateral EA. The firing rates decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in 10 excitatory gastric-related neurons in NTS; the firing rates of 6 neurons were further excited by homolateral EA, with a significant increase of the firing rates (P < 0.05); all inhibitory gastric-related neurons in NTS were excited by EA. The inhibition rate of homolateral EA was significantly increased in comparison with contralateral EA in gastric-related neurons of SDH (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between homolateral and contralateral EA in gastric-related neurons of NTS. EA at ST36 changes the firing rate of gastric-related neurons in SDH and NTS. However, there are some differences in responsive mode in these neurons. The existence of these differences could be one of the physiological foundations of diversity and complexity in EA effects.
Prolonged postoperative analgesia cannot be achieved by a single injection of local anesthetic solution. The objective of this study was to optimize the formulation of a ropivacaine hydrochloride (Ropi-HCl) loaded in situ forming implant (ISI) by addition of different co-solvents, and evaluate the in vitro release of Ropi-HCl, and the analgesic effect and toxicity of the optimized formulation in rats.
Material and methods
Triacetin (TA), benzyl benzoate (BB) and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) were used as additives and added to the solvent of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Drug release to the surface and inner structural properties of the formed implant were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analgesic effect was determined by injection near the rat sciatic nerve.
The solvent system added with TA or BB significantly decreased the burst release, whereas PEG 400 increased the Ropi-HCl burst release from the formulation. Over 70% of the incorporated Ropi-HCl was released from all formulations in 14 days in the in vitro assay. The SEM showed that the surface of NMP-BB formulation was less porous and more homogeneous, compared with the other formulations. Compared with Ropi-HCl injection, the optimized formulation (NMP-BB) significantly prolonged the analgesic effect in 48 h (p < 0.05), with a mild degree of motor block from 3 h to 12 h. Histological evaluation of the injection site revealed only mild inflammatory infiltration without obvious pathological nerve alterations.
The biodegradable Ropi-HCl-loaded ISI system with NMP-BB may prove to be an attractive and safe alternative for the delivery of parenteral local anesthetics to prolong pain relief.
in situ forming implant; local anesthesia; ropivacaine
Previous studies demonstrated that primo vessels (PVs) were distributed in different parts of the body in mammals, and PVs were also involved in some processes of pathology such as cancer. Whether PVs are intrinsic structures in mammals or not is still ignored. In this study, a peritonitis model rat was induced by i.p. administration of E. coli in rats. PVs were observed in all infected rats, but it appeared less in untreated rats, taking 10.53% (4/38). In addition, we examined cell types in celiac PVs by fluorescent staining with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin, as well as immunofluorescent staining with CD11b and intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), and found the following. (1) The rod-shaped nuclei aligned longitudinally along PVs. (2) DAPI-, phalloidin-, CD11b-, and ICAM-1-positive labeling coexisted in PVs, suggesting that fibroblasts and leucocytes might be two kinds of cell types in PVs for both infected and control rats. (3) The difference was that numerous cells in PVs of the infected rats contained DAPI-labeled multilobal nucleus and were expressed with CD11b- and ICAM-1-positive labeling on the cytoplasm and membrane, showing the typical characteristics of neutrophil. (4) The cells in PVs from the untreated rats are those of loose connective tissue. Therefore, it is reasonably considered that PVs from infected rats might be the pathological products which might be involved in inflammation.