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1.  Comparison of the anti-cancer effect of Disulfiram and 5-Aza-CdR on pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 
Background:
Pancreatic cancer has poor prognosis by surgical and chemotherapy when it is diagnosed, so other anti-cancerous assistant therapeutic drugs are suggested e.g. epigenetic reversal of tumor-suppressor genes on promoter hypermethylation. 5-Aza-CdR is a nucleoside analog of DNMTi but it has long-term cytotoxicity effects. This study compares the anticancer effect of 5-Aza-CdR and Disulfiram potencies on PANC-1 cell line and up-regulation of p21.
Materials and Methods:
PANC-1 cell line was cultured in DMEM high glucose and treated by 5-Aza-CdR with 5 and 10 μM concentration for four days and 13 μM DSF (Diulfiram) for 24 hours. MS-PCR and RT-PCR were carried out to detect the methylation pattern and estimate the mRNA expression of RASSF1A and p21 in PANC-1.
Result:
MS-PCR demonstrated partial unmethylation after treatment with 5-Aza-CdR while there was no unmethylated band after DSF treatment. RT-PCR showed significant differences between re-expression of RASSF1A before and after treatment with 10 μM 5-Aza-CdR (P < 0.01) but not after treatment with 13 μM DSF (P > 0.05). The significant correlation was observed between RASSF1A re-expression and p21 up-regulation before and after treatment with 10 μM 5-Aza-CdR (P < 0.01) but not after treatment with 13 μM DSF (P > 0.05), while p21 up-regulation was significantly higher after DSF treatment (P < 0.01).
Conclusion:
Our findings indicated that 5-Aza-CdR induces the re-expression of RASSF1A and p21 up-regulation in PANC-1. DSF showed no epigenetic reversion while it affected p21 up-regulation.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.137866
PMCID: PMC4162084  PMID: 25221759
5-Aza-CdR; Disulfiram; DNMT inhibitor; epigenetic; p21; PANC-1; RASSF1A
2.  Investigating of microsatellites instability in patients with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer in Isfahan 
Background:
Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats are repeating sequences of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Mutation in mismatch repair (MMR) genes can cause microsatellites instability (MSI) in some tumors. In familial disorder of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), there is a defect in the mechanism of MMR and clearly defective MMR cause unstable microsatellites. This study has been conducted for investigating the instability of microsatellites in alleles of BAT-26 of MSH2 gene in patients with HNPCC in Isfahan, which is an important prognostic biomarker for the prediction of the treatment outcome.
Materials and Methods:
DNA extraction from forty HNPCC patients peripheral blood samples were performed by using the DNA extraction kit. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reaction to amplify BAT-26 was performed. The PCR products were studied by electrophoresis on agarose gel.
Results:
The size of specific band was 121 bp out of 40 HNPCC samples and based on the above method, it was shown that 12 cases (30%) demonstrated MSI. Chi-square test showed this difference is statistically significant (P < 0.05).
Conclusions:
The present study was conducted to evaluate the MSI in HNPCC patients. It was determined that the polymorphisms in BAT-26 of MSH2 gene could detect MSI with high sensitivity. Previous reports as well as our results have shown that the use of BAT-26 alone would be sufficient to identify HNPCC-associated MSH2 gene. Identifying MSI in these genes as a marker for prognosis, according to the present study and other researches is important to predict the treatment outcomes.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.135162
PMCID: PMC4139975  PMID: 25161992
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer; microsatellites instability; MSH2; mismatch repair
4.  The impact of prothrombin (G20210A) gene mutation on stroke in youths 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(1):9-11.
BACKGROUND
Stroke in young adults is a known but abnormal disease. Several recent studies have discussed the correlation between existence of coagulation factors such as V Leiden and prothrombin mutation (G20210A) as risk factors for incidence of stroke. The present study investigated the frequency of prothrombin gene mutation and its impact on incidence of ischemic stroke in Iranian youth.
METHODS
This was a case-control study using convenient sampling method on seventy six 18 to 50-year-old people provided that they did not have classical risk factors for stroke. Case group comprised 22 patients with ischemic stroke (15 males and 7 females). Fifty four healthy people (17 males and 37 females) were selected as the control group. Participants in both groups were recruited within 26 months (23.9.2007 to 21.11.2009) in Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran.
RESULTS
Prothrombin was not found in any of the studied patients. Heterozygous mutation was observed in one of the samples of the control group (1.85%).
CONCLUSION
Despite the known effect of prothrombin gene mutation on incidence of venous thrombosis, it does not seem this factor, as an independent factor, can be considered as a risk factor to create ischemic stroke in people who do not have other risk factor.
PMCID: PMC3448394  PMID: 23056093
Prothrombin Mutation; Stroke; Youth; Risk Factor
5.  Frequency of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar prevalence among patients with gastrointestinal complaints in Chelgerd city, southwest of Iran* 
BACKGROUND:
Differentiation between Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is very important for both clinical therapy and epidemiological studies. Although these two species are morphologically identical, they have differences in genetic, chemical specifications and pathogenicity. This study was carried out to differentiate E. histolytica from E. dispar and also to find out frequency of the two species.
METHODS:
Fecal samples were collected three times from 655 patients with gastrointestinal complaints (47.3% male and 52.7% female), who were referred to the primary health care centers of Chelgerd, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiary province. Samples were examined microscopically with direct smear, formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration and trichrom staining methods to distinguish E. histolytica from E. dispar complex and differentiate them from non-pathogenic intestinal amoeba. Genomic DNA was extracted from microscopy positive isolates and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to different the two morphologically identical Entamoeba isolates.
RESULTS:
Among the 655 recruited patients, eleven subjects with E. histolytica / E. dispar isolates (1.7%) were identified by microscopy methods. Ten of the positive isolates (90.9%) were identified as E. histolytica by PCR and one isolate (9.09 %) was positive for E. dispar.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study revealed that E. histolytica was more prevalent than E. dispar in the studied area. This result was different from the previously reported data in other parts of Iran.
PMCID: PMC3430060  PMID: 22973344
Gastrointestinal Complaints; Entamoeba Histolytica; Entamoeba Dispar; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Iran
6.  Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran 
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry  2011;6(2):75-79.
Objectives
Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran.
Methods
In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used.
Results
Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares.
Conclusion
A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.
PMCID: PMC3395942  PMID: 22952526
Child; Iran; Parasomnia; Prevalence; Schools

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