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1.  Anticoagulant therapy for ischemic stroke: A review of literature 
For many years, anticoagulants have been used in the emergent treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Anticoagulants are prescribed in an effort to prevent first or recurrent stroke, especially among patients with cardioembolism due to arterial fibrillation and large-artery atherosclerotic disease. Despite the widespread use, efficacy and safety of anticoagulants are controversial. Experts have given a broad spectrum of opinions. Surveys of practitioners have also demonstrated a lack of consensus on the use of anticoagulants for ischemic stroke. The uncertainty is due, in large part, to the lack of definitive clinical data. A review by the panel of the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association found no strong evidence for effectiveness of anticoagulants in treating acute ischemic stroke. Several clinical trials have suggested that utility of emergent anticoagulation has no significant effect in improving clinical outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke. In the present review, we have attempted to provide a framework for the emergent use of anticoagulants in acute ischemic stroke patients.
PMCID: PMC3526137  PMID: 23267405
Ischemic Stroke; Anticoagulants; Significant effect
2.  Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of dextromethorphan in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke 
Introduction
Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world. However, there is still no approved neuroprotective drug for acute ischaemic stroke. To clarify the neuroprotective efficacy and safety of dextromethorphan in stroke, the following study was carried out.
Material and methods
Forty patients with acute stroke causing moderate deficit were randomized to be treated with either dextromethorphan 300 mg per day or placebo for 5 days. Plasma level of dextromethorphan and its active metabolite was not evaluated in this study. The NIHSS score was calculated on day 5 and the Barthel activities of daily living index and Rankin score were checked after 3 months by a blinded investigator. Collected data were analysed using the t-test and χ2 test.
Results
In the dextromethorphan-treated group, the mean NIHSS score was 16.8 ±3.9 at baseline, and was 14.2 ±4.8 for the placebo-treated group (p = 0.069). At day 5, there was also no significant difference regarding NIHSS score (p = 0.167). At the 3-month follow-up, there was no significant difference regarding Barthel scale and Rankin score between the dextromethorphan and placebo groups.
Conclusions
The results of our study suggest that although low-dose and short-term oral administration of dextromethorphan seems to be not neuroprotective, it does not worsen either patients’ condition or NIHSS score. Moreover, patients treated with dextromethorphan showed a significant reduction in seizures (complication after stroke), but had increased chance of MI and renal failure by almost 5% when compared to the placebo-treated groups. More prolonged studies with a higher number of cases are recommended.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2011.23413
PMCID: PMC3258743  PMID: 22295030
stroke; neuroprotection; dextromethorphan; treatment
3.  The Efficacy of Citroline in the Treatment of Ischemic Stroke and Primary Hypertensive Intracereral Hemorrhage; A Review Article 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(3):122-125.
Stroke is a medical emergency with a mortality rate higher than most forms of cancer. It is the second leading cause of death in developed countries and the most common cause of serious, long-term disability in adults.
Primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major clinical problem that accounts for 15% of all acute stroke hospitalizations. Currently, there is no medical therapy available for these patients, with options being limited to supportive care or invasive neurosurgical evacuation. The damage induced by an ICH appears to be related to a combination of different factors. In addition to direct mechanical disruption from the hematoma, surrounding injury secondary to edema formation and ischemia are contributing factors for brain injury following ICH. Citicoline (cytidine-5-diphosphocholine) is an essential precursor for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine that is key component of cell membranes. Citicoline is a naturally occurring endogenous compound. For clinical use, the sodium salt of this compound usually utilized. During ischemia, phosphatidylcholine is broken down into free fatty acids, which in turn are used to generate free radicals that potentiate ischemic injury. Citicoline is a neuroprotectant drug with some beneficial effects in human ischemic stroke and primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with an excellent safety profile.
In the current paper, we review published papers regarding use of citicoline in the treatment of human ischemic stroke and primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
PMCID: PMC3347821  PMID: 22577428
Citicoline; Treatment; Ischemic Stroke; Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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