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2.  The impact of prothrombin (G20210A) gene mutation on stroke in youths 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(1):9-11.
Stroke in young adults is a known but abnormal disease. Several recent studies have discussed the correlation between existence of coagulation factors such as V Leiden and prothrombin mutation (G20210A) as risk factors for incidence of stroke. The present study investigated the frequency of prothrombin gene mutation and its impact on incidence of ischemic stroke in Iranian youth.
This was a case-control study using convenient sampling method on seventy six 18 to 50-year-old people provided that they did not have classical risk factors for stroke. Case group comprised 22 patients with ischemic stroke (15 males and 7 females). Fifty four healthy people (17 males and 37 females) were selected as the control group. Participants in both groups were recruited within 26 months (23.9.2007 to 21.11.2009) in Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran.
Prothrombin was not found in any of the studied patients. Heterozygous mutation was observed in one of the samples of the control group (1.85%).
Despite the known effect of prothrombin gene mutation on incidence of venous thrombosis, it does not seem this factor, as an independent factor, can be considered as a risk factor to create ischemic stroke in people who do not have other risk factor.
PMCID: PMC3448394  PMID: 23056093
Prothrombin Mutation; Stroke; Youth; Risk Factor
3.  Frequency of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar prevalence among patients with gastrointestinal complaints in Chelgerd city, southwest of Iran* 
Differentiation between Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is very important for both clinical therapy and epidemiological studies. Although these two species are morphologically identical, they have differences in genetic, chemical specifications and pathogenicity. This study was carried out to differentiate E. histolytica from E. dispar and also to find out frequency of the two species.
Fecal samples were collected three times from 655 patients with gastrointestinal complaints (47.3% male and 52.7% female), who were referred to the primary health care centers of Chelgerd, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiary province. Samples were examined microscopically with direct smear, formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration and trichrom staining methods to distinguish E. histolytica from E. dispar complex and differentiate them from non-pathogenic intestinal amoeba. Genomic DNA was extracted from microscopy positive isolates and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to different the two morphologically identical Entamoeba isolates.
Among the 655 recruited patients, eleven subjects with E. histolytica / E. dispar isolates (1.7%) were identified by microscopy methods. Ten of the positive isolates (90.9%) were identified as E. histolytica by PCR and one isolate (9.09 %) was positive for E. dispar.
This study revealed that E. histolytica was more prevalent than E. dispar in the studied area. This result was different from the previously reported data in other parts of Iran.
PMCID: PMC3430060  PMID: 22973344
Gastrointestinal Complaints; Entamoeba Histolytica; Entamoeba Dispar; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Iran
4.  Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran 
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry  2011;6(2):75-79.
Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran.
In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used.
Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares.
A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.
PMCID: PMC3395942  PMID: 22952526
Child; Iran; Parasomnia; Prevalence; Schools

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