PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (30)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
1.  Stem Cell Therapy in Stroke: A Review Literature 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S139-S146.
Stroke is an important cause of death in the world and disability world-wide especially in developed countries. Following acute phase of stroke, some procedures and medical treatment such as thrombolytic agents has been recommended; nevertheless many patients have enduring deficits. Thus, there is a realistic need to develop treatment strategies for reducing neurological deficits. However, the stem cell (SC) therapy could arrange an alternative intervention for disease modifying therapy. In this article, we present a brief review of different methods of SC therapy in stroke patients and discuss the results with different cell types and routes of administration.
PMCID: PMC3678210  PMID: 23776716
Clinical; stem cell; stroke; treatment; trials
2.  A Literature Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin: An Injection in Post-Stroke Spasticity 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S147-S158.
Background:
A variety of techniques for the management of spasticity have been suggested, including positioning, cryotherapy, splinting and casting, biofeedback, electrical stimulation, and medical management by pharmacological agents, Botulinum toxin A (BTA) is now the pharmacological treatment of choice in focal spasticity. BTA by blocking acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions accounts for its therapeutic action to relieve spasticity.
Methods:
A computerized search of Pub Med was carried out to find the latest result about efficacy of BTA in management of post stroke spasticity.
Result:
Among 84 articles were found, frothy of them included in this review and divided to lower and upper extremity.
Conclusions:
BTA is a treatment choice in reducing tone and managing post stroke spasticity .
PMCID: PMC3678211  PMID: 23776717
Botulinum toxin A; spasticity; stroke
3.  Stroke and Nutrition: A Review of Studies 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S165-S179.
Background:
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and certainly the major cause of disability in the world. Diet and nutrient has an effective role in prevention and control of the risk of stroke. The aim of this study was to review the studies on the relationship between dietary intake and stroke incidence.
Methods:
In this study, the terms of “Fat”, “cholesterol”, “antioxidant”, “vitamins”, “salt”, “potassium”, “calcium”, “carbohydrate”, “vegetables”, “fruits”, “meat”, “tea”, “whole grains”, “sugar-sweetened beverages”, “Mediterranean diet”, “dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet (DASH diet)”, “Western diet”, and “stroke” were searched in Pubmed search engine. The observational studies, cohort studies, clinical trial studies, systemic review, and meta-analysis reviews are also included in this study.
Results:
The study revealed that adherence to theimprovements in nutrition and diet canreducethe incidence ofstroke. Higher antioxidant, vitamins, potassium, calcium, vegetables, fruits, whole grain intake, and adherence to the Mediterranean dietor DASH diet can lower stroke incidence.
Conclusions:
Adherence to Mediterranean diet or DASH diet and increasing the consumption of antioxidant, vitamins, potassium, calcium food sources, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains intake can lower the risk of stroke. Healthy diet is effective in reducing risk of stroke, however, more studies need to be carried out in this area.
PMCID: PMC3678213  PMID: 23776719
Diet; nutrition; stroke
4.  The Effect of Pioglitazone on the Alzheimer's Disease-Induced Apoptosis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S205-S210.
Background:
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and nowadays the role of endothelial cell (EC) injury has been proposed in pathological process in AD. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist has anti-inflammatory properties through activation in glial cells and improves vascular function and prevent atherosclerotic disease progression. The aim of this study is evaluation of pioglitazone effects as a drug of PPAR-γ agonist on endothelial apoptosis induced by sera from AD patients.
Methods:
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with sera from AD patients (n = 10) and sera from controls (n = 10). Apoptosis was identified by annexin V-propidium iodide staining and cell death detection kit. Apoptosis was evaluated after and before adding of 10 μM pioglitazone on EC. Nitrite (NO2-) levels were determined in the culture supernatants.
Results:
Induced apoptosis by the serum of patients was inhibited markedly when pioglitazone used before treating HUVECs with the sera of AD. Also, the measurement of nitrite concentration showed significantly greater levels of dissolved NO2/NO3 metabolite in the culture media of HUVECs treated by sera of AD patients (P < 0.05), while the rate of nitric oxide significantly decreased when pioglitazone exists in culture media.
Conclusion:
Further studies are justified to investigate the novel role of the PPARs in the prevention of the neuronal and endothelial damage in neurological disorder and present a new therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's patients.
PMCID: PMC3678219  PMID: 23776725
Alzheimer's disease; apoptosis; endothelial cell
5.  Effectiveness of Attribution Retraining on Women's Depression and Anxiety After Miscarriage 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S239-S244.
Background:
Given miscarriage psychological consequences on the women health, the aim of the present study is the survey of effectiveness rate of attributive retraining interventions on women depression and anxiety reducing after miscarriage.
Methods:
The present study is semi-empiric and it's made using control group, pre- and post-test execution and follow-up. Thirty-two women, who had recent experience of miscarriage, were selected among female referents to obstetricians and clinics in Esfahan city by accessible sampling and then they were placed on two groups, case and control, randomly. Case group participated in 6 weekly sessions for attributive retraining interventions and both groups completed hospital depression and anxiety questionnaire on three steps: Pre-test, post-test, and follow-up. Collected data were analyzed statistically, using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and variance by repeated measuring.
Results:
Obtained results show that average post-test and follow-up scores of depression and anxiety in case group is less than average post-test scores in control group, significantly (P < 0.0005).
Conclusions:
The findings of this research, “Attributive Retraining Effectiveness on Women's Depression and Anxiety Reducing after Miscarriage,” were confirmed.
PMCID: PMC3678225  PMID: 23776731
Anxiety; attributive retraining; depression; miscarriage
6.  Prediction and Control of Stroke by Data Mining 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S245-S249.
Background:
Today there are abounding collected data in cases of various diseases in medical sciences. Physicians can access new findings about diseases and procedures in dealing with them by probing these data. This study was performed to predict stroke incidence.
Methods:
This study was carried out in Esfahan Al-Zahra and Mashhad Ghaem hospitals during 2010-2011. Information on 807 healthy and sick subjects was collected using a standard checklist that contains 50 risk factors for stroke such as history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking and alcohol consumption. For analyzing data we used data mining techniques, K-nearest neighbor and C4.5 decision tree using WEKA.
Results:
The accuracy of the C4.5 decision tree algorithm and K-nearest neighbor in predicting stroke was 95.42% and 94.18%, respectively.
Conclusions:
The two algorithms, C4.5 decision tree algorithm and K-nearest neighbor, can be used in order to predict stroke in high risk groups.
PMCID: PMC3678226  PMID: 23776732
Data mining; decision tree; K-nearest neighbor; prediction; stroke
7.  Evaluation of Intima Media Thickness of Carotid Arteries in 40-60 Years Old Persons with Type D Personality and its Comparison with Normal Ones 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S250-S255.
Background:
In some studies, the involvement of dangerous psychological and behavioral factors in etiology and physiotherapy of vascular disturbances have been shown. In other studies, the relationship between the personality type and increase in cardiovascular disease has been demonstrated. The type D personality is defined as having two characteristics of negative affect and social inhibition. It is thought that individuals with type D personality are at increased risk of carotid artery intima-media thickening which predisposes them to vascular disease that is one of the most important factors for the stroke. In this study, we try to determine whether type D personality is a contributing factor to an increase in the intima-media of the carotid artery. This study was done in 2012 in the teaching hospital of Alzahra in Isfahan Iran.
Methods:
This is a case/control study which is done at Alzahra hospital in Isfahan in 2011-12. The statistical population in this study is composed of individuals who do not have any risk factors for stroke and are randomly selected among the hospital staff or the patient's family members who accompanied the patient at the hospital. They filled out a questioner that would assist in detecting type D personality. A carotid Doppler ultrasound that measures the intima-media thickness in the selected individuals was performed. The information obtained from the study was evaluated by Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) software and the intima-media thicknesses were compared in two groups of patients.
Results:
The average thickness of intima media in two groups, consist of placebo and patients, was 0.739 ± 0.12 and 0.759 ± 0.14 millimeter, respectively. There was no meaningful difference between the two groups based on t-test values (P = 0.19). It is important to note that based on the results, 22.9% of placebos and 48.6% of individuals with type D personality presented with abnormal thickness. The difference between the two groups were meaningful based on Chi-Squared test (P = 0.001).
Conclusions:
We conclude that type D personality increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases specially the stroke and myocardial infarction due to the higher prevalence of hormonal imbalances leading to arterial vasospasm and atherosclerotic disease. As a result, it is necessary to evaluate and treat these patients due to increased risk of atherosclerotic diseases, stoke, and myocardial infarction.
PMCID: PMC3678227  PMID: 23776733
Cardiovascular events; carotid artery; intima media thickening; stroke; type D personality
8.  The Effect of Interpersonal Psychotherapy on Marriage Adaptive and Postpartum Depression in Isfahan 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S256-S261.
Background:
Regarding high prevalence and injurious consequences of postpartum depression, the aim of the present work is the study of the effect rate of interpersonal psychotherapy on marriage adaptive and postpartum in women.
Method:
The present study is semi-empiric, and included control group and pre- and post-test groups. Thirty-two women suffering from postpartum depression were selected from among female referents to counseling centers and clinics in Esfahan city by purposive sampling and were placed in two groups (control and test) randomly case group participated in a 10-weeks marriage interpersonal psychotherapy meetings. Beck II depression questionnaire and marriage adaptive scale were completed by two groups at pre-test and post-test steps. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS software and multivariable covariance analysis.
Results:
The scores of average of depression and marriage adaptive post-test in test group was significantly less than that in the control group (P < 0.0005).
Conclusions:
The findings of this research confirm marriage interpersonal psychotherapy on the depression recovery and the increasing marriage satisfaction of women suffering from postpartum depression.
PMCID: PMC3678228  PMID: 23776734
Depression; marriage adaptive; postpartum
9.  B Vitamins and Antioxidants Intake is Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S284-S289.
Background:
Stroke is a leading cause of death in developed countries. However, current therapeutic strategies for stroke have been largely unsuccessful. Several studies have reported important benefits on reducing the risk of stroke and improving the post-stroke-associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in micronutrients, including B vitamins. Folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 are all cofactors in homocysteine metabolism. Growing interest has been paid to hyperhomocyste inemia as a risk factor for stroke. Experimental studies suggest that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury, and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower risk of stroke in large population studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether the dietary intake of B vitamins and antioxidants in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke.
Methods:
In this case control study, 69 stroke patients (46 male, age = 56 ± 18 years and 23 female, age = 52 ± 7 years) admitted to Azzahra hospital between April 2009 and May 2010 were matched for age and sex with 60 patients (30 male and 30 female) from the same hospital who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). FFQ was collected conducting face-to-face interview with one of the patients’ close relatives. Food intakes, translated into nutrient data, were compared between the two groups and with the recommended values.
Results:
Intake of folic acid in men with stroke and vitamin B12 in women with stroke was significantly lower than that in the patients without stroke (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the two groups in the level of antioxidant consumption in women and men (P > 0.05).
Conclusions:
Our findings suggest that increased folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin E, C intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke.
PMCID: PMC3678233  PMID: 23776739
Dietary quality; folic acid; stroke; vitamin B6; vitamin B12
10.  Dietary Intake of Different Carbohydrates Among Incident Stroke Patients During Previous Year 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S290-S293.
Background:
Stroke is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that dietary carbohydrates play an important role in stroke incident. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the association between dietary intake of carbohydrate and its types and stroke incidence among Iranian adults.
Methods:
A case-control study was performed among 46 men (5618) and 23 women (527) admitted to the Al Zahra hospital with stroke and 60 healthy people were chosen in control group. Dietary intake was measured by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) including 168 items. Food processor software (version 2) was used to analyze data.
Results:
Anthropometric indices of male and female patients were (BMI: 297.5), (Waist: 11215) and (BMI: 25.53.5), (Waist: 925) respectively. Energy intake and carbohydrate consumption of patients in both genders was higher than the healthy subjects which was statistically significant among men (P < 0.05). Across different carbohydrate sources, refined carbohydrates consumption was higher among patients in both gender rather than the healthy subjects While, the healthy people had a higher whole grain consumption.
Conclusions:
High carbohydrate intake specially refined sources with high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is associated with increased risk of stroke. Hence, dietary intake requires improvement to provide protection from life threatening outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3678234  PMID: 23776740
Carbohydrate; glycemic index; stroke
11.  Dairy Consumption and Stroke Risk 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S294-S299.
Background:
Stroke is one of the most common causes of life-threatening disabilities and death around the world. Mortality rate is going to be doubled by 2030 in the Middle East countries. Prevention is a cost-effective approach to decrease risk of stroke. The present study assessed the relationship between dairy intake and stroke risk.
Methods:
This hospital-based case-control study was directed in a University hospital. The common food consumption of 129 men and women was assessed with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The relationship between fermented and non-fermented dairy intake and stroke were assessed between two patient groups.
Results:
Total of dairy intake were lower in patients with stroke than control group (13.36 vs 19.61% in men and 11.14 vs 15.02% in women). Similar relationships were observed betweenfermented and non-fermented dairy intake and stroke in both genders.
Conclusions:
Lower dairyconsumption can increase stroke risk in men and women.
PMCID: PMC3678235  PMID: 23776741
Dairy; milk; stroke
12.  Intakes of Vegetables and Fruits are Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S300-S305.
Background:
Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia as a stroke risk factor.Studies suggest that oxidative stress plays important roles in pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower stroke risk. The aim of this study was to examine if the dietary intake of vegetables and fruits in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke.
Methods:
In this case control study, 93 stroke patients admitted to Alzahra hospital were matched for age and sex with 60 patients who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.Food intakes were compared between two groups and with recommended value.
Results:
Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits was more in male with stroke than male without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was higher in male with stroke.Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits were lower in women with stroke than women without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was lower in women with stroke
Conclusions:
Our findings suggest that increased vegetable and fruits intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke
PMCID: PMC3678236  PMID: 23776742
Dietary quality; fruit; stroke; vegetable
13.  Neuroprotective Effects of Erythropoietin in Acute Ischemic Stroke 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S306-S312.
Background:
Ischemic brain strokes consisttwo-thirdsof strokesand their complications bear a lot of disability for patient and society. In this study, we seek for effect of Erythropoietin on ischemic brain stroke's outcomes according to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) changes.
Methods:
This study is a RCT (randomized clinical trial). All patients with focal neurologic deficit with primary suspicion of brain stroke undergone neuroimaging evaluations. After confirmation of new ischemic brain stroke, the patients with inclusion criteria’srandomized into two groups of cases and controls.
NIHSS was defined for each patient and all patients received a routine treatment protocol. Erythropoietin 16,000 IU as a bolus intravenous dose was given to case patients as soon as neuroimaging study confirmed new ischemic stroke and continued as 8000 IU each 12 h up to total dose of 56,000 IU during 3 days. Patients re-evaluated at days 14 and 28 and NIHSS was assessed by another neurologist blinded to patient's group. Finally, NIHSS changes of both groups compared with each other's.
Results:
Evaluations revealed that in days14 and 28 during follow-up, Erythropoietin was effective in NIHSS (P= 0.0001). This effect was of value in level of consciousness Commands (P= 0.024), facial palsy (P= 0.003), motor arm (P= 0.0001), motor leg (P= 0.0001), sensory (P= 0.009), and best language (P= 0.023).
Conclusions:
Administration of high-dose erythropoietin in first 24 h can be effective on reduction of ischemic stroke complication. A larger scale clinical trial is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3678237  PMID: 23776743
Erythropoietin; national institutes of health stroke scale; neuroprotection; stroke
14.  The Association Between Serum Vitamin D Levels with General and Abdominal Obesity Among Patients with Migraine 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S313-S317.
Background:
Obesity is a common health problem around the world. Studies have shown inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels with obesity among patients and healthy population. The aim of this present study is to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels with general and abdominal obesity among migraine patients.
Methods:
The present study is a cross-sectional and 66 migraine patients aged 19-61 years were included for analysis. Partial correlation was performed to assess association between serum 25-OH-D with general and abdominal obesity. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, and education.
Results:
No relationship was found between serum levels of vitamin D with general and abdominal obesity. However, a significant association was shown between waist circumferences (WC) with body mass index (BMI).
Conclusions:
Serum levels of 25-OH-D were not associated with WC and BMI. Furthermore, after adjustment for confounder variables, no association was observed.
PMCID: PMC3678238  PMID: 23776744
Association; migraine; obesity; vitamin D
15.  Investigating the Anxiety Level in Iranian Medical Residents in 2010-2011 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S318-S322.
Background:
University entrance is accompanied by major changes in social relationship, rules, and expectations that lead to psychological disorders in susceptible students. The goal of this research is to study the anxiety rate in Iranian medical residents in 2010-2011.
Methods:
This study is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. It contains 370 medical residents from the 1st year to the 4th year of medical universities in Isfahan, Gilan, Zahedan, Sanandaj, and Kashan. The stratified sampling method proportionate to volume of participants is used in this study. The information is collected based on researchers’ questioners and Zung self-rating anxiety scale and analyzed with the use of spss software version 16, addition to descriptive and analytic tests (Pearson, one-way analysis of variance, t-test). Meaningful level is regarded as P ≤ 0.05.
Results:
The study showed that more than 92% of residents participated in the study did not demonstrate anxiety. Among 370 subjects 5.5% presented with mild symptoms of anxiety and no one had symptom of severe anxiety. A meaningful statistical relationship was observed between anxiety and sex, major of study and the city of study (P < 0.05). The results showed a positive meaningful relationship between the number of visits and the score of anxiety. On average the number of night floats were two in 1 week and the number of patient visit was 19 in the past 24 h. A meaningful statistical relationship between anxiety score and number of patient visits was observed.
Conclusions:
The anxiety rate in medical students in this study compared to the findings of previous studies reveled very low anxiety in medical residents. The low rate of anxiety could be attributed to the sense of job security and the hope for a better future among residents. The high percentage of anxiolytics abuse and absence of anxiety producing factors among residents in addition to inaccurate response to the questionnaire may all contribute to the low rate of anxiety in this study.
PMCID: PMC3678239  PMID: 23776745
Anxiety; medical residents; depression
16.  Application and Preventive Maintenance of Neurology Medical Equipment in Isfahan Alzahra Hospital 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S323-S329.
Background:
Nowadays Medical equipment plays an important role in the treatment and in the medical education. Using outdated preventive maintenance (PM) system may cause problems in the cutting edge medical equipment, Nervous system disease's equipment (In diagnosis and treatment) which are crucial for every medical center. Based on above facts we focused on nervous system treat units’ equipment and informed the supervisors and their colleagues about the latest equipment maintenance status and promoted methodical and correct method to be used for medical equipment maintenance.
Methods:
This research is an analytical descriptive and has been done on the base information from a particular time to past. We gathered our required information of 2009 from Alzahra Medical Center. We divided this research info 2 main phases. In the first phase, we picked out Neurosurgery and Neourology diseases medical equipment (diagnosis and therapy equipment) and in the second phase, we need to implement a methodical PM for every equipment.
Results:
Research has shown that there are 19nervous system equipment in Alzahra Medical center, categorized in diagnostic (13 pcs), therapeutic (4 pcs) and diagnostic-therapeutic (2 pcs). As we declare in methods part of this research, we categorized medical equipment in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) segmentation. Capital-scarce equipment: Magnetic resonance imaging, Eco Doppler, Kamalaarak ultrasonic surgical aspirator, Stereotactic, computed tomography-scan, euroendoscope/vital-scarce equipment: Coblation, Sonoco, vaterjet/scarce equipment: Transcranial color Doppler, electroencephalogram, electromyography, surgical microscope.
Conclusions:
Survey of application and preventive maintenance of neurology medical equipment in Isfahan Alzahra hospital show there is no P.M system. Implementing a complete P.M system for this medical center is crucial to preventing cause problems for these medical equipment and decreasing maintenance costs and gaining uptime. Researchers of this article have tried to provide PM, use of texts, web and experts.
PMCID: PMC3678240  PMID: 23776746
Hospital; neurology medical equipment; preventive maintenance
17.  Preliminary Investigation of Economics Issues in Hospitalized Patients with Stroke 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S338-S342.
Background:
The study of economics is important in Iranian stroke patients, because it is one of the costly diseases that could be linked to disability, mortality, and morbidity. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate total treatment costs of hospitalized patients with stroke.
Methods:
A cross-sectional study of 24 patients conducted to Isfahan Neurosciences Research Centre was carried out between April 1, 2012 and September 31, 2012. Demographic (sex, age) and economic variables (Raise tariffs, accumulated surplus, the total amount, of patients’, patients’ paid, and home insurance contribution) were extracted from the patients’ profiles. All information recorded and processed using Excel.
Results:
The mean age of patients was 71 years (ranged; 40-93 years old). Preliminary analysis of available costs issues could be described as: Raise tariffs (mean: 3500256 Rial, ranged: 504460-9775455 Rial), accumulated surplus (mean: 565578 Rial, ranged: 56700-2343664 Rial), the total amount (mean: 4045556 Rial, ranged: 715460-12219119 Rial), of patients’ (mean: 756037 Rial, ranged: 0-8365447 Rial), patients’ paid (mean: 1307762 Rial, ranged: 45300-9193000 Rial), and home insurance contribution (mean: 3070713 Rial, ranged 0-8887907 Rial).
Conclusions:
The cost disparity within this study after stroke could be mainly connected to variations in duration of hospital stay. Inspecting agenda towards this direction could reduce the economic cost of stroke significantly. Therefore, further assessment correlated to attain strategies in order to reduce costs associated to patients’ paid and home insurance contribution could be much more advantageous.
PMCID: PMC3678242  PMID: 23776748
Economics; hospitalized patients; raise tariffs; stroke
18.  Assessment of electromyograghic findings in peroneus tertius, tibialis posterior and dorsal interoseous pedis muscles in patients with axonal polyneuropathy 
Background:
Axonal polyneuropathy (APN) is a common kind of neurologic disorders, which is normally diagnosed by electrodiagnostic methods. Different muscles were studied to find a muscle, which can be considered as a reliable site for early diagnosis of mild APN; this muscle should be easily activated by patient, has the highest sensitivity to EMG changes of APN, and has the lowest rate of false positive results in normal subjects.
Materials and Methods:
Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 patients were recruited, and all of them underwent needle EMG of 3 different muscles including Peroneus tertius (PT), tibialis posterior (TP), and dorsal interoseous pedis (DIP). EMG Findings of different muscles [Motor Unite Action Potential (MUAP) duration, MUAP amplitude, polyphasic MUAP, fibrillation potential (FP), and the ability of subjects to contract special muscle] were recorded and compared.
Results:
Mean of MUAP amplitude was significantly different between all 3 muscles (P-values < 0.001). PT showed a significantly higher frequency of polyphasic MUAP than others (P-value: 0.001). The frequency of FP was significantly lower in TP than PT and DIP (P-values: 0.03 and 0.001, respectively). DIP showed significantly shorter MUAP duration than PT and TP (P-values 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). All cases were able to activate TP and PT voluntarily though only 20 patients could activate DIP (P-value < 0.0001).
Conclusion:
The higher frequency of polyphasic MUAP, the higher frequency of FP, and finally, the ability of all patients in activation of PT voluntarily, all support the usefulness of PT for EMG studies in APN patients.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.109753
PMCID: PMC3905343  PMID: 24516841
Axonal polyneuropathy; dorsal interoseous pedis; electromyographic; peroneus tertius; tibialis posterior
20.  Evaluation of neural gene expression in serum treated embryonic stem cells in Alzheimer's patients 
Background:
Previous studies confirmed that neural gene expression in embryonic stem cells (ESC) could influence by chemical compounds through stimulating apoptotic pathway. We aimed to use ESCs-derived neural cells by embryoid body formation as an in vitro model for determination of neural gene expression changes in groups that treated by sera from Alzheimer's patients and compare with healthy individuals.
Materials and Methods:
ESC line which was derived from the C57BL/6 mouse strain was used throughout this study. ESC-derived neural cells were treated with serum from Alzheimer's patient and healthy individual. Neural gene expression was assessed in both groups by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The data was analyzed by SPSS Software (version 18).
Results:
Morphologically, the reducing in neurite out-growth was observed in neural cells in group, which treated by serum from Alzheimer's patient, while neurite growth was natural in appearance in control group. Microtubule-associated protein 2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression significantly reduced in the Alzheimer's patient group compared with the control group. Nestin expression did not significantly differ among the groups.
Conclusion:
Neural gene expression could be reduced in serum treated ESC in Alzheimer's patients.
PMCID: PMC3743312  PMID: 23961278
Neural cell; neural gene expression; neurotoxicity
21.  Evaluation of vasomotor reactivity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients and its comparison with the control group 
Background:
Neuropsychiatric abnormalities are among the most common manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They have been proposed to be associated with impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF). Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) is a hemodynamic parameter effective in the autoregulation of CBF. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare the VMR of women with stable SLE and normal women.
Materials and Methods:
According to the study criteria 60 women in each group entered the study. VMR was evaluated with Transcranial Doppler (TCD) at rest and after one minute of breath holding.
Results:
There was no significant difference in the mean of age between two groups (31.76 ± 7.50 years in the SLE group versus 32.43 ± 4.55 years in the control group, P value: 0.64). The mean duration of SLE in the case group was 5.40 ± 3.60 years. The means of the Breath-Holding Index (BHI) in the SLE and control groups were 0.842 ± 0.72% and 0.815 ± 0.26%, respectively, which was not significantly different (P value: 0.82).
Conclusion:
This study indicates that the VMR of women with stable SLE is not significantly different from the age- and sex-matched normal population. However, further investigations on patients with longer SLE duration and more neuropsychological abnormality rates are suggested.
PMCID: PMC3743319  PMID: 23961285
Cerebral blood flow; systemic lupus erythematosus; transcranial Doppler; vasomotor reactivity
22.  Protein consumptions in stroke patients 
Background:
Stroke is one of the most common causes of disabilities and death all over the world. The mortality rate of stroke is predicted to be doubled by 2030 in the Middle East countries. Nutrition is an effective strategy in prevention and management of stroke. This study assessed the relationship between various protein types and stroke risk.
Materials and Methods:
This hospital-based case-control study was performed in a University hospital. The data regarding consumption of usual food intake of 69 cases (46 men and 23 women) and 60 controls (30 men and 30 women) was collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The mean consumption of red and white meat and vegetable and processed proteins consumption were compared between two groups.
Results:
The percent of total of daily protein intake were lower in patients with stroke in both sexes (25.92% vs 30.55% in men and 30.7% vs 31.14% in women).
Conclusion:
Lower protein consumption may be observed in patients with stroke patients in both sex.
PMCID: PMC3743320  PMID: 23961286
Meat; protein; stroke; vegetable protein
23.  Dietary intake of minerals in the patients with stroke 
Background:
Experimental studies provide evidence of a relationship between stroke and mineral intake but this information in human are still limited and inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate sodium, calcium and iron intake and stroke in Iranian patient and control population.
Materials and Methods:
In a case-control study with 46 stroke men (aged 56 ± 18 years) and stroke women (aged 52 ± 7 years) and 60 healthy people, we investigated the sodium, calcium and iron intake inthe patients.
Results:
After adjustment for age, sex and cardiovascular disease we found that a high sodium intake was associated with a statistically significant higher risk of stroke (P < 0/05). We saw a significant association between iron intakes in men (P < 0/05). And calcium was not significant associated with risk of stroke (P for trend >0/05).
Conclusion:
These findings in men and women suggest that a low sodium intake may play a role in primary prevention of stroke.
PMCID: PMC3743321  PMID: 23961287
Calcium; diet; epidemiology; iron; minerals; sodium; stroke
24.  Comparison of fat intake between patients with stroke and normal population 
Background:
Stroke happens when blood flow to parts of brain stops. Stroke is sometimes called “brain attack.” Risk factor is something that increases the chance of getting a disease. Some risk factors for stroke cannot be changed, but some can be altered. The chance of stroke is higher in people who live an unhealthy lifestyle by: Being overweight as a result of over-eating, eating too much fat, smoking, etc., Therefore, we compared the fat intake between patients with stroke and normal population.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty nine patients with stroke (46 men and 23 women) as cases and 60 subjects (30 men and 30 women) as controls during April 2009 and May 2010 from Alzzahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran were evaluated. Dietary intakes were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) through their close relatives such as spouse, daughter or mother. Also, anthropometry measurements such as weight, height and waist extracted from their medical files, however, body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated.
Result:
The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) both in men and women with stroke were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 for men and P = 0.05 and P = 0.02 for women, respectively). Also, the mean intake of hydrogenated fats, butter, cream, mayonnaise sauce and nuts were higher in men with stroke with respect in control group; while, women with stroke consumed more hydrogenated fats, vegetable oils, cream and mayonnaise sauce than controls.
Conclusion:
Increased fat intake was observed in patients with stroke compared with normal population.
PMCID: PMC3743322  PMID: 23961288
Butter; cream; fat; polyunsaturated fatty acids; stroke; saturated fatty acids; monounsaturated fatty acids
25.  The relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and migraine 
Background:
Migraine is common worldwide. In recent years, vitamin D deficiency has been determined as a global health problem. A few studies have shown inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels and headache. Thus, in this study, we assessed relationship between serum vitamin D levels with migraine.
Materials and Methods:
The present study was a cross-sectional. Seventy-six migraine patients aged 10-61 years were included. The multiple linear regression was used to show association between serum 25-0H-D3 and migraine. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), number of chronic diseases, and education level.
Results:
The positive weak relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and headache diary result (P = 0.042, r = 0.19). But, no significant relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and migraine severity (P = 0.741).
Conclusion:
High levels of serum 25-OH-D3 was related to higher headache diary result. After adjustment for confounding variables, this significant association remained. No significant relationship was shown between serum vitamin D and migraine severity.
PMCID: PMC3743325  PMID: 23961291
Migraine; relationship; vitamin D

Results 1-25 (30)