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1.  Clinical Determinants of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Deterioration in Patients Suffered From Complete Left Bundle Branch Block 
Recently, the deleterious effects of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on left ventricular systolic function have been taken into consideration.
The present study aimed to identify underlying factors that predict left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) deterioration in patients suffered from complete LBBB.
Patients and Methods:
In a retrospective case-control study, the data of 220 consecutive patients diagnosed with LBBB on their electrocardiograms were assessed. They were referred to Isfahan Heart Center in Isfahan Province, Iran in 2013. LVEF deterioration was defined as a decrease in LVEF at least 10% between the baseline and follow-up echocardiography study. Thus, achieving the LVEF values ≤ 40% in patients with an initial EF of > 50% was considered LVEF deterioration.
Among 220 patients, 40% of LBBB patients suffered LVEF deterioration within 3 months of initial assessment. The group with LVEF deterioration had higher male to female ratio, had higher NYHA score, and suffered more from systolic hypertension than another group. Those with coronary artery disease (CAD) had also significantly lower LVEF than non-CAD ones. Adverse associations were revealed between systolic blood pressure and LVEF measurement (r = -0.193, P = 0.006) as well as between NYHA score and LVEF (r = -0.215, P = 0.002). A multivariable logistic regression model showed that among baseline variables, male gender (OR = 3.218, P < 0.001), history of systolic hypertension (OR = 2.012, P = 0.029), higher NYHA score (OR = 1.623, P = 0.005), and the presence of coronary artery disease (OR = 2.475, P = 0.028) could effectively predict LVEF deterioration in patients with LBBB.
Male gender, history of hypertension, high NYHA score, and the presence of CAD predict LVEF deterioration in patients with LBBB.
PMCID: PMC4376987  PMID: 25838930
Bundle-Branch Block; Coronary Artery; Left Ventricular; Ejection Fraction
2.  Coronary artery disease and plasma apolipoprotein E4 in mild cognitive impairment 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(5):244-251.
Atherosclerosis and apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) are known risks for Dementia. We sought to evaluate the relationship between coronary atherosclerosis and APOE4 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
In a case-control study, subjects with age more than 60 years and recent coronary angiography were evaluated by mini-mental state examination and neuropsychiatry unit cognitive assessment tool (NUCOG) to find the patients with MCI (n = 40) and the controls with normal cognition (n = 40). Coronary angiography records were re-assessed to find the severity of coronary artery disease by the Gensini scores. Plasma levels of APOE4 were measured.
There were no-significant difference between the 2 groups regarding the plasma APOE4 levels (P = 0.706) and the Gensini scores (P = 0.236). Associations between the Gensini scores and the NUCOG scores in the MCI group (r = −0.196, P = 0.225) and the control group (r = 0.189, P = 0.243) were not significant. However, the interaction effect between the Gensini and the NUCOG scores based on allocation to the control or the patient groups showed statistically significant difference (F(1,67) = 4.84, P = 0.031).
Although atherosclerosis has been considered as known risk factor for dementia and MCI, this study could not reveal that coronary atherosclerosis-related to declining in cognitive functioning. There was no significant association between plasma APOE4 levels and MCI.
PMCID: PMC4251478  PMID: 25477981
Mild Cognitive Impairment; Coronary Artery; Angiography; Apolipoprotein E4
3.  Predictive value of P-wave duration and dispersion in post coronary artery bypass surgery atrial fibrillation 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(2):59-62.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common complication of cardiac surgery. Although it is managed easily, it can cause critical hemodynamic instabilities for intensive care patients. This observational study investigated the predictive power of P-wave dispersion (PWD) for the incidence of post cardiac surgery AF.
Among patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG), 52 patients were selected randomly. Before the operation, ejection fraction, regional wall motion abnormality, and mitral regurgitation were determined by echocardiography. Angiographic data provided information about stenosed vessels. PWD was measured before and after CABG. The incidence of post-CABG AF was determined by rhythm monitoring.
There were no significant differences in age, sex, stenosed vessels, maximum P-wave duration, the prevalence of hypertension, smoking, mitral regurgitation, and regional wall motion abnormality between post-CABG AF and non-AF groups (P > 0.05). The mean prevalence of diabetes mellitus in post-CABG AF group was more than non-AF group (P = 0.036). The mean ejection fraction in post-CABG AF group was lower than non-AF group (P < 0.005). The mean PWD in AF group vs. non-AF group before CABG was 47.5 vs. 23.7 ms. The mean values of post-surgical PWD in AF and non-AF groups were 48.10 and 24.4 ms, respectively. Before CABG, the mean ejection fraction value and minimum P-wave duration in AF group were lower than non-AF group (P < 0.005). A reverse relation was present between minimum P wave duration and PWD (P < 0.001). There was a negative association between high ejection fraction values and decreased PWD (P = 0.002).
Our data suggested minimum P wave duration, PWD, and low ejection fraction are as good predictors of AF in patients undergoing isolated CABG. The absence of differences in age, sex, smoking, hypertension, mitral regurgitation, and regional wall motion abnormality in our study was in contrast with other reports. On the other hand, increased rate of post-CABG AF in our diabetic patients with lower ejection fraction supports other studies. Overall, minimum P wave duration, PWD, and low ejection fraction can be used for patient risk stratification of AF after CABG.
PMCID: PMC3463989  PMID: 23056104
Atrial Fibrillation; Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting; P-Wave Dispersion; Predictor
4.  The Relationship between Weight and CVD Risk Factors in a Sample Population from Central Iran (Based on IHHP) 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(2):82-89 .
Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of mortality all around the world. Obesity is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this respect, we decided to examine the effect of the subgroups of weight on cardiovascular risk factors.
This cross-sectional study was done in 2006 using the data obtained by the Iranian Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) and based on classification of obesity by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this study, the samples were tested based on the Framingham risk score, Metabolic Measuring Score (MMS) and classification of obesity. Chi-square and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis.
12514 people with a mean age of 38 participated in this study. 6.8% of women and 14% of men had university degrees (higher than diploma). Obesity was seen in women more than men: 56.4% of women and 40% of men had a Body Mass Index of (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2. 13% of the subjects had FBS > 110 and13.9% of them were using hypertensive drugs. In this study, we found that all risk factors, except HDL cholesterol in men, increased with an increase in weight. This finding is also confirmed by the Framingham flowfigure for men and women.
One of every two Americans, of any age and sex, has a Body Mass Index of (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2. Obesity associated CVD and other serious diseases. Many studies have been done in different countries to find the relationship between obesity and CVD risk factors. For example, in the U.S.A and Canada they found that emteropiotic parameters, blood presser and lipids increased by age(of both sexes). Moreover, another study done in China, which is a country in Asia like Iran, shows that BMI has an indirect effect on HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride. This data is consistent with the results of the current study. However, In China they found that this relationship in men is stronger than women, but our study reveals the opposite.
PMCID: PMC3463990  PMID: 23056109
Body Mass Index (BMI); Overweight; Cardiovascular Risk Factors; Framingham Risk Score; Metabolic Syndrome
5.  Comparing Diagnostic Techniques of Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and Doppler Ultrasonography in Determining Severity of Renal Artery Stenosis 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;7(2):58-62.
Renal artery stenosis is one of the important causes of hypertension and end stage renal failure. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and Doppler ultrasonography are non-invasive and safe diagnostic techniques that have also high sensitivity and specificity. Since the accuracy and reliability of these techniques depend upon technicians and softwares, we decided to evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of these techniques in Isfahan.
Our study included all the patients (37 patients) who underwent renal artery angiography during 2 years from May 2003 to May 2005 and up to six months after that had underwent MRA (21 patients) and Doppler sonography (16 patients) in Isfahan. Renal artery angiography was considered as the gold standard.
Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 100%, 25%, 25%, and 100% were obtained for MRA respectively. Specificity and positive predictive values (PPV) of Doppler sonography were 67%. Its sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPV) were 57%.
Although it seems that technician dependency, technical and software problems were the reasons of low specificity of gadolinium-enhanced MRA in our study, further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.
PMCID: PMC3347845  PMID: 22577447
MRA; Doppler Ultrasonography; Renal Artery Stenosis.

Results 1-5 (5)