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1.  Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation 
We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm).
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO.
5 μl of lime juice didn’t change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones.
Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.
PMCID: PMC3263110  PMID: 22279465
Antioxidant; Citrus Aurantifolia (Christm); Juice; LDL Oxidation; Peel
2.  Effect of CRP on Some of the in vitro Physicochemical Properties of LDL 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(3):85-89.
Atherosclerosis is the most important underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which recently has been classified as an inflammatory disorder. Accumulation of large amounts of oxidized LDL in the intima during local inflammation reaction led to increase several factors such as C -reactive protein (CRP). It has also been reported that CRP is able to bind with modified forms of LDL as well as oxidized LDL. These findings suggest possible positive or negative involvement of this protein in atherogenesis. The main objective of the present study was to assess the influence of CRP on LDL oxidation and the possible physical \changes of LDL in the presence of CRP in vitro.
In this study, the susceptibility of purified LDL to oxidation was assayed by monitoring of formation of conjugated dienes in different physiological concentrations of CRP (0 - 0.5 -2 µg/ml) using a shimadzu spectrophotometer. Electrophoresis was used to determine the electrophoretic mobility of LDL in those conditions.
CRP significantly reduced the susceptibility of Cu++ -induced LDL oxidation through increasing the lag timeand there was positive relationship between these findings and CRP concentration (P < 0.05). CRP caused a significant reduction in the electrophotretic mobility of LDL compared to native LDL (n-LDL) (P < 0.05).
A considerable reduction was shown in LDL oxidation, in higher concentration of CRP, via an unknown mechanism. The electrophoretic mobility of LDL, in the oxidative condition, decreases in the presence of CRP compared to n-LDL, which can be indicative of the effect of this protein on the physical and chemical properties of LDL. It seems that, other pathway than LDL oxidation is responsible for the effect of CRP on the atherogenesis processes.
PMCID: PMC3347822  PMID: 22577421
Atherosclerosis; C reactive protein; Low-density lipoprotein; Inflammation

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