Background. The purpose of this study was to answer the question whether a single testing for microalbuminuria results in a reliable conclusion leading costs saving. Methods. This current cross-sectional study included a total of 126 consecutive persons. Microalbuminuria was assessed by collection of two fasting random urine specimens on arrival to the clinic as well as one week later in the morning. Results. In overall, 17 out of 126 participants suffered from microalbuminuria that, among them, 12 subjects were also diagnosed as microalbuminuria once assessing this factor with a sensitivity of 70.6%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 100%, a NPV of 95.6%, and an accuracy of 96.0%. The measured sensitivity, specificity, PVV, NPV, and accuracy in hypertensive patients were 73.3%, 100%, 100%, 94.8%, and 95.5%, respectively. Also, these rates in nonhypertensive groups were 50.0%, 100%, 100%, 97.3%, and 97.4%, respectively. According to the ROC curve analysis, a single measurement of UACR had a high value for discriminating defected from normal renal function state (c = 0.989). Urinary albumin concentration in a single measurement had also high discriminative value for diagnosis of damaged kidney (c = 0.995). Conclusion. The single testing of both UACR and urine albumin level rather frequent testing leads to high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy as well as high predictive values in total population and also in hypertensive subgroups.
Background. There is a little published data regarding the association between salt intake and albuminuria as an important alarm for progression of cardiovascular and renal dysfunction. We aimed to assess this relationship to emphasize the major role of restricting salt intake to minimize albuminuria and prevent these life-threatening events. Methods. The study population comprised 820 individuals. Participants were assigned to groups as follows: normal albuminuria, slight albuminuria, and clinical albuminuria. Daily salt intake was assessed on the basis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, since urinary sodium excretion largely equals sodium intake. Results. In normotensive participants, the mean level of urine albumin was higher in those who had higher amounts of salt intake with a significantly upward trend (the mean urinary albumin level in low-salt-diet group, in medium-salt-intake group, and in high-salt-intake group was 42.70 ± 36.42, 46.89 ± 38.91, and 53.38 ± 48.23, resp., (P = 0.017)). There was a significant positive correlation between 24-hour urinary sodium secretion and the level of urine albumin (beta = 0.130, P < 0.001). The amount of salt intake was significantly associated with urine albumin concentration (beta = 3.969, SE = 1.671, P = 0.018). Conclusion. High salt intake was shown to be associated with higher level of microalbuminuria even adjusted for potential underlying risk factors.
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the main treatment for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We investigated factors affecting the major complications of this procedure.
This case-control study assessed 200 patients receiving primary PCI for STEMI. Effects of some factors including age, sex, coronary artery risk factors, left ventricular function, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow, and number of involved vessels on major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were studied.
Two thirds of patients were male but sex had no significant effect on MACE. Similarly, age, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia did not significantly affect the incidence of MACE. However, Killip class, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, TIMI flow, and type of involved vessels had significant relations with the incidence of MACE.
According to our findings, factors such as diabetes, left ventricular function, left anterior descending artery involvement, and low TIMI flow are risk factors of MACE.
Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction; Major Adverse Cardiac Events
C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the.
In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts correlated with the number of Mets components in the women.
The findings of this study suggest substantial implications for the prevention and management of the MetS and atherosclerotic diseases, as these involve the suppression of inflammatory conditions rather than the incitement of anti-inflammatory conditions.
C-reactive protein level; metabolic syndrome; white blood cell count
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It affects approximately 18.0% of Iranian adults. This study aimed to estimate age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension and its control among Iranian persons older 19 years of age. It also tried to find and socioeconomic factors associated with hypertension control in Iranian population.
In Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) subjects were selected by multistage random sampling. The participants completed questionnaires containing demographic information, lifestyle habits, medical history, and consumption of relevant medications, especially antihypertensive agents. Income, marital status, and educational level were considered as socioeconomic factors. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medications. Controlled hypertension was considered as systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg among hypertensive subjects.
The prevalence of hypertension and controlled hypertension was 18.9% and 20.9%, respectively. We found significant relationships between hypertension and marital status, education, and income. At age ≥ 65 years old, odds ratio (OR) was 19.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.01-24.28] for hypertension. Middle family income (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58-0.87) and education level of 6-12 years (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.25-0.35) were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension (P = 0.001). Among subjects aging 65 years old or higher, the OR of controlled hypertension was 2.64 (95% CI: 1.61-4.33). Married subjects had a higher OR for controlled hypertension (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.36-3.52). Obesity had no significant relationships with controlled hypertension.
The IHHP data showed significant relationships between some socioeconomic factors and controlled hypertension. Therefore, as current control rates for hypertension in Iran are clearly unacceptable, we recommend preventive measures to control hypertension in all social strata of the Iranian population.
Socioeconomic Factor; High Blood Pressure; Control
Pharmacological therapy is a crucial step in the management of individuals with the metabolic syndrome, when lifestyle modifications alone cannot achieve the therapeutic goals. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of comprehensive interventions with the pharmacological treatment in individuals with the metabolic syndrome.
Material and methods
A cross-sectional population-based survey examined a sample of adults before and after conducting a community trial. Physical examination and blood sampling, data regarding the demographic characteristics, medical status and history of medication use were obtained. Pharmacologic treatment related to metabolic syndrome's components was also determined.
The most common pharmacologic agents consumed by individuals with metabolic syndrome were β-blockers (26.1% and 30.4% in 2001 and 2007, respectively), followed by lipid-lowering agents (5.4% and 14% in 2001 and 2007, respectively), with significant differences before and after intervention. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women than in men both before (36.4% vs. 14%) and after the community trial (26.1% vs. 16%, respectively) in the intervention areas (p < 0.001).
We found a significant increase in medication use to control blood pressure and dyslipidemia among the individuals with the metabolic syndrome, notably in the intervention areas. In addition to the population approach, the high-risk approach should be considered in community trials for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.
metabolic syndrome; pharmacological treatment; community trial; Iran
This paper presents the complete report of the first Iranian Recommendations on Prevention, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure. The purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention, management and control of hypertension (HTN) by adapting the most internationally known and used guidelines to the local health care status with consideration of the currently available data and based on the locally conducted researches on HTN as well as social and health care requirements. A working group of national and international experts participated in discussions and collaborated in decision-making, writing and reviewing the whole report. Multiple subcommittees worked together to review the recent national and international literature on HTN in different areas. We used the evaluation tool that is called "AGREE" and considered a score of > 60% as a high score. We adapted the Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP), the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the US-based joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7). The key topics that are highlighted in this report include: The importance of ambulatory and self-measurement of blood pressure, evaluation of cardiovascular risk in HTN patients, the role of lifestyle modification in the prevention of HTN and its control with more emphasis on salt intake reduction and weight control, introducing pharmacotherapy suitable for uncomplicated HTN or specific situations and the available drugs in Iran, highlighting the importance of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers as the first line therapy in many situations, the non-use of beta blockers as the first time treatment except in specific conditions, treating HTN in women, children, obese and elderly patients, the patient compliance to improve HTN control, practical guidelines to improve the patient's information on knowing their risk and self-care as well as a quick reference guide that can serve as simplified guidelines for physicians. The working team decided to update these recommendations every two years.
High Blood Pressure; Prevention; Treatment; Control; Iran
Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of mortality all around the world. Obesity is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this respect, we decided to examine the effect of the subgroups of weight on cardiovascular risk factors.
This cross-sectional study was done in 2006 using the data obtained by the Iranian Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) and based on classification of obesity by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this study, the samples were tested based on the Framingham risk score, Metabolic Measuring Score (MMS) and classification of obesity. Chi-square and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis.
12514 people with a mean age of 38 participated in this study. 6.8% of women and 14% of men had university degrees (higher than diploma). Obesity was seen in women more than men: 56.4% of women and 40% of men had a Body Mass Index of (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2. 13% of the subjects had FBS > 110 and13.9% of them were using hypertensive drugs. In this study, we found that all risk factors, except HDL cholesterol in men, increased with an increase in weight. This finding is also confirmed by the Framingham flowfigure for men and women.
One of every two Americans, of any age and sex, has a Body Mass Index of (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2. Obesity associated CVD and other serious diseases. Many studies have been done in different countries to find the relationship between obesity and CVD risk factors. For example, in the U.S.A and Canada they found that emteropiotic parameters, blood presser and lipids increased by age(of both sexes). Moreover, another study done in China, which is a country in Asia like Iran, shows that BMI has an indirect effect on HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride. This data is consistent with the results of the current study. However, In China they found that this relationship in men is stronger than women, but our study reveals the opposite.
Body Mass Index (BMI); Overweight; Cardiovascular Risk Factors; Framingham Risk Score; Metabolic Syndrome
Some studies showed that smoking follows an upward trend in Asian countries as compared with other countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with hypertension.
This study was conducted on 6123 men residing in central Iran (Isfahan and Markazi Provinces) that participated in Isfahan Healthy Heart Project (IHHP). Subjects were randomly selected using cluster sampling method. All the subjects were studied in terms of their history of cardiovascular disease, demographic characteristics, smoking, blood pressure, physical examination, pulse rate, respiratory rate, weight, height, waist circumference, and blood measurements including LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood sugar and 2-hour post prandial test.
While 893 subjects suffered from hypertension, 5230 subjects were healthy. The hypertension prevalence was 2.5 times more in urban areas compared to rural areas that showed a significant difference as it increased to 3.5 times smoking factor was considered. The prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and also cardiovascular complications in patients with hypertension were significantly higher than healthy people. Furthermore, they were higher in smokers with hypertension and those exposed to the cigarette smoke than nonsmokers.
Smoking and passive smoking had an increasing effect on the prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and consequently the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypertension.
Hypertension; Cigarette Smoking; Cardiovascular Disease; Risk Factor
Numerous studies have now demonstrated that heart failure with a normal ejection fraction (HFnlEF) is common. Hypertension is also the most commonly associated cardiac condition in patients with HFnlEF. Despite the observed link between microalbuminuria, obesity, and cardiovascular disorders, this question has remained – ‘Which is more important for the prediction and prevention of diastolic dysfunction in non-diabetic hypertensive patients?’
The current study was a cross-section study conducted on a total of 126 non-diabetic hypertensive patients screened to identify those with hypertension. Urine creatinine was measured by the picric acid method and urine albumin content was measured by a sensitive, nephelometric technique. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) was determined as an indicator of microalbuminuria. Complete two-dimensional, doppler, and tissue-doppler echocardiography was performed and the recording of the diastolic function parameters was carried out.
High body mass index and high systolic blood pressure were positively correlated with the appearance of left ventricular hypertrophy, whereas, the UACR index had no significant relationship with hypertrophy. Multivariable analysis also showed that advanced age and systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with the E/E annulus parameter.
According to our investigation obesity is more important than microalbuminuria for the prediction and prevention of diastolic dysfunction in non-diabetic hypertensive patients.
Hypertension; microalbuminuria; heart failure; obesity
Data on the effect of lifestyle intervention programs on salt intake and blood pressure in developing countries are scarce. This study aimed to assess the impact of a healthy lifestyle community-based trial on salt intake and blood pressure among a representative sample of normotensive Iranian adults.
Materials and Methods:
We compared the data for salt intake, urinary sodium levels and blood pressure from three cross-sectional surveys in time points of 1999, 2001-2002 (beginning of the community interventions), and 2007 (after the community trial) for normotensive adult population of Isfahan, Iran in the framework of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Using multi-stage cluster sampling method, one of the family members at each household was randomly selected with Iranian adult population as a target. Dietary salt intake was estimated based on 24 hour urinary sodium levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured according to standard methods.
Dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased during the 9-year study period. Unlike systolic and diastolic blood pressures that had a consistent decrement between 1999 and 2007, dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels were slightly raised from 1999 to 2000-2001 and then reduced between 2001-2 and 2007 evaluations. The same findings were reached when data were analyzed separately by gender or weight status.
A lifestyle community trial was effective in controlling the escalating trend of blood pressure and salt intake in Iranian population. It can be considered as a model to be adopted in other developing countries.
Blood Pressure; Salt; Adult; Urine; Lifestyle
Early diagnosis of left ventricular mass (LVM) inappropriateness and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) can result in preventing diastolic left ventricular dysfunction and its related morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to determine if diastolic dysfunction is associated with LVH and inappropriate LVM.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and twenty five uncomplicated hypertension from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program underwent two-dimensional echocardiography. Inappropriate LVM was defined as an LVM index greater than 88 g/m2 of body-surface area in women and greater than 102 g/m2 in men. LVH-defined septal and posterior wall thickness greater than 0/9 cm in women and greater than 1 cm in men, respectively. Echocardiographic parameters, including early diastolic peak velocity (E)/late diastolic peak velocity (A), deceleration time (DT), and E/early mitral annulus velocity (E′) were measured.
The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the patients’ admission day were 142.87 ± 18.12 and 88.45 ± 9.18 mmHg, respectively. Totally, 21.7% of subjects had inappropriate LV mass that moderate and severe abnormal LV mass was revealed in 5.6% and 5.6%, respectively. The mean of age and BMI was significantly higher in patients with moderate left ventricular hypertrophy (P < 0.05). Adjusted by age, gender, BMI, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, both E/A ratio and deceleration time were higher in those with the severer ventricular hypertrophy. Subjects with severe showed significantly higher BMI 33. 7 ± 3.7 (P < 0.001). There was a slight difference between the grade of diastolic dysfunction and the severity of inappropriate LV mass (P = 0.065). But no significant difference was found between E/A, E/E′, and deceleration time and the level of inappropriate LV mass (P > 0.05). Spearman's Rank test was used to test the correlation between diastolic dysfunction and LV mass (P = 0.025).
LVH is correlated with the severity of diastolic dysfunction manifested by the E/A value and deceleration time, but inappropriate LVM can slightly predict diastolic dysfunction severity in uncomplicated hypertension.
Echocardiographic; left ventricular mass; left ventricular hypertrophy; Diastolic dysfunction
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder with neurodegenerative aspects, is more common among young adults, particularly women.
This molecular study was designed to investigate the IL-7R α chain gene in Iranian MS patients. We studied 60 MS patients, diagnosed based on 2005 R-McDonald criteria and 60 apparently healthy individuals as the control group. DNA was extracted from whole blood cells using MBST/IRAN Extraction kit and all samples were screened for possible sequence variation in three regions including promoter, exon 2 and exon 4 with single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP).
The alterations were confirmed with direct sequencing by ABI 3730XL. Although no mutation was detected in the studied regions, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) consisting of rs71617734 in promoter; rs35967524, rs11567704, rs1494558, rs11567705 and rs969128 in exon 2 as well as rs1494555 and rs2228141 in exon 4 were observed. The rs1494558 in exon 2 and rs1494555 in exon 4 were missense variations. Our results also showed the substitution of isoleucine with threonine in rs1494558 (P.I66T) with this accession number, FR863587 submitted in EMBL bank. The study of exon4 areas revealed two SNPs and two sequence variations, where [p.V138I] Valine substituted with isoleucine (FR863588), as well as a silent nucleotide substitution [P. H165H] in the absence of amino acid alteration. The analysis of the SNP genotype in the controls and the patients, using χ2 showed no significant association with multiple sclerosis in this group.
Our study demonstrated the effects of some SNPs on the IL-7R α protein in MS. Further studies are required to reveal the effects of these SNPs on the IL-7R α protein in multiple sclerosis.
IL-7R α; Polymorphism; SNPs; SSCP; Sequencing; Multiple Sclerosis
The polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) gene are major prognostic factors for the response to clopidogrel therapy in patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD). The CYP2C19*2 is the most important allele responsible for resistance to clopidogrel therapy. This study examined CYP2C19 gene polymorphism (CYP2C19*1 and *2) in Iranian patients.
This cross-sectional study was performed on 43 Iranian patients with CAD who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and received drug-eluted stents (DES). CYP2C19 polymorphisms were assessed using real time PCR and frequency of CYP2C19*1 and CYP2C19*2 were determined, and then homo- or heterozygous state of genes was detected by Melt Curve Analysis method.
Forty three patients (mean age = 58.8 ± 10.0 years, 79.1% male) participated in this study. CYP2C19*1/CYP2C19*1 genotype was observed in 31 (72.1%) of participates, CYP2C19*1/CYP2C19*2 genotype in 10 (23.3%), and CYP2C19*2/CYP2C19*2 genotype in 2 patients (4.7%). The frequency of CYP2C19*2 allele in the sample was 27.9%.
This study demonstrated a high prevalence of CYP2C19*2 gene polymorphism in Iranian patients. Further studies with larger samples or longitudinal are required to determine the effects of this polymorphism on the prognosis of CAD patients in our population.
CYP2C19; Polymorphism; Clopidogrel; Coronary Artery Disease; Iran
Lipid disorders, lipoproteins, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension are the known risk factors for coronary artery diseases; however, their role is unknown in restenosis after coronary stenting. This study aimed to review the role of these factors, particularly lipoprotein (a) or Lp (a), as a predictive factor for restenosis after coronary stenting with Bare Metal Stent.
In this study, coronary artery stenting was performed on 170 patients. Follow-up was done using coronary angiography in 128 patients, 6 months after conducting angioplasty. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of the patients were collected as prospective method and were compared between the patients with and without restenosis.
Restenosis was seen in 46 patients (35.9%). Fasting blood glucose level (FBG) in patients with restenosis was significantly higher than patients without restenosis (102.3 ± 39 mg/dl vs. 84.5 ± 28.9 [OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.04]). Lp (a) levels (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.26-1.10) and other biochemical markers and clinical variables had no correlation with restenosis.
Lipoproteins and lipids may not be the underlying cause of restenosis but accurate control of diabetes may improve prognosis after elective coronary stenting.
Stent; Restenosis; Lipoprotein (a); Lipid; Diabetes
To investigate the association between Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Health related quality of life (QoL) in Iranian population.
We used data from the post-intervention phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a community trial for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and control. We recruited 9570 healthy adults, aged ≥ 19 years who were randomly selected using multistage random sampling method. World Health Organization QoL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) which contains 26 items was used to assess QoL. It assesses four domains of QoL; Physical health, Psychological health, Social relationship and Environmental issues. MetS was defined based on ATP III criteria.
The mean age of participants was 38.8±15.6 years (mean ± SD) and the prevalence of MetS was 22.5%. From all participant 18.2% were illiterate and 13.2% had university educational level. Two way multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) test after adjusting age showed significant difference between women with and without Mets in regard to physical health and social relations domains, while none of QoL domains was different in men with Mets in comparison to men without it.
After adjusting the role of socio-demographic factors as components of QoL score, no association was observed between QoL domains and MetS in men, while only social relations and physical health scores were higher in women with Mets compared to those without Mets. Other variety of health-related QoL assessment tools or definitions of MetS may show different relationship in the Iranian socio-cultural context.
Metabolic syndrome; Quality of life; General population
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity and overweight on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) control in a healthy lifestyle intervention program in Iran.
Within the framework of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a community trial that was conducted to prevent and control cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, two intervention counties (Isfahan and Najafabad) and one reference county (Arak) were selected. Demographic information, medical history, anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive medications use were asked by trained interviewers in addition to physical examination and laboratory tests for 12514 adults aged more than 19 years in 2001 and were repeated for 9572 adults in 2007.
In women, the frequency of HTN control change significantly neither in normal weight nor in those with high body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist to hip ratio (WHR). In men, the frequency of HTN control was only significant among those with high WHR, whereas the interaction between changes in intervention compared to reference area from 2001 to 2007 was significant in men with normal or high WC or WHR. In intervention area, the number of women with high BMI who controlled their DM increased significantly from 2001 to 2007 (p = 0.008), however, this figure decreased in men. In reference area, obesity indices had no significant association with DM control. The percentage of diabetic subjects with high WC who controlled their DM decreased non-significantly in intervention area compared to reference area in 2007. A non-significant increase in controlled DM among men and women with high WHR was observed between intervention and reference areas.
Our lifestyle interventions did not show any improving effect on HTN or DM control among obese subjects based on different obesity indices. Other lifestyle intervention strategies are suggested.
Hypertension; Diabetes; Obesity; Control; Prevention; Iran
There is a lack of data in our society on the outcomes, complications, and prognostic factors in patients with coronary artery disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluated the success rate, early and late outcomes, and prognostic factors in a referral university center in Isfahan, IRAN.
This prospective cohort study was conducted in Chamran University Hospital in Isfahan (IRAN) from March 2010 to February 2011. Patients consequently were included if they have the indication for emergent or elective PCI. Outcomes included procedural success, complications, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) during hospitalization and 6 months follow-up.
A total of 282 patients (74.1% females) with mean age of 57.0±3.2 years were studied. Most of the patients (89.7%) underwent elective PCI. Angiographic and procedure success rates were 95.7% and 94.6%, respectively. In-hospital MACE included two cases of death (0.7%) and one MI (0.3%); 2/29 (6.9%) of the emergent PCI and 1/253 (0.4%) of the elective PCI cases. MACE during follow-up included three cases of death (1.0%) and two MI (0.7%); 2/252 (0.8%) of the elective PCI and 1/28 (3.5%) of the emergent PCI cases. The overall MACE was calculated as 8 cases (2.8%) which included 5/29 (17.2%) of the emergent and 3/253 (1.1%) of the elective cases; P<0.001. In multivariate analysis, none of the factors including gender, age, emergency of the procedure, lesion type, number of stenotic vessels, or stent type were associated with total MACE (P>0.05).
PCI is performed with an acceptable success rate in our center in Isfahan and mortality and complications are within the range reported by other highly specialized centers in IRAN. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to find predictive factors.
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Myocardial Infarction; Acute Coronary Syndrome; Reperfusion Therapy; Outcome; Mortality
We aimed to evaluate the changes over time in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in intervention and reference areas of a comprehensive community trial with reference area.
Data from independent sample surveys before and after implementation of the program (2001 vs.2007) were used to compare differences in the intervention and references areas over time. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg in non-diabetic patients and ≥130/80 mmHg in diabetic individuals and or taking antihypertensive medications. Interventional activities included educational strategies at population level as well as for hypertensive patients, their families and health professionals.
The study population of the baseline survey included 6175 (48.7% males) in the interventional area and 6339 (51.3% male) in the reference area. The corresponding figures in the post-intervention phase was 4717 (49.3% male) in the interventional area and 4853 (50.7% male) individuals in the reference area. The prevalence of hypertension had a non-significant decrease from 20.5%to 19.6%, in the interventional area whereas in the reference area, it increased from 17.4% to 19.6% (P = 0.003). If we consider Bp ≥ 140/90 in diabetic and non-diabetic patients as hypertension definition, the prevalence of hypertension in the interventional areas had a non-significant decrease from 18.9% in 2001 to 17.8% in 2007, whereas in the reference area, it had a significant rise from 15.7% to 17.9% (P = 0.002) respectively. Awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension had better improvement in urban and rural part of the interventional area compared to reference area. The awareness, treatment, and control rates of hypertension increased significantly in the age groups of more than 40 years, as well as in all groups of body mass index in interventional areas without significant change in the reference area. Mean systolic blood pressure of study population in the interventional area decreased from 116.13 ±19.37 to 112.92 ± 18.27 mmHg (P < 0.001) without significant change in reference area.
This comprehensive and integrated program of interventions was effective in tackling with the prevalence of hypertension, and may improve the awareness, treatment and control rates of this disorder in a developing country setting.
This study investigated the gender differences in association of some behavioural and socioeconomic factors with obesity indices in a population-based sample of 12,514 Iranian adults. The mean body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were significantly higher in women than in men. Current and passive smoking had an inverse association with BMI among males whereas current smoking, transportation by a private car, and longer duration of watching television (TV) had a positive association with BMI among females. Current and passive smoking, cycling, and Global Dietary Index (GDI) had an inverse association with WC among males. Higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, current and passive smoking, duration of daily sleep, and GDI had an inverse association with WC among females. Using a private car for transportation had a significant positive association with WHR among both males and females. Living in an urban area, being married, and having a higher education level increased the odds ratio of obesity among both the genders. Non-manual work also increased this risk among males whereas watching TV and current smoking increased this risk among females. Such gender differences should be considered for culturally-appropriate interventional strategies to be implemented at the population level for tackling obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk factors.
Cardiovascular diseases; Cross-sectional studies; Lifestyle; Obesity; Risk factors; Socioeconomic factors; Iran
During the last 3 decades, there were increasing tendency towards angioplasty because of its benefits. But, this procedure has its acute problems like bleeding and formation of hematoma in the removal place of the sheet. Based on researchers’ clinical experiences, patients need a time of 8-12 hours for bed rest after coronary angioplasty. Recognizing desirable time for bed rest after angioplasty and remove the arterial sheet forms the foundation of related researches in the world. Getting out of bed soon after angioplasty, causes more comfortable feelings, less hospitalization period, fewer side effects of prolonged bed rest and less hospitalization expenses. Regarding less time for bed rest after angioplasty, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the time of getting out of bed after angioplasty on the complications after removing the sheet in coronary angioplasty patients.
This was an experimental clinical study conducted in one step and two groups. Samples were included 124 angioplasty patients (62 in each group) who were chosen randomly from the CCU of Shahid Chamran hospital of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2007. Data were gathered by observing and evaluating the patients, using a questionnaire and a checklist. After angioplasty, patients from the intervention group were taken out of bed in 4 hours and patients from the control group were taken out of bed in 8 hours. After taking out of bed, patients were examined for bleeding and formation of hematoma in the place of taking out the arterial sheet. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics via SPSS software.
Results showed no meaningful difference between the two groups after getting out of bed (p > 0.05) regarding relative frequency of bleeding (p = 0.50), formation of hematoma (p = 0.34) and average diameter of hematoma (p = 0.39).
Results of this study showed that reducing the bed rest time to 4 hours after removing the arterial sheet of size 7 do not increase bleeding and formation of hematoma in the removal place of the sheet. So, those angioplasty patients who do not have critical clinical condition and their vital symptoms are stabilized will be able to get out of bed 4 hours after removing the sheet.
Angioplasty; getting out of bed; removing the sheet; femoral arterial sheet; rest in bed