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1.  Antioxidant Activity and Teratogenicity Evaluation of Lawsonia Inermis in BALB/c Mice 
Background and Aim
Lawsonia inermis is a medicinal plant with abortive properties. There has been no scientific study to evaluate the teratogenicity of this plant. This study was performed to determine the antioxidant activity and the possible side effect of L. inermis hydroalcoholic extract on development of congenital abnormalities in BALB/c mice.
Materials and Methods
In this experimental study, 120 female mature BALB/c mice were assigned to four groups and after mating and confirming the vaginal plug, the animals in the first group (G1) were kept with no intervention, and the second (G2), third (G3) and fourth (G4) groups were intraperitoneally (ip) injected with respectively saline (0.3 ml), and 10 and 100 mg/kg of L. inermis extract (for 7 days). On the 19th day, caesarean section was performed on the mice and embryos were examined for abnormalities. Their height and weight were measured. Data were analysed by ANOVA and post-hoc least significant difference tests.
There were significant differences between G3 and G4, and G1 (p<0.001); no significant difference was seen between G3 and G4. At 100 mg/kg dose of L. inermis, the parietal bones were absent in 90% of embryos and more extra ribs were observed in both G3 and G4 (p = 0.01).
L. inermis may have teratogenicity and should be used cautiously during pregnancy.
PMCID: PMC4484084  PMID: 26155492
Herbal medicines; Medicinal plant; Pregnancy; Safety; Toxicity
2.  The role of Th1 and Th17 cells in glomerulonephritis 
Journal of Nephropathology  2015;4(2):32-37.
Context: T helper (Th) cells as an important part of the immune is responsible for elimination of invading pathogens. But, if Th cell responses are not regulated effectively, the autoimmune diseases might develop. The Th17 subset usually produces interleukin-17A which in experimental models of organ-specific autoimmune inflammation is very important.
Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of open access journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Embase, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science have been searched.
Results: Fifty-six articles were found and searched. In the present review article, we tried to summarize the recently published data about characteristics and role of Th1 and Th17 cells and discuss in detail, the potential role of these T helpers immune responses in renal inflammation and renal injury, focusing on glomerulonephritis. Published papers in animal and human studies indicated that autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, classically believed to be Th1-mediated, are mainly derived from a Th17 immune response. Identification of the Th17 subgroup has explained seemingly paradoxical observations and improved our understanding of immune-mediated inflammatory responses.
Conclusions: Secretion of IL-17A, as well as IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, suggests that Th17 subset may play a crucial role as a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory Th subset. There is experimental evidence to support the notion that Th1 and Th17 cells contribute to kidney injury in renal inflammatory diseases like glomerulonephritis.
PMCID: PMC4417667  PMID: 25964886
Renal injury; Glomerulonephritis; Chronic kidney disease; Autoimmune disease
3.  Bioactivity of Apium petroselinum and Portulaca oleracea Essential Oils as Natural Preservatives 
PMCID: PMC4426161  PMID: 25973158
Antimicrobial Agents; Essential oil; Food Preservatives; Meat
5.  Neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties of Salvia Reuterana: A mini review 
Objectives: Herbal medicine is known as a valid alternative treatment. Salvia Reuterana, which has been used in the Iranian traditional medicine, is mostly distributed in the central highlands of Iran. Salvia Reuterana is a medicinal herb with various therapeutic usages. The aim of the present review is to take account of pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana.
Materials and Methods: The present review summarizes the literature with respect to various pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana.
Results: Salvia Reuterana possesses neurological, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties.
Conclusions: Salvia Reuterana can be used as an alternative for treatment of several disorders.
PMCID: PMC4352528  PMID: 25767752
Salvia Reuterana; Neurological property; Antimicrobial property; Antioxidant property; Chemotherapeutic property; Antidiabetic property
6.  Mucosal interleukin-21 mRNA expression level is high in patients with Helicobacter pylori and is associated with the severity of gastritis 
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with gastritis and marked infiltration of the gastric mucosa by several cytokines secreting inflammatory cells. Different clinical forms of the infection may reflect distinctive patterns of cytokine expression. Interleukin (IL)-17, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23 have been reported to be involved in H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal inflammation, but the details and relationship to different patterns of inflammation and virulence factors remain unclear. The present study was launched to analyse IL-6 expression in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric patients and to investigate its correlation with chronic gastritis among H. pylori-infected patients. Total RNA was extracted from the gastric antrum biopsies of 48 H. pylori-infected patients and 38 H. pylori uninfected patients. Mucosal IL-21 mRNA expression level in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric biopsy was determined by real-time PCR. The presence of vacA (vacuolating cytotoxin A) and cagA (cytotoxin associated gene A) virulence factors were evaluated using PCR. Interleukin-21 mRNA expression was significantly high in biopsies of H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori uninfected patients, and the mucosal IL-21 mRNA level was positively correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation. There was no association between virulence factors and IL-21 mRNA expression. We believe that IL-21 might be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori and might be an index of the severity of chronic gastritis.
PMCID: PMC4472541  PMID: 26155185
Helicobacter pylori; gastritis; IL-21; virulence factors
7.  Protection of Renal Tubular Cells by Antioxidants: Current Knowledge and New Trends 
Cell Journal (Yakhteh)  2015;16(4):568-571.
Acute renal damage mainly develops following toxic or ischemic insults and is defined as acute. These damages have largely been attributed to oxidative stress. Recently much attention has been directed toward decreased renal tubular cell regeneration during tubular cell injury. Antioxidants have recently been the focus of researchers and scientists for prevention and treatment of various oxidative stress-related conditions, including renal toxicities. Although free radicals are known to contribute in kidney injury and abundant researches, particularly laboratory trials, have shown the beneficial effects of antioxidants against these complications, long term clinical trials do not uniformly confirm this matter, especially for single antioxidant consumption such as vitamin C. The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible explanation of this matter.
PMCID: PMC4297497  PMID: 25685748
Acute Renal Injury; Kidney Injury; Antioxidants; Oxidative Stress
8.  Kidney Tubular Cell Protection; Recent Findings 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2014;24(6):781-783.
PMCID: PMC4442844  PMID: 26019788
Acute Renal Failure; Acute Kidney Injury; Medicinal Plants; Oxidative Stress; Reactive Oxygen Species
10.  New Concepts in Nutraceuticals as Alternative for Pharmaceuticals 
Nutraceuticals are products, which other than nutrition are also used as medicine. A nutraceutical product may be defined as a substance, which has physiological benefit or provides protection against chronic disease. Nutraceuticals may be used to improve health, delay the aging process, prevent chronic diseases, increase life expectancy, or support the structure or function of the body. Nowadays, nutraceuticals have received considerable interest due to potential nutritional, safety and therapeutic effects. Recent studies have shown promising results for these compounds in various complications. In the present review much effort has been devoted to present new concepts about nutraceuticals based on their diseases modifying indications. Emphasis has been made to present herbal nutraceuticals effective on hard curative disorders related to oxidative stress including allergy, alzheimer, cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes, eye, immune, inflammatory and Parkinson's diseases as well as obesity. The recently published papers about different aspects of nutraceuticals as alternative for pharmaceuticals were searched using scientific sites such as Medline, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The used terms included nutraceutical and allergy, alzheimer, cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes, eye, immune, inflammatory or Parkinson.
PMCID: PMC4336979  PMID: 25709784
Antioxidants; disease modifiers; herbal nutraceuticals; nutraceutical products; nutraceuticals; oxidative stress
12.  Metformin and Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Mini-Review on Recent Findings 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2014;24(5):565-568.
Metformin, an oral anti-diabetic agent in the biguanide class is a widely prescribed drug to treat high blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin has three different roles, including blood glucose regulatory effect, protection of kidney tubular cell by acting as an effective antioxidant and finally ameliorative effect on diabetic kidney disease through saving the podocytes. Therefore, diabetic patients may benefit from all of these three distinct ameliorative effects.
PMCID: PMC4359408  PMID: 25793062
Metformin; Kidney Disease; Diabetes; Anti-diabetic Agents
13.  Comment on: effect of pomegranate flower extract oncis platin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats 
Journal of Nephropathology  2014;3(4):121-123.
PMCID: PMC4219612  PMID: 25374879
Nephrotoxicity; Cisplatin; Pomegranate
15.  World Cancer Day 2014: "Increasing The Awareness" 
Cell Journal (Yakhteh)  2014;16(3):383-384.
PMCID: PMC4204181  PMID: 24611153
World Health Organization; Cancer; Patients
16.  Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats 
Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients.
PMCID: PMC4232795  PMID: 25587318
Lavandula officinalis; Serum lipids; Atherogenic index; Cardiovascular
17.  Protective Effects of Metformin on Renal Tubular Cells 
PMCID: PMC4270682  PMID: 25593707
Metformin; Kidney; Toxicity
18.  Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia: A randomized clinical trial 
It has been established that hyperlipidemia increases the incidence and mortality associated with coronary heart disease. In this study, the effects of Dill (Anethum graveolens) were evaluated on lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic patients.
Materials and Methods:
In this clinical study, 91 hyperlipidemic patients were randomly designated into two groups. One group received gemfibrozil (900 mg daily) and the other group received Dill tablet (six tablets daily) for 2 months. The blood lipids including total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol from each group were assessed at the beginning and end of the trial.
Use of gemfibrozil brought about increased HDL-cholesterol by 3.91% (P < 0.05) and reduced triglyceride and total cholesterol by 32.7% (P < 0.05) and 9.41% (P < 0.05), respectively. Applying Dill tablet for 2 months resulted in reduction of total cholesterol up to 18% (P < 0.05) and triglyceride by 7.38% (P < 0.05). However, circulating HDL-cholesterol was not affected by this treatment. In this study, gemfibrozil decreased triglyceride and increased HDL-cholesterol more than anethum (P < 0.05). Anethum decreased total cholesterol more than gemfibrozil (P < 0.05). Patients treated with anethum did not report any side effects.
The results of this trial indicate that Dill might be beneficial for hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglycemic patients.
PMCID: PMC4235097  PMID: 25422662
Anethum graveolens; gemfibrozil; high density lipoprotein-cholesterol; total cholesterol; triglyceride
19.  Atherosclerosis: Process, Indicators, Risk Factors and New Hopes 
Atherosclerosis is the major cause of morbidities and mortalities worldwide. In this study we aimed to review the mechanism of atherosclerosis and its risk factors, focusing on new findings in atherosclerosis markers and its risk factors. Furthermore, the role of antioxidants and medicinal herbs in atherosclerosis and endothelial damage has been discussed and a list of important medicinal plants effective in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis is presented.
The recently published papers about atherosclerosis pathogenesis and herbal medicines effective in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis were searched.
Inflammation has a crucial role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The disease is accompanied by excessive fibrosis of the intima, fatty plaques formation, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and migration of a group of cells such as monocytes, T cells, and platelets which are formed in response to inflammation. The oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to Ox-LDL indicates the first step of atherosclerosis in cardiovascular diseases. Malondialdehyde factor shows the level of lipoperoxidation and is a sign of increased oxidative pressure and cardiovascular diseases. In special pathological conditions such as severe hypercholesterolemia, peroxynitrite concentration increases and atherosclerosis and vascular damage are intensified. Medicinal plants have shown to be capable of interacting these or other pathogenesis factors to prevent atherosclerosis.
The pathogenesis factors involved in atherosclerosis have recently been cleared and the discovery of these factors has brought about new hopes for better prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC4258672  PMID: 25489440
Atherosclerosis; inflammation; lipids
20.  Metformin: Current knowledge 
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders in which the blood glucose is higher than normal levels, due to insufficiency of insulin release or improper response of cells to insulin, resulting in high blood pressure. The resultant hyperglycemia produces sever complications. Metformin drug has been shown to prevent diabetes in people who are at high risk and decrease most of the diabetic complications. Recent reports on metformin, not only indicate some implications such as renoprotective properties have been suggested for metformin, but some reports indicate its adverse effects as well that are negligible when its benefits are brought into account. We aimed here to review the new implications of metformin and discuss about the concerns in the use of metformin, referring to the recently published papers.
PMCID: PMC4214027  PMID: 25364368
Diabetes; diabetes mellitus; diabetic nephropathy; glucose; metformin; new applications; polycystic ovary syndrome; renoprotection
21.  Cheese consumption in relation to cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian adults- IHHP Study 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2014;8(3):336-341.
It is expected that dairy products such as cheeses, which are the main source of cholesterol and saturated fat, may lead to the development or increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; however, the results of different studies are inconsistent. This study was conducted to assess the association between cheese consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in an Iranian adult population.
Information from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) was used for this cross-sectional study with a total of 1,752 participants (782 men and 970 women). Weight, height, waist and hip circumference measurement, as well as fasting blood samples were gathered and biochemical assessments were done. To evaluate the dietary intakes of participants a validated food frequency questionnaire, consists of 49 items, was completed by expert technicians. Consumption of cheese was classified as less than 7 times per week and 7-14 times per week.
Higher consumption of cheese was associated with higher C-Reactive Protein (CRP), apolipoprotein A and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level but not with fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein B. Higher consumption of cheese was positively associated with consumption of liquid and solid oil, grain, pulses, fruit, vegetable, meat and dairy, and negatively associated with Global Dietary Index. After control for other potential confounders the association between cheese intake and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.81; 96%CI: 0.71-0.94), low HDL-C level (OR: 0.87; 96%CI: 0.79-0.96) and dyslipidemia (OR: 0.88; 96%CI: 0.79-0.98) became negatively significant.
This study found an inverse association between the frequency of cheese intake and cardiovascular risk factors; however, further prospective studies are required to confirm the present results and to illustrate its mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC4058569  PMID: 24944780
Cheese consumption; cardiovascular risk factors; food frequency questionnaire
22.  In Vitro Impact of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Rosa damascena Mill. on Rat Ileum Contractions and the Mechanisms Involved 
The petal's hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena Mill. on ileum contractions of Wistar rats and its possible mechanism were investigated.
Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Ileum was placed adjacent to propranolol (1 μM), naloxone (1 μM) and L-NAME (100 μM) and also under the influence of different doses (2-8 mM) of calcium chloride.
Cumulative extract of R. damascena Mill. (100, 500, and 1000 mg/L) decreased ileum contractions induced by KCl (60 mM) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.0001). Propranolol and naloxone significantly decreased the inhibitory effect of the extract on contractions induced by KCl (P < 0.001), but L-NAME was ineffective. Furthermore, calcium led to the contraction of depolarized tissue through KCI and this contractile effect decreased significantly induced by the cumulative concentrations of the extract (P < 0.001).
The results indicate that R. damascena Mill. dose-dependently (100, 500, and 1000 mg/L) decreases ileum movements of the rat probably through stimulating the β-adrenergic and opioid receptors and voltage-dependent calcium channels, and it may be used to treat digestive disorders.
PMCID: PMC4085930  PMID: 25013697
Ileum; L-NAME; rat; Rosa damascena Mill
23.  In Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Ten Iranian Medicinal Plants 
PMCID: PMC4102973  PMID: 25068040
Antioxidant; Evaluation; Plants, Medicinal
25.  Metabolic effects of berberine on liver phosphatidate phosphohydrolase in rats fed on high lipogenic diet: an additional mechanism for the hypolipidemic effects of berberine 
To evaluate the effects of berberine (BBR) on the liver phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP) and plasma lipids in rats fed on high lipogenic and normal diet.
Forty rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group I (control) received standard diet. Group II received standard diet plus 90 mg/kg BBR and Groups IV received lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) without treatment. Groups III and V received lipogenic diet plus 90 mg/kg BBR and 30 mg/kg gemfibrozil, respectively. On Day 60 of the experiment, blood samples were collected and PAP, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, malondialdehyde, plasma antioxidant, and liver histopathology assessments were conducted.
PAP, plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, and malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) in Group III compared to Group IV (24.94%, 36.11%, 21.18%, 36.86% and 19.59%, respectively). The liver triglyceride and cholesterol in Groups III and V had a remarkable decrease (P<0.001) compared with Group IV (24.94% and 49.13%, respectively). There was a significant reduction (P<0.05) in atherogenic index in Groups III compared with Group IV.
These results clearly suggested that BBR could be effective in reducing liver PAP, lipid abnormality, liver triglyceride and lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia.
PMCID: PMC4025298  PMID: 25183123
Atherogenic index; Flavonoid; Fatty liver; Lipid profile; Lipogenic diet; Oxidative stress

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