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1.  Impacts of fresh lime juice and peel on atherosclerosis progression in an animal model 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(6):357-362.
BACKGROUND
The main protective role of antioxidants in the progression of atherosclerosis has been shown in some studies. Therefore, this project evaluated the effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel on antioxidant activity and atherosclerosis progression in rabbits receiving a hypercholesterolemic diet.
METHODS
Forty white New Zealand male rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups. All groups were on hypercholesterolemic diet for two months. While the first group was considered as the hypercholesterolemic control, groups 2 and 3 (intervention groups) received 5 ml/day lime juice and 1 g/day dried lime peel powder, respectively. Group 4 was fed a normal diet (normal control). Before and after the study, weight was measured and a fasting blood specimen was taken from the rabbits. Serum lipids analyses and antioxidant activity evaluations were then performed. The rabbits’ aorta and coronary arteries were separated and the presence of fatty streaks was studied.
RESULTS
Comparing to the hypercholesterolemic control group (-25.2 ± 7.0), only the plasma total antioxidant capacity change was significantly more in rabbits supplemented with lime juice (16.3 ± 14.7) and peel (8.6 ± 7.1) (P = 0.008). The presence of fatty streaks in coronary arteries and aorta of the intervention groups [juice (0.2 ± 0.01); peel (0.0 ± 0.00)] was significantly decreased compared to the hypercholesterolemic control group (1.2 ± 0.4) (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION
Based on our findings, Citrus aurantifolia peel and juice increase plasma antioxidant capacity in rabbits, and can thus prevent or decelerate the process of atherogenesis. However, lime peel is more effective than lime juice.
PMCID: PMC3933061  PMID: 24575139
Animal; Atherosclerosis; Atherogenic Diet; Fatty Streak; Intervention; Lime
2.  Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation 
BACKGROUND:
We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm).
METHODS:
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO.
RESULTS:
5 μl of lime juice didn’t change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones.
CONCLUSIONS:
Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.
PMCID: PMC3263110  PMID: 22279465
Antioxidant; Citrus Aurantifolia (Christm); Juice; LDL Oxidation; Peel
3.  Liver-Protective Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Allium Hirtifolium Boiss. in Rats with Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Mellitus 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(1):11-15.
BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders accompanied with many metabolic syndromes. Use of herbal medicines has always been an option to treat a great number of diseases such as diabetes and its complications. In this study the liver-protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Allium hirtifolium on liver enzymes level in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus was investigated.
METHODS
Thirty five male rats were randomly divided into five groups of seven; group 1: nondiabetic control, group 2: diabetic control, group 3: diabetic treated with shallot extract (0.1 g/kg), group 4: diabetic rats treated with shallot extract (1 g/kg), and group 5: diabetic treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg). Using intraperitoneal (IP) injection of alloxan monohydrate, diabetes mellitus was induced in rats. Diabetic rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period fasting blood samples were collected.
RESULTS
Statistical analysis of the data indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of shallot can significantly decrease serum contents of liver enzymes (ALP, AST, and ALT) in treated groups. In most cases, the effectiveness of the extract on reduction of these enzymes is more than glibenclamide.
CONCLUSION
Antioxidant compounds in the extract may recover liver damages caused by free radicals in diabetic rats.
PMCID: PMC3347804  PMID: 22577407
Diabetes; Allium hirtifolium; Shallot; Alloxan monohydrate; Liver; Rat

Results 1-3 (3)