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1.  Assessing the micronutrient and macronutrient intakes in female students and comparing them with the set standard values 
Background:
Healthy nutrition particularly the energy intake and the essential nutrients in female students is very important. This study aims to assess micro- and macronutrient intakes in female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study involved 100 female students aged between 18 and 25 years in 2008–2009. Anthropometrics measures were performed and two 24-hours food recalls were used to collect the dietary information and were analyzed using food processor 2 and compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) 2008.
Findings:
As many as 61.1% of subjects resided in dormitories; 12.7% were married. Prevalence of overweight or obesity and abdominal obesity in the subjects studied were 6.9% and 46.1%, respectively. The mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure was 105.2 ± 15.6 mmHg and the diastolic was 62.2 ± 10.4 mmHg. Totally, 3.9% of the subjects had hypertension. Food intake analysis indicated that B12, folate, magnesium, potassium, and calcium were below the recommended level, and vitamin C, E, pantothenic acid, B1, B3, phosphate, and zinc were above, and energy intake, macronutrient, vitamin A, pyridoxine, iron, and selenium were, in general, adequate.
Conclusion:
The findings of the study indicated that macronutrients intake was appropriate, but the problem mainly existed in the consumption of micronutrients. It is recommended to increase the intakes of important food groups such as dairy, vegetable, and fruit that are proper sources of micronutrients, and it is also suggested to improve strategies and the competence in this area of nutrition.
doi:10.4103/2277-9531.106636
PMCID: PMC3778563  PMID: 24083251
Macronutrient; micronutrient; nutrients; students; total energy
2.  Hypertension control in industrial employees: findings from SHIMSCO study 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;7(4):191-196.
BACKGROUND:
Hypertension prevention and control are among the most important public health priorities. We evaluated the impacts of a workplace intervention project “Stop Hypertension in Mobarakeh Steel Company” (SHIMSCO) on controlling hypertension in industrial workers.
METHODS:
The study was carried out in Mobarakeh Steel Company in Isfahan among 7286 male workers and employees. All individuals were evaluated for the presence of hypertension (HTN). According to examinations, 500 subjects with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg, and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, and/or those using antihypertensive medications were confirmed to have HTN and thus included in this study. They were questioned for sociodemographic characteristics, past medical history and medication use. They received an educational program including healthy lifestyle and self-care recommendations of HTN management and control as well as training for accurate blood pressure measurement and home monitoring for two years. SBP, DBP, weight, height and routine lab tests were measured for all hypertensive subjects before and after the interventions. Paired t-test, generalized estimation equation (GEE) and ordinary linear regression (OLR) were used for statistical analysis in SPSS.
RESULTS:
The comparison of SBP and DBP before and after the educational program showed significant reductions in both parameters (−7.97 ± 14.72 and −2.66 ± 9.96 mmHg, respectively). However, a greater decrease was detected in case of DBP. GEE showed SBP and DBP to decrease about −0.115 and −0.054 mmHg/month. OLR also revealed reductions of 4.88 and 2.57 mmHg respectively in SBP and DBP upon adding each antihypertensive drug.
CONCLUSION:
SHIMSCO, a 3-year interventional project in workplaces, was effective in reducing SBP and DBP among hypertensive employees and workers. We conclude that implementing simple educational programs in worksites can improve the management and control of hypertension and perhaps other chronic diseases.
PMCID: PMC3413089  PMID: 23205054
Hypertension; Worksite; Industrial; Blood Pressure; Control
3.  The Relationship between Weight and CVD Risk Factors in a Sample Population from Central Iran (Based on IHHP) 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(2):82-89 .
BACKGROUND
Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of mortality all around the world. Obesity is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this respect, we decided to examine the effect of the subgroups of weight on cardiovascular risk factors.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study was done in 2006 using the data obtained by the Iranian Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) and based on classification of obesity by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this study, the samples were tested based on the Framingham risk score, Metabolic Measuring Score (MMS) and classification of obesity. Chi-square and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS
12514 people with a mean age of 38 participated in this study. 6.8% of women and 14% of men had university degrees (higher than diploma). Obesity was seen in women more than men: 56.4% of women and 40% of men had a Body Mass Index of (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2. 13% of the subjects had FBS > 110 and13.9% of them were using hypertensive drugs. In this study, we found that all risk factors, except HDL cholesterol in men, increased with an increase in weight. This finding is also confirmed by the Framingham flowfigure for men and women.
CONCLUSION
One of every two Americans, of any age and sex, has a Body Mass Index of (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2. Obesity associated CVD and other serious diseases. Many studies have been done in different countries to find the relationship between obesity and CVD risk factors. For example, in the U.S.A and Canada they found that emteropiotic parameters, blood presser and lipids increased by age(of both sexes). Moreover, another study done in China, which is a country in Asia like Iran, shows that BMI has an indirect effect on HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride. This data is consistent with the results of the current study. However, In China they found that this relationship in men is stronger than women, but our study reveals the opposite.
PMCID: PMC3463990  PMID: 23056109
Body Mass Index (BMI); Overweight; Cardiovascular Risk Factors; Framingham Risk Score; Metabolic Syndrome
4.  Risk factors of atherosclerosis in male smokers, passive smokers, and hypertensive nonsmokers in central Iran 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(2):90-95.
BACKGROUND
Some studies showed that smoking follows an upward trend in Asian countries as compared with other countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with hypertension.
METHODS
This study was conducted on 6123 men residing in central Iran (Isfahan and Markazi Provinces) that participated in Isfahan Healthy Heart Project (IHHP). Subjects were randomly selected using cluster sampling method. All the subjects were studied in terms of their history of cardiovascular disease, demographic characteristics, smoking, blood pressure, physical examination, pulse rate, respiratory rate, weight, height, waist circumference, and blood measurements including LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood sugar and 2-hour post prandial test.
RESULTS
While 893 subjects suffered from hypertension, 5230 subjects were healthy. The hypertension prevalence was 2.5 times more in urban areas compared to rural areas that showed a significant difference as it increased to 3.5 times smoking factor was considered. The prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and also cardiovascular complications in patients with hypertension were significantly higher than healthy people. Furthermore, they were higher in smokers with hypertension and those exposed to the cigarette smoke than nonsmokers.
CONCLUSION
Smoking and passive smoking had an increasing effect on the prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and consequently the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypertension.
PMCID: PMC3463995  PMID: 23056110
Hypertension; Cigarette Smoking; Cardiovascular Disease; Risk Factor

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