PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (32)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
author:("iran, bilan")
1.  Association of neck circumference as an indicator of upper body obesity with cardio-metabolic risk factors among first degree relatives of diabetes patients 
Background:
The aim of the present study was to determine the relation between neck circumferences (NC), as an indicator of upper body obesity, with anthropometric and cardio-metabolic factors among the first degree relatives of diabetes patients.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was performed on first degree relatives of diabetes patients (n = 213). Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and NC were measured. Laboratory data included oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol.
Results:
There was no difference in NC among different results of OGTT in men or women. Factors including weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and HC were strongly associated with NC in both genders (r = 0.420-0.711). NC was weakly associated with SBP in women (r = 0.195) and moderately with DBP in men (r = 0.314). Regarding lipid profile, HDL and TG were associated with NC only in women (r = −0.268-0.325).
Conclusions:
NC has a significant correlation with gender and anthropometric variables including BMI, weight and waist and HCs in both men and women but it does not differ significantly in patients with different status in OGTT.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.145740
PMCID: PMC4260287  PMID: 25538923
Body mass index; cardiovascular; diabetes; neck circumference; obesity
2.  The Effect of Quality of Care on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients 
Background:
In this study, we evaluated the quality of care and control of cardiovascular risk factors in newly diagnosed diabetic patients, identified during diabetes screening program, 1 year after diagnosis.
Methods:
In this prospective study, 83 newly diagnosed diabetic patients identified at screening in Isfahan, were studied. Height, weight, blood pressure, plasma glucose, lipids, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of these patients were measured 2 times, first at the time of diagnosis and then 1 year later, and the results were compared between two groups, with and without regular course of treatment.
Results:
Nearly 46.99% and 53.1% of the studied patients have regular and irregular course of treatment. After 1 year, significant improvement in the mean of plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein and HbA1c was seen in patients with regular course of treatment except for blood pressure (P < 0.05). Frequency of controlled cardiovascular risk factors including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and LDL was significantly improved in patients with regular course of treatment (P < 0.05). Mentioned changes were not seen in patients with irregular course of treatment.
Conclusions:
The findings of the current study demonstrated that though diabetes screening program result in earlier diagnosis of patients with type 2 diabetes, but it seems that regular follow-up and proper management of newly diagnosed patients is crucial for appropriate glycemic and metabolic control and preventing its related micro and macrovascular complication.
PMCID: PMC4274550  PMID: 25538839
Cardiovascular disease; care; screening; type 2 diabetes
3.  Effect of metformin on thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid volume in patients with prediabetes: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial 
Background:
The people with prediabetes have insulin resistance (IR). IR may affect thyroid function, size and nodules. We investigated the effects of metformin on the thyroid gland in prediabetic people.
Materials and Methods:
In a randomized, double-blind placebo-control clinical trial, 89 people with prediabetes, aged 18-65 years were studied for 3 months. They were divided into two, metformin (n = 43) and placebo (n = 46) treated groups. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured and thyroid nodules and volume was studied by ultrasonography. The data were compared between and within groups, before and after the study.
Results:
Mean of the baseline characteristics in metformin and placebo-treated groups had no statistically significant difference. At the end of the study, serum TSH was not significantly different between the two groups. However, if the TSH range was divided into two low normal (0.3-2.5 μU/ml) and high-normal (2.6-5.5 μU/ml) ranges, significant decrease was observed in metformin-treated group with a high-normal basal serum TSH (P = 0.01). Thyroid volume did not change in metformin-treated group. However, in placebo-treated group, the thyroid was enlarged (P = 0.03). In 53.9% of participants, thyroid nodule was observed. There was just a decrease in the volume of small solid (not mixed) nodules from median of 0.07 ml to 0.04 ml in metformin-treated group (P = 0.01).
Conclusion:
In prediabetic people, metformin decreases serum TSH, only, in those people with TSH >2.5 μU/ml and reduces the size of small solid thyroid nodules. It also prevents an increase in the thyroid volume.
PMCID: PMC4310072  PMID: 25657744
Insulin resistance; metformin; prediabetes; thyroid; thyroid nodule; thyroid volume
4.  The Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Markers of Blood Lipids, and Blood Pressure in Patients with Prediabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial 
Background:
Prediabetes is a high-risk condition for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The growing prevalence of diabetes emphasizes on the necessity of concentrating on various strategies to prediabetes prevention and management. Probiotics as a group of functional foods might exert antidiabetic effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of probiotic administration on blood lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with prediabetes.
Methods:
This randomized controlled trial consisted of 60 prediabetic patients, aged 25-65 years old, that were randomly assigned to the intervention (receiving 500 mg probiotic capsules, n = 30) or control group (receiving placebo, n = 30) for 8-week period. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected at baseline. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks for biochemical measurements. Blood pressure was measured at the baseline an after 8 weeks of intervention. Data regarding dietary intakes and physical activity were also collected during the study. We used SPSS software version 16 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA) for data analyzing.
Results:
Probiotic supplementation did not contribute to significant changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), TG/LDL and LDL/HDL ratios, after 8 weeks. After adjusting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol reduced significantly in the placebo group compared with probiotic group. Percent change in systolic blood pressure was significantly different in the probiotic group in comparison with a placebo group (–3.10 ± 2.22 vs. 3.24 ± 1.96, P = 0.01), although this significance did not exist anymore after adjusting for confounders (P > 0.05).
Conclusions:
Our study showed that probiotics did not have significant effects on lipid markers although they had positive effects on systolic blood pressure.
PMCID: PMC4223942  PMID: 25400881
Blood pressure; lipid; prediabetes; probiotic
5.  The Effects of Soy Bean Flour Enriched Bread Intake on Anthropometric Indices and Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetic Women: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial 
Previous studies showed that soy bean has the potential to improve many aspects of diabetes state and provide metabolic benefits that aid in weight management. We aimed to determine the effects of soy bean flour enriched bread on anthropometric indices and blood pressure among type 2 diabetic patients. This randomized, crossover, clinical trial was performed in 30 type 2 diabetic women. There were two trial periods for 6 weeks and a wash-out period for 4 weeks. In the soy bread diet period, 120 g of soy bean flour enriched bread was consumed each day instead of the same amount of their usual bread or other cereal products. After a 4-week wash-out period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Mean (±SD) age of study participants was 45.7 ± 3.8 years. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soy bean flour enriched bread on anthropometric indices and blood pressure among diabetic patients. Despite the slight reduction in BMI, waist circumference, and percent of body fat, there were no significant differences in changes of these values between two groups. No significant changes in waist to hip ratio and blood pressure were seen.
doi:10.1155/2014/240760
PMCID: PMC4170922  PMID: 25276127
6.  Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on C-reactive Protein in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver 
Background:
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the worldwide. It is associated with chronic disorders such as diabetes and heart diseases. Inflammation is one of the basic causes of metabolic diseases. Several studies have shown that Vitamin D can reduce inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Vitamin D supplementation on inflammation in patients with NAFLD.
Methods:
This study involved 60 NAFLD patients, divided equally into two intervention and placebo groups. During 10 weeks, patients in the intervention group receive Vitamin D (capsules containing 50,000 IU vitamin D), weekly. Vitamin D levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance tests. Analyses were done using SPSS software (version 16) (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). P < 0.05 set as significant level.
Results:
Vitamin D supplementation resulted in an increase of serum 25(OH) D concentrations in inter group (P < 0.05) and intra-group (P < 0.05) in intervention group. At the end of the study, in the intervention group, TG and CRP reduced significantly compare with baseline (P < 0.05). A significant increase was seen in calcium serum in the intervention group in comparison with baseline (P < 0.05) and compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05).
Conclusions:
Vitamin D supplementation had no effect on CRP and other variables in the intervention group compared with the placebo group. Further studies with strong design and more sample must conduct to demonstrate the effect of Vitamin D supplementation on inflammation in patients with NAFLD.
PMCID: PMC4258669  PMID: 25489444
Inflammation; nonalcoholic fatty liver; vitamin D
7.  Why 24-h Urine Albumin Excretion Rate Method Still is Used for Screening of Diabetic Nephropathy in Isfahan Laboratories? 
Background:
The first step in diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is measurement of albumin in a spot urine sample. The aim of this study was assessment of the accuracy of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in random urine specimens (RUS) for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria screening in Iranian diabetic patients.
Methods:
A total of 200 diabetic patients participated to our study. 24 h timed urine specimens followed by RUS were collected. 24-h urine albumin excretion (24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE)) and UACR in RUS were measured. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and McNemar test.
Results:
A total of 165 patients finalized the study. Pearson's correlation of coefficient for 24-h UAE versus UACR was 0.64. The area under ROC curve for UACR was 0.83 in microalbuminuria and 0.91 in macroalbuminuria. The cutoff point of 30 mg/g in UACR method had 86% sensitivity and 60% specificity for microalbuminuria screening and cut-off point of 300 mg/g had 75% sensitivity and 99% specificity for macroalbuminuria screening respectively.
Conclusions:
UACR in RUS showed acceptable performance as a screening test for diagnosis of both micro and macroalbuminuria in Iranian diabetic patients.
PMCID: PMC4018644  PMID: 24829719
Albuminuria; diabetic nephropathy; screening; urinary albumin to creatinine ratio
8.  Serum uric acid level and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects 
Background:
Excess serum uric acid (UA) accumulation can lead to various diseases. Increasing evidences reveal that UA may have a key role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the associations of UA levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals. This study was designed to evaluate the association between UA and cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects with family history of diabetes compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT).
Materials and Methods:
In a cross-sectional setting, a sample containing 643 (302 prediabetic subjects and 341 normal) of the first-degree relatives of diabetic patients aged 35-55-years old were investigated. Samples were assessed in prediabetic and normal groups using glucose tolerance categories. Prediabetes was defined based on American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Body weight and height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), UA, creatinine (Cr), albumin (Alb), fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profiles were measured and compared between two groups.
Results:
Prediabetic persons were older and obese than normal persons. Also, prediabetic persons (5.2 ± 1.3 mg/dl) had significantly higher UA than normal persons (4.9 ± 1.4 mg/dl) (P < 0.05). FBG after 0, 30, 60, and 120 min in prediabetic were higher than normal persons (P < 0.001). With respect to metabolic parameters, the patients in the higher UA quartiles exhibited higher levels of body mass index (BMI), SBP, FBG and triglycerides (TG). The higher quartiles of UA tended to be associated with higher BMI and higher total cholesterol (TC) in females prediabetic persons. Based on logistic regression analysis in different models, UA was positively (odds ratio (OR) >1, P < 0.05) associated with glucose tolerance categories. This association remained statistically significant after adjusting the effects of age and BMI. Also, the association between glucose tolerance categories and UA were positively significant in both genders.
Conclusion:
High UA level was associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals compared with normal person. UA level was also a significant predictor for prediabetes condition.
PMCID: PMC4061650  PMID: 24949036
Cardiometabolic; glucose tolerance; prediabetic; uric acid
9.  B Vitamins and Antioxidants Intake is Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S284-S289.
Background:
Stroke is a leading cause of death in developed countries. However, current therapeutic strategies for stroke have been largely unsuccessful. Several studies have reported important benefits on reducing the risk of stroke and improving the post-stroke-associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in micronutrients, including B vitamins. Folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 are all cofactors in homocysteine metabolism. Growing interest has been paid to hyperhomocyste inemia as a risk factor for stroke. Experimental studies suggest that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury, and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower risk of stroke in large population studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether the dietary intake of B vitamins and antioxidants in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke.
Methods:
In this case control study, 69 stroke patients (46 male, age = 56 ± 18 years and 23 female, age = 52 ± 7 years) admitted to Azzahra hospital between April 2009 and May 2010 were matched for age and sex with 60 patients (30 male and 30 female) from the same hospital who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). FFQ was collected conducting face-to-face interview with one of the patients’ close relatives. Food intakes, translated into nutrient data, were compared between the two groups and with the recommended values.
Results:
Intake of folic acid in men with stroke and vitamin B12 in women with stroke was significantly lower than that in the patients without stroke (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the two groups in the level of antioxidant consumption in women and men (P > 0.05).
Conclusions:
Our findings suggest that increased folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin E, C intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke.
PMCID: PMC3678233  PMID: 23776739
Dietary quality; folic acid; stroke; vitamin B6; vitamin B12
10.  Dietary Intake of Different Carbohydrates Among Incident Stroke Patients During Previous Year 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S290-S293.
Background:
Stroke is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that dietary carbohydrates play an important role in stroke incident. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the association between dietary intake of carbohydrate and its types and stroke incidence among Iranian adults.
Methods:
A case-control study was performed among 46 men (5618) and 23 women (527) admitted to the Al Zahra hospital with stroke and 60 healthy people were chosen in control group. Dietary intake was measured by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) including 168 items. Food processor software (version 2) was used to analyze data.
Results:
Anthropometric indices of male and female patients were (BMI: 297.5), (Waist: 11215) and (BMI: 25.53.5), (Waist: 925) respectively. Energy intake and carbohydrate consumption of patients in both genders was higher than the healthy subjects which was statistically significant among men (P < 0.05). Across different carbohydrate sources, refined carbohydrates consumption was higher among patients in both gender rather than the healthy subjects While, the healthy people had a higher whole grain consumption.
Conclusions:
High carbohydrate intake specially refined sources with high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is associated with increased risk of stroke. Hence, dietary intake requires improvement to provide protection from life threatening outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3678234  PMID: 23776740
Carbohydrate; glycemic index; stroke
11.  Dairy Consumption and Stroke Risk 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S294-S299.
Background:
Stroke is one of the most common causes of life-threatening disabilities and death around the world. Mortality rate is going to be doubled by 2030 in the Middle East countries. Prevention is a cost-effective approach to decrease risk of stroke. The present study assessed the relationship between dairy intake and stroke risk.
Methods:
This hospital-based case-control study was directed in a University hospital. The common food consumption of 129 men and women was assessed with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The relationship between fermented and non-fermented dairy intake and stroke were assessed between two patient groups.
Results:
Total of dairy intake were lower in patients with stroke than control group (13.36 vs 19.61% in men and 11.14 vs 15.02% in women). Similar relationships were observed betweenfermented and non-fermented dairy intake and stroke in both genders.
Conclusions:
Lower dairyconsumption can increase stroke risk in men and women.
PMCID: PMC3678235  PMID: 23776741
Dairy; milk; stroke
12.  Intakes of Vegetables and Fruits are Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S300-S305.
Background:
Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia as a stroke risk factor.Studies suggest that oxidative stress plays important roles in pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower stroke risk. The aim of this study was to examine if the dietary intake of vegetables and fruits in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke.
Methods:
In this case control study, 93 stroke patients admitted to Alzahra hospital were matched for age and sex with 60 patients who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.Food intakes were compared between two groups and with recommended value.
Results:
Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits was more in male with stroke than male without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was higher in male with stroke.Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits were lower in women with stroke than women without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was lower in women with stroke
Conclusions:
Our findings suggest that increased vegetable and fruits intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke
PMCID: PMC3678236  PMID: 23776742
Dietary quality; fruit; stroke; vegetable
13.  The Association Between Serum Vitamin D Levels with General and Abdominal Obesity Among Patients with Migraine 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S313-S317.
Background:
Obesity is a common health problem around the world. Studies have shown inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels with obesity among patients and healthy population. The aim of this present study is to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels with general and abdominal obesity among migraine patients.
Methods:
The present study is a cross-sectional and 66 migraine patients aged 19-61 years were included for analysis. Partial correlation was performed to assess association between serum 25-OH-D with general and abdominal obesity. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, and education.
Results:
No relationship was found between serum levels of vitamin D with general and abdominal obesity. However, a significant association was shown between waist circumferences (WC) with body mass index (BMI).
Conclusions:
Serum levels of 25-OH-D were not associated with WC and BMI. Furthermore, after adjustment for confounder variables, no association was observed.
PMCID: PMC3678238  PMID: 23776744
Association; migraine; obesity; vitamin D
14.  Investigating the Anxiety Level in Iranian Medical Residents in 2010-2011 
International Journal of Preventive Medicine  2013;4(Suppl 2):S318-S322.
Background:
University entrance is accompanied by major changes in social relationship, rules, and expectations that lead to psychological disorders in susceptible students. The goal of this research is to study the anxiety rate in Iranian medical residents in 2010-2011.
Methods:
This study is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. It contains 370 medical residents from the 1st year to the 4th year of medical universities in Isfahan, Gilan, Zahedan, Sanandaj, and Kashan. The stratified sampling method proportionate to volume of participants is used in this study. The information is collected based on researchers’ questioners and Zung self-rating anxiety scale and analyzed with the use of spss software version 16, addition to descriptive and analytic tests (Pearson, one-way analysis of variance, t-test). Meaningful level is regarded as P ≤ 0.05.
Results:
The study showed that more than 92% of residents participated in the study did not demonstrate anxiety. Among 370 subjects 5.5% presented with mild symptoms of anxiety and no one had symptom of severe anxiety. A meaningful statistical relationship was observed between anxiety and sex, major of study and the city of study (P < 0.05). The results showed a positive meaningful relationship between the number of visits and the score of anxiety. On average the number of night floats were two in 1 week and the number of patient visit was 19 in the past 24 h. A meaningful statistical relationship between anxiety score and number of patient visits was observed.
Conclusions:
The anxiety rate in medical students in this study compared to the findings of previous studies reveled very low anxiety in medical residents. The low rate of anxiety could be attributed to the sense of job security and the hope for a better future among residents. The high percentage of anxiolytics abuse and absence of anxiety producing factors among residents in addition to inaccurate response to the questionnaire may all contribute to the low rate of anxiety in this study.
PMCID: PMC3678239  PMID: 23776745
Anxiety; medical residents; depression
15.  Whether vitamin D3 is effective in reducing proteinuria in type 2 diabetic patients? 
Background:
Nowadays Vitamin D deficiency is a notable medical condition world-wide and also in Iran. Since, vitamin D can have renoprotective effect by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system; it appears that low vitamin D level can worsen the renal injury in diabetic patients. This study demonstrates the effect of vitamin D3 therapy on reducing proteinuria in diabetic patients with concomitant diabetic nephropathy and vitamin D deficiency after controlling hypertension and use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II type receptor blockers (ARBs).
Materials and Methods:
In this randomized double blinded parallel groups clinical trial, 51 diabetic patients with proven nephropathy and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and stable hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemic treatment were enrolled. The patients were divided randomly into two groups (treatment and placebo group). Patients received oral vitamin D3 (pearl 50000 IU) or placebo one pearl every week for 12 weeks. Patients were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention from the point of 25(OH) D level, and urine albumin/creatinine ration (UACR).
Results:
Mean serum 25(OH) D concentrations were 14.06 ng/ml and 16.05 ng/ml before treatment. Furthermore, after intervention, its levels were risen to 71.23 and 17.63 in drug and placebo groups, respectively. Whereas, UACR as the main variable did not change significantly after intervention in both groups (P = 0.919).
Conclusion:
According to our finding, there was not a decrease in proteinuria in diabetic patients who received vitamin D for a period of 3 months.
PMCID: PMC3810568  PMID: 24174939
Diabetic nephropathy; vitamin D deficiency; proteinuria; diabetes
16.  Quercetin Supplementation Does Not Attenuate Exercise Performance and Body Composition in Young Female Swimmers 
Background:
Quercetin is a health-enhancing antioxidant bioflavonoid (1-3). This flavonoid occurs in variety of natural fruits and vegetables such as apple, cranberry, onion, broccoli, and teas. Many studies have shown that quercetin has possible positive effects on exercise performance. The aim of this study is the evaluation of effects of quercetin supplementation on VO2max and exercise performance in female athletes.
Methods:
This study was done on 26 young female swimmers. Participants were assigned in to groups and supplemented orally for 8 weeks with either Quercetin (Solaray®, USA, Inc) or placebo (dextrose). Before and after intervention, athletes performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) on an electronically braked cycle ergometer (Lode, The Netherlands) to determine VO2max and time to exhaustion (TTE).
Results:
Participants in the quercetin group consumed higher energy and protein and lower carbohydrates and fats. There was no significant differences in VO2max, TTE, lactate, and body fat between pre- and post-supplementation neither in the placebo group nor in the quercetin group.
Conclusions:
It is concluded that quercetin supplementation (1000 g/day) for 8 weeks in female athletes didn't show any significant association with exercise performance.
PMCID: PMC3665024  PMID: 23717768
Performance; quercetin; swimmers
17.  Dietary Behaviors and Nutritional Assessment of Young Male Isfahani Wrestlers 
Background:
Young athletes have more nutritional needs than other adolescents because of physical activity and physical development. Optimal athletic performance results from a combination of factors including training, body composition, and nutrition. Despite the increased interest in nutrition and use of dietary supplements to enhance performance, some athletes might be consuming diets that are less than optimal. In wrestling it is common practice to optimize one's body composition and body weight prior to a competition season. This often includes a change in dietary intake or habits.
Methods:
Twenty-eight wrestlers, between the ages of 17 and 25 years, participated in this study. Dietary intakes of micro and macro nutrients were collected by face-to-face interview, structured food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary intake of energy, carbohydrates, fats and proteins and micronutrients was evaluated.
Results:
Mean intakes of energy, carbohydrates, proteins and fat were higher than recommended dietary allowances (RDA). The mean intakes of all vitamins and minerals were higher than the RDAs in these wrestlers, except for vitamin D, biotin, zinc, iodine, chrome and molybdenum.
Conclusions:
On the basis of our results, nutritional education should be given to these subjects and their families for promoting healthy eating habits.
PMCID: PMC3665025  PMID: 23717769
Athletes; dietary behavior; nutritional status; wrestlers
18.  Quercetin and Vitamin C Supplementation: Effects on Lipid Profile and Muscle Damage in Male Athletes 
Background:
Quercetin, which is considered as a health-promoting antioxidant, belongs to the broad flavonoids group. Numerous experimental studies have proved that quercetin and vitamin C provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of both quercetin and vitamin C on lipid profile and muscle damage in human subjects.
Methods:
A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 males for eight weeks. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: 1) quercetin + vitamin C (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day vitamin C) 2) quercetin (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day placebo) 3) vitamin C (500 mg/day vitamin C + 200 mg/day placebo) and 4) placebo (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day placebo). Blood samples, body weight and percent of body fat were measured before and after intervention. In addition, dietary intake was estimated using 24-h recall.
Results:
No significant changes occurred in high-density lipoprotein levels between groups and in the four groups before and after supplementation. Low density lipoprotein values decreased significantly (P = 0.048) in the “Quercetin + Vit C” group but decrease was not considerable in other groups before and after intervention and among groups. Fat-soluble vitamins' intake was significantly high among 4 groups.
Conclusions:
Quercetin and vitamin C supplementation may not be beneficial in lipid profile improvement, although it may reduce induce muscle damage and body fat percent.
PMCID: PMC3665028  PMID: 23717772
Athletes; lipid profiles; quercetin
20.  Protein consumptions in stroke patients 
Background:
Stroke is one of the most common causes of disabilities and death all over the world. The mortality rate of stroke is predicted to be doubled by 2030 in the Middle East countries. Nutrition is an effective strategy in prevention and management of stroke. This study assessed the relationship between various protein types and stroke risk.
Materials and Methods:
This hospital-based case-control study was performed in a University hospital. The data regarding consumption of usual food intake of 69 cases (46 men and 23 women) and 60 controls (30 men and 30 women) was collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The mean consumption of red and white meat and vegetable and processed proteins consumption were compared between two groups.
Results:
The percent of total of daily protein intake were lower in patients with stroke in both sexes (25.92% vs 30.55% in men and 30.7% vs 31.14% in women).
Conclusion:
Lower protein consumption may be observed in patients with stroke patients in both sex.
PMCID: PMC3743320  PMID: 23961286
Meat; protein; stroke; vegetable protein
21.  Dietary intake of minerals in the patients with stroke 
Background:
Experimental studies provide evidence of a relationship between stroke and mineral intake but this information in human are still limited and inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate sodium, calcium and iron intake and stroke in Iranian patient and control population.
Materials and Methods:
In a case-control study with 46 stroke men (aged 56 ± 18 years) and stroke women (aged 52 ± 7 years) and 60 healthy people, we investigated the sodium, calcium and iron intake inthe patients.
Results:
After adjustment for age, sex and cardiovascular disease we found that a high sodium intake was associated with a statistically significant higher risk of stroke (P < 0/05). We saw a significant association between iron intakes in men (P < 0/05). And calcium was not significant associated with risk of stroke (P for trend >0/05).
Conclusion:
These findings in men and women suggest that a low sodium intake may play a role in primary prevention of stroke.
PMCID: PMC3743321  PMID: 23961287
Calcium; diet; epidemiology; iron; minerals; sodium; stroke
22.  Comparison of fat intake between patients with stroke and normal population 
Background:
Stroke happens when blood flow to parts of brain stops. Stroke is sometimes called “brain attack.” Risk factor is something that increases the chance of getting a disease. Some risk factors for stroke cannot be changed, but some can be altered. The chance of stroke is higher in people who live an unhealthy lifestyle by: Being overweight as a result of over-eating, eating too much fat, smoking, etc., Therefore, we compared the fat intake between patients with stroke and normal population.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty nine patients with stroke (46 men and 23 women) as cases and 60 subjects (30 men and 30 women) as controls during April 2009 and May 2010 from Alzzahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran were evaluated. Dietary intakes were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) through their close relatives such as spouse, daughter or mother. Also, anthropometry measurements such as weight, height and waist extracted from their medical files, however, body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated.
Result:
The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) both in men and women with stroke were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 for men and P = 0.05 and P = 0.02 for women, respectively). Also, the mean intake of hydrogenated fats, butter, cream, mayonnaise sauce and nuts were higher in men with stroke with respect in control group; while, women with stroke consumed more hydrogenated fats, vegetable oils, cream and mayonnaise sauce than controls.
Conclusion:
Increased fat intake was observed in patients with stroke compared with normal population.
PMCID: PMC3743322  PMID: 23961288
Butter; cream; fat; polyunsaturated fatty acids; stroke; saturated fatty acids; monounsaturated fatty acids
23.  The relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and migraine 
Background:
Migraine is common worldwide. In recent years, vitamin D deficiency has been determined as a global health problem. A few studies have shown inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels and headache. Thus, in this study, we assessed relationship between serum vitamin D levels with migraine.
Materials and Methods:
The present study was a cross-sectional. Seventy-six migraine patients aged 10-61 years were included. The multiple linear regression was used to show association between serum 25-0H-D3 and migraine. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), number of chronic diseases, and education level.
Results:
The positive weak relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and headache diary result (P = 0.042, r = 0.19). But, no significant relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and migraine severity (P = 0.741).
Conclusion:
High levels of serum 25-OH-D3 was related to higher headache diary result. After adjustment for confounding variables, this significant association remained. No significant relationship was shown between serum vitamin D and migraine severity.
PMCID: PMC3743325  PMID: 23961291
Migraine; relationship; vitamin D
24.  The effects of oral vitamin D on insulin resistance in pre-diabetic patients 
Background:
Some epidemiological and interventional studies have shown the role of vitamin D on insulin secretion and resistance. A previous study in our center showed that intramuscular vitamin D decreases insulin sensitivity in pre-diabetic patients. We investigated the role of oral vitamin D on the insulin sensitivity index and insulin resistance in pre-diabetic patients.
Materials and Methods:
In a randomized clinical trial, we divided 45 people with pre-diabetes aged 47.4 ± 6.6 (range 33-61) years into three groups: group A subjects treated with 50,000 IU oral vitamin D and 500 mg calcium carbonate (n = 21), group B subjects treated with a single 300,000 IU intramuscular vitamin D and 500 mg calcium carbonate (n = 9), and group C subjects treated with 500 mg calcium carbonate alone (n = 15). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] was measured at baseline. If it was less than 75 nmol/l, 50,000 IU vitamin D was given weekly, and if serum 25(OH) D was more than that, vitamin D was administered every 2 weeks. Before and after 12 weeks of treatment, a 75-g glucose tolerance test was performed. We used paired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to analyze the data. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.
Results:
Mean (SD) of serum vitamin D increased from 77.5 ± 39.2 to 118.8 ± 56.3 nmol/l (P = 0.009) in group A and from 80 ± 36 to 102.8 ± 43.3 nmol/l (P = 0.053) in group B, and decreased from 44.8 ± 18.3 to 34.6 ± 13.9 nmol/l (P = 0.06) in group C. Insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda) decreased from 11.4 ± 3 to 9.9 ± 3.2 (P = 0.046) in group A, but in comparison with other groups, it was not significant.
Conclusion:
Oral vitamin D had no effect on insulin sensitivity in pre-diabetes patients in 12 weeks treatment. A randomized double-blind study with a longer duration of treatment is suggested to investigate the effect of vitamin D on insulin resistance.
PMCID: PMC3719226  PMID: 23900423
Glucose tolerance test; insulin resistance; pre-diabetes; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency

Results 1-25 (32)