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1.  General and Central Obesity in Two Iranian Ethnic Groups Living in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran: Effect of the Neighborhood Environment 
Background
Emerging evidence suggests that neighborhood characteristics can have direct and indirect effects on the weight status of the residents.
Objectives
To assess the relationship between general and central obesity and the neighborhood environment in two ethnic groups (Azeri Turks and Kurds) living in Urmia city, Northwestern Iran.
Patients and Methods
In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men) aged 20 - 64 years from two ethnic groups (Azeri Turks, n = 445; Kurds, n = 278) were selected from 38 neighborhoods using a combination of cluster, random, and systematic sampling methods. Neighborhood characteristics were obtained by a validated 22-item neighborhood and a health observational checklist. General and central obesity were measured and evaluated using standard methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define the dominant neighborhood environment. The association of neighborhood characteristics with general and central obesity was analyzed by a logistic regression model.
Results
Three common neighborhood environments were identified: 1) modern-affluent, 2) central-high access and 3) marginal. These three factors explained 73.2% of the total variance. Overall, the participants living in a higher tertile of the central-high access neighborhoods had an increased chance of central obesity (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.13 - 2.34). Azeri Turks living in the highest tertile of the modern-affluent neighborhoods had a significantly higher likelihood of having general obesity (OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.37 - 4.01). Adjustment for age, gender, marital status, socioeconomic status (SES), energy intake, and physical activity did not change the results. However, after adjustment for educational level, the association was not significant.
Conclusions
The findings point to a relationship between neighborhood characteristics and obesity only in the Azeri Turks. However, educational level was more important than neighborhood quality in predicting the risk of obesity
doi:10.5812/ircmj.27591
PMCID: PMC5020783  PMID: 27651949
Obesity; Residence Characteristics; Ethnology; Iran
2.  Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2015;25(1):e177.
Background:
Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age.
Objectives:
This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators.
Patients and Methods:
A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed.
Results:
Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health.
Conclusions:
The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable.
doi:10.5812/ijp.177
PMCID: PMC4505966  PMID: 26199684
Calcium Intake; Food Groups; Children
3.  The Association of General and Central Obesity with Major Dietary Patterns in Adult Women Living in Tehran, Iran 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(1):23-30.
BACKGROUND
Using dietary pattern analysis method could provide more information about nutritional etiology of chronic disease such as obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association between major dietary patterns and general and central obesity among adult women living in Tehran.
METHODS
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, with 460 women aged 20-50 years. Dietary intake in last year was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Weight, height and waist circumstance (WC) were measured with standard methods and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. General obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and central obesity as WC ≥ 88 cm. Factor analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The association between major dietary patterns and general and central obesity were assessed by logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS
Two major dietary patterns were extracted: "Healthy" and "Unhealthy" dietary pattern. After adjusting for confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of the unhealthy dietary pattern score were more likely to be generally (OR = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.39-22.51) and centrally obese (OR = 4.99, 95% CI: 2.08-11.94); whereas, those in the upper quartile of healthy dietary pattern were less likely to be generally (OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15-0.98) and centrally obese (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.16-0.71).
CONCLUSION
Major dietary patterns of Tehrani women had a significant association with general and central obesity. Further prospective researches are required to confirm such associations.
PMCID: PMC3347807  PMID: 22577409
Dietary patterns; Factor analysis; Obesity; Women; Iran

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