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1.  Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil 
In this study, application of various concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075%) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil and there were compared to Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) during storage at 37 and 47 °C. The main compounds of EO were identified as thymol (50.07%), γ- terpinene (23.92%) and p-cymene (22.9%). Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value measurement in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effect in comparison to BHA and BHT. Samples added with EO at 0.075% were the most stable during storage at both temperatures (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Totox value, antioxidant activity (AA), stabilization factor (F) and antioxidant power (AOP) determination confirmed efficacy of this EO as antioxidant in sunflower oil. EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 20.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids.
doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0484-z
PMCID: PMC3857403  PMID: 24426060
Carum copticum; Essential oil; Sunflower oil; Antioxidant activity
2.  Is there any association of personality traits with vascular endothelial function or systemic inflammation? 
Background:
Evidences showed association of some personality traits with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, but mediated mechanisms are not entirely described. In this study, we investigated the association of different personality traits with systemic inflammation and endothelial function as probable mediators.
Methods:
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on 40-60 years old employees of an industrial company located in Isfahan city (central Iran). Participants were selected through simple random sampling. Personality types were evaluated using the neuroticism-extroversion-openness personality inventory and systemic inflammatory status was determined with high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level. To evaluate endothelial function flow mediated dilation (FMD) were measured. The obtained data were analyzed with univariate correlation and multiple linear regression tests.
Results:
A total of 254 cases with mean age of 51.4 ± 6.1 years were evaluated. There was no significant relationship between hs-CRP level and FMD with the personality traits in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, no association was found between the scores of personality traits and FMD with controlling the factors such as age, body mass index dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Only there was an inverse association between conscientiousness score and hs-CRP (β = −0.241, P = 0.013).
Conclusions:
In our population who were the employees of an industrial company, no relationship was found between specific personality trait and endothelial dysfunction. However, we found that the personality trait of responsibility (conscientiousness) is negatively associated with inflammation. Further multi-center studies and also cohort studies are recommended in this regard.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.143254
PMCID: PMC4219206  PMID: 25371867
Cardiovascular disease; endothelial function; personality traits; psychological factors; systemic inflammation
3.  Target Antigens for Perinuclear Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies in Iranian Patients with Ulcerative Colitis 
BACKGROUND
Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) carry autoantibodies such as perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA).
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the target antigens for p-ANCA in Iranian patients with UC.
METHODS
p-ANCA target antigens including elastase, lactoferrin, cathepsin G, myeloproxidase, lysozyme, and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) were determined in 113 patients with UC using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
RESULTS
59.2% of the patients were positive for at least one antigen and p-ANCA directed against lactoferrin, elastase, lysozyme, cathepsin G, Bactericidal permeability increasing protein, and myeloproxidase in 31.5%, 25.9%, 8.3%, 7.4%, 5.6%, and 0% of the patients, respectively.
CONCLUSION
The highest prevalence of p-ANCA was observed against lactoferrin and elastase. Also, myeloproxidase was not an antigen for p-ANCA among our patients.
PMCID: PMC4208928  PMID: 25349683
Inflammatory bowel disease; Ulcerative colitis; Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; Ttarget antigen
4.  A 40-bp Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism of Murine Double Minute2 (MDM2) Increased the Risk of Breast Cancer in Zahedan, Southeast Iran 
Iranian Biomedical Journal  2014;18(4):245-249.
Background: MDM2 (Murine Double Minute2) is an oncoprotein that inhibits the P53 activity. Overexpression of MDM2 gene has been reported in several human tumors. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of 40-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism on the promoter of MDM2 and susceptibility to breast cancer in a sample of Iranian population. Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 236 patients with breast cancer and 203 healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood by the salting-out method. The 40-bp ins/del polymorphism was determined by using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The findings indicated that MDM2 ins/del variant increased the risk of breast cancer in co-dominant- (odds ratio [OR] = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.14-3.85, P = 0.018, del/del vs. ins/ins), dominant- (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.02-2.18, P = 0.038, ins/del + del/del vs. ins/ins), and recessive- (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.03-3.34, P = 0.038, del/del vs. ins/ins + ins/del) tested inheritance models. The del allele increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.11-1.98, P = 0.008) compared with ins allele. Conclusions: Our result revealed that 40-bp ins/del polymorphism in the promoter of MDM2 increased the risk of breast cancer in an Iranian population. Further investigations with larger sample sizes and diverse ethnicities are needed to verify our findings.
doi:10.6091/ibj.13332.2014
PMCID: PMC4225065  PMID: 25326024
Breast cancer; Murine Double Minute2 (MDM2); Polymorphism
5.  S100A8/A9 induces autophagy and apoptosis via ROS-mediated cross-talk between mitochondria and lysosomes that involves BNIP3 
Cell research  2009;20(3):314-331.
The complex formed by two members of the S100 calcium-binding protein family, S100A8/A9, exerts apoptosis-inducing activity in various cells of different origins. Here, we present evidence that the underlying molecular mechanisms involve both programmed cell death I (PCD I, apoptosis) and PCD II (autophagy)-like death. Treatment of cells with S100A8/A9 caused the increase of Beclin-1 expression as well as Atg12-Atg5 formation. S100A8/A9-induced cell death was partially inhibited by the specific PI3-kinase class III inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), and by the vacuole H+-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin-A1 (Baf-A1). S100A8/A9 provoked the translocation of BNIP3, a BH3 only pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member, to mitochondria. Consistent with this finding, ΔTM-BNIP3 overexpression partially inhibited S100A8/A9-induced cell death, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and partially protected against the decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential in S100A8/A9-treated cells. In addition, either ΔTM-BNIP3 overexpression or N-acetyl-L-cysteine co-treatment decreased lysosomal activation in cells treated with S100A8/A9. Our data indicate that S100A8/A9-promoted cell death occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via ROS and the process involves BNIP3.
doi:10.1038/cr.2009.129
PMCID: PMC4161879  PMID: 19935772
S100A8/A9; Calprotectin; lysosomal activation; mitochondrial membrane potential; BNIP3; Beclin-1
6.  Alpha-1 antitrypsin, retinol binding protein and keratin 10 alterations in patients with psoriasis vulgaris, a proteomic approach 
Objective(s):
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that appears on the skin. Although psoriasis is clinically and histologically well characterized, its pathogenesis is unknown in detail. The aims of this study were to evaluate the proteome of psoriatic patients' sera and to compare them with those of normal healthy human to find valuable biomarkers.
Materials and Methods:
In a case-control study, twenty cases of white patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 10 males and 10 females and sixteen healthy controls, 8 males and 8 females were enrolled in the study. The serum protein expression patterns obtained after depletion of albumin were compared by using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to MALDI/TOF-TOF to identify disease associated proteins.
Results:
Differential expression of nine protein spots representing four unique proteins including alpha-1 antitrypsin, retinol binding protein, keratin 10 and an unknown protein (with pI 6.47 and molecular weight of 19941 Da), between psoriatic and healthy human serum were found. Furthermore, expression of four new alpha-1 antitrypsin isoforms with different molecular weight and isoelectric point were observed in psoriatic serums in this research for the first time.
Conclusion:
A unique proteomic profiling with abnormal expression of alpha-1 antitrypsin and presence of keratin 10 in sera of psoriasis patients were observed that may constitute new and useful findings of psoriasis and offer a clue to a better understanding of the inflammatory pathway.
PMCID: PMC4322147
Alpha-1 antitrypsin; Keratin 10; Proteomics; Psoriasis; Retinol binding protein
7.  First report on the association of drinking water hardness and endothelial function in children and adolescents 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2014;10(4):746-751.
Introduction
This study aims to investigate the relationship of water hardness and its calcium and magnesium content with endothelial function in a population-based sample of healthy children and adolescents.
Material and methods
This case-control study was conducted in 2012 among 90 individuals living in two areas with moderate and high water hardness in Isfahan County, Iran. The flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and the serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) were measured as surrogate markers of endothelial function, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as a marker of inflammation.
Results
Data of 89 participants (51% boys, mean age 14.75 (2.9) years) were complete. Those participants living in the area with high water hardness had higher FMD, hs-CRP, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) than their counterparts living in the area with moderate water hardness. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that after adjustment for confounding factors of age, gender, body mass index, healthy eating index and physical activity level, total water hardness, as well as water content of calcium and magnesium, had a significant positive relationship with FMD. The corresponding associations were inverse and significant with soluble adhesion molecules (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
This study, which to the best of our knowledge is the first of its kind in the pediatric age group, suggests that water hardness, as well as its calcium and magnesium content, may have a protective role against early stages of atherosclerosis in children and adolescents.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2014.44866
PMCID: PMC4175776  PMID: 25276160
water hardness; endothelial function; calcium; magnesium; children and adolescents
8.  Dietary fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease 
Background:
Atherosclerosis, with its major manifestation, coronary artery disease (CAD) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Dietary fatty acids intakes favorably effect on inflammatory responses. This study was conducted to examine the association between dietary fatty acid intakes and inflammatory markers, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), in CAD patients among Iranian population.
Materials and Methods:
This hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Chamran Heart Hospital, Isfahan, Iran in 2012. Patients aged ≥45 years with first ever symptomatic CAD confirmed by angiography were included. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the usual intakes of dietary fatty acids.
Results:
The energy-adjusted daily intakes (mean ± SD) of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) were 27 ± 9, 22 ± 6, 21 ± 5, 0.4 ± 0.32, and 0.85 ± 0.82 g/d; respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, SFA was directly related to hs-CRP (P = 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.001) concentrations. Intakes of EPA + DHA and MUFA, were significantly adversely related to plasma hs-CRP concentration (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively) but not IL-6, albeit MUFA was modestly inversely related to IL-6 (P = 0.08). No significant relationships were observed for other fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid.
Conclusions:
These findings suggest that saturated fatty acids, EPA + DHA and MUFA were significantly related to plasma inflammatory markers in CAD patients.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.137818
PMCID: PMC4162073  PMID: 25221751
Coronary artery disease; fatty acids; high sensitivity C-reactive protein; interleukin-6
9.  Modeling the growth of Staphylococcus aureus as affected by black zira (Bunium persicum) essential oil, temperature, pH and inoculum levels 
Black zira (Bunium persicum) is a medicinal plant and spice, naturally grows in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of different concentrations of Bunium persicum essential oil (EO; including 0, 0.08, 0.16 and 0.24%), three incubation temperatures (15, 25 and 35˚C), three levels of pH (5, 6 and 7 adjusted by hydrochloric acid), and three inoculum size (102, 103 and 104 CFU mL-1) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in the brain heart infusion broth. Black zira EO was extracted and its component was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The experiment was carried out in triplicate. Growth was monitored by visible turbidity during a 30-day period. To evaluate effects of explanatory variable on time to detection (TTD) of bacterial growth, parametric survival models based on Log-normal distribution was used. All explanatory variables had significant association with time to detection (p < 0.05). The final model accurately predicted the growth initiation and inhibition of S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC4279627  PMID: 25568703
Black zira; Essential oil; Predictive modeling; Staphylococcus growth
10.  A 45-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of UCP2 gene is associated with metabolic syndrome 
Background
Metabolic syndrome (MeS) is being recognized as a risk factor for insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. The present study was aimed to find out the possible association between 45-bp I/D polymorphism of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and MeS.
Methods
DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 151 subjects with and 149 subjects without MeS. 45-bp I/D variant of UCP2 was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results
Our finding showed that 45-bp I/D polymorphism was associated with protection against MeS (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.34-0.92, p = 0.020 D/I vs DD and OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.34-0.86, p = 0.009; D/I + I/I vs D/D). The I allele decreased the risk of MeS (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.44-0.90, p = 0.011) in comparison with D allele.
Conclusion
In conclusion, our result suggests that 45-bp I/D polymorphism is associated with the risk of MeS, which remains to be cleared.
doi:10.1186/2251-6581-13-12
PMCID: PMC3937167  PMID: 24398006
Metabolic syndrome; UCP2; Polymorphism; Insertion/deletion
11.  Is there any association of anxiety-depressive symptoms with vascular endothelial function or systemic inflammation? 
Background:
Studies have shown the association of mood disorders and endothelial dysfunction, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease; however, mediatory mechanisms are not entirely clarified in this regard. We investigated the relationship between depression/anxiety symptoms with systemic inflammation and endothelial function.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011 on employees of an oil company located in the Isfahan city (central Iran). Participants were selected with clustered random sampling. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Systemic inflammatory status was evaluated by measuring sensitive C-reactive protein (high sensitive-CRP). To evaluate the endothelial function flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured.
Results:
During the study period, 254 participants (mean age = 51.4 ± 6.1 years) were evaluated. No significant relationship was found between high sensitive-CRP or FMD and any of the variables of anxiety or depression. In multivariate analysis, by controlling the possible confounding factors, no association was found between anxiety score, depression, or the overall score of HADS with high sensitive-CRP or FMD. After the separate analysis of patients with and without diabetes, depression score was correlated inversely with FMD among patients with diabetes (r = 0.525, P = 0.021).
Conclusion:
According to the results, in the studied population, there was no relationship between anxiety/depression with systemic inflammation or endothelial dysfunction, while in individuals with diabetes, depression was associated with endothelial dysfunction. In this regard more cohort studies are recommended.
PMCID: PMC3906790  PMID: 24523785
Anxiety; cardiovascular diseases; depression; inflammation; vascular endothelial
12.  Evaluation of Paraoxonase Activity in Children With Nephrotic Syndrome 
Nephro-urology Monthly  2013;5(5):978-982.
Background
It has been proposed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Paraoxonase, a high-density lipoprotein associated enzyme, prevents low-density lipoproteins from oxidation.
Objectives
The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum activities of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), and aryleterase (ARE) as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in children with nephrotic syndrome in acute and remission phase.
Patients and Methods
The study consisted of 20 patients in acute and remission phases and 23 healthy controls. PON-1 and ARE activities were determined spectrophotometrically using paraoxone and phenyacetate as substrate, respectively. TAC was measured using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP).
Results
The levels of PON, ARE, and TAC were significantly lower in acute phase of nephrotic syndrome compared with the remission phase. The levels of PON, ARE and TAC increased in remission phase.
Conclusions
Our results revealed that the determination of paraoxonase activity might be a biomarker for responses to nephrotic syndrome treatment, which needs to be fully clarified.
doi:10.5812/numonthly.12606
PMCID: PMC3955290  PMID: 24693505
Nephrotic Syndrome; Aryldialkylphosphatase; Antioxidants
13.  CD226 rs763361 (Gly307Ser) Polymorphism Is Associated with Susceptibility to Rheumatoid Arthritis in Zahedan, Southeast Iran 
Iranian Biomedical Journal  2013;17(4):194-199.
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with many genetic factors predisposing to disease susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of CD226 rs727088 and rs763361 polymorphisms and susceptibility to RA in a sample of the Iranian population. Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 100 patients with RA and 104 healthy subjects. The polymorphisms were determined using tetra amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The rs763361 (Gly307Ser) polymorphism increased the risk of RA in codominant, dominant and recessive-tested inheritance models (odds ratio [OR] = 3.18, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 1.44-7.02, P = 0.004, CC vs. TT, and OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.10-3.57, P = 0.023, CC vs. CT-TT, and OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.26-5.37, P = 0.010, CC + CT vs. TT, respectively). In addition, the rs763361 T allele increased the risk of RA (OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.38-3.08, P<0.001). However, no significant difference was observed among the groups regarding CD226 rs727088 polymorphism (χ2 = 3.20, P = 0.202). Conclusions: Our finding showed that CD226 rs763361, but not rs727088, gene polymorphism increased the risk of RA in a sample of the Iranian population.
doi:10.6091/ibj.1205.2013
PMCID: PMC3882922  PMID: 23999715
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA); CD226; Polymorphism
14.  Predictive value of the fragmented QRS complex in 6-month mortality and morbidity following acute coronary syndrome 
Background
Fragmented QRS encompasses different RSR’ patterns showing various morphologies of the QRS complexes with or without the Q wave on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram. It has been shown possibly to cause adverse cardiac outcomes in patients with some heart diseases, including coronary artery disease. In view of the need for risk stratification of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome in the most efficacious and cost-effective way, we conducted this study to clarify the value of developing fragmented QRS in a cohort of patients presenting with their first acute coronary syndrome in predicting 6-month mortality and morbidity.
Methods
One hundred consecutive patients admitted to the coronary care unit at Shahid Madani Heart Center in Tabriz from December 2008 to March 2009 with their first acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in this prospective study. Demographic and electrocardiographic data on admission, inhospital mortality, and need for revascularization were recorded. Electrocardiography performed 2 months after the index event was examined for development of fragmented QRS. Mortality and morbidity was evaluated at 6-month follow-up in all patients.
Results
The patients were of mean age 57.7 ± 12.8 years, and 84% were men. The primary diagnosis was unstable angina in 17 (17%) patients, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) in 11 (11%), anterior or inferior ST elevation MI in 66 (66%), and postero-inferior MI in six (6%). Fragmented QRS was present in 30 (30%) patients during the first admission, which increased to 44% at the 2-month follow-up and to 53% at the 6-month follow-up. The presence of various coronary risk factors and drug therapy given, including fibrinolytic agents, had no effect on development of fragmented QRS. Mortality was significantly higher (P = 0.032) and left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower (P = 0.001) in the fragmented QRS group at the 6-month follow-up.
Conclusion
This study strongly suggests that fragmented QRS on initial presentation with acute coronary syndrome is not predictive of subsequent events but, if present 6 months later, could be predictive of an adverse outcome.
doi:10.2147/IJGM.S40050
PMCID: PMC3674017  PMID: 23761979
acute coronary syndrome; fragmented QRS; electrocardiography; mortality; left ventricular function
15.  Association of Adiponectin rs1501299 and rs266729 Gene Polymorphisms With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease 
Hepatitis Monthly  2013;13(5):e9527.
Background
Genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Adiponectin is a white and brown adipose tissue hormone, and have been found to play essential roles in the regulation of energy homoeostasis. Recent reports have identified a possible role of adiponectin in NAFLD via PPARγ pathway.
Objectives
The present study was designed to find out the impact of adiponectin rs1501299 (276G/T) and rs266729 (-11377C/G) gene polymorphisms in NAFLD.
Patients and Methods
Eighty-three patients with diagnosis of NAFLD, and 93 healthy subjects were included in the study. Tetra ARMS-PCR was designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Results
A significant difference was found between NAFLD and control group regarding the rs266729 polymorphism (χ2 = 7.35, P = 0.025). The rs266729 polymorphism increased the risk of NAFLD in codominant (CC vs. CG: OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.16 - 4.12, P = 0.016) and dominant (CC vs. CG/GG: OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.25 - 4.27; P = 0.008) inheritance tested models. The G allele increased the risk of NAFLD (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.03 - 2.57, P = 0.037) in comparison with C allele. No significant difference was found between the groups concerning adiponectin rs1501299 gene polymorphism (χ2 = 0.70, P = 0.697).
Conclusions
adiponectin rs266729 polymorphism might be a candidate gene, which determines the susceptibility to NAFLD. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings in various populations.
doi:10.5812/hepatmon.9527
PMCID: PMC3734897  PMID: 23922565
Fatty Liver; Adiponectin; Polymorphism
16.  Aberrant Promoter Methylation Profile of Niemann-Pick Type C1 Gene in Cardiovascular Disease 
Iranian Biomedical Journal  2013;17(2):77-83.
Background: The protein of Niemann-pick type C1 (NPC1) gene promotes the egress of cholesterol from late endosomes and lysosomes to other cellular compartments and contributes to a process known as reverse cholesterol transport. This study aimed to examine whether promoter methylation of NPC1 is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Fifty CVD patients and 50 healthy subjects as the control group were recruited in this study. Promoter methylation of NPC1 gene was defined using a nested-methylation specific polymerase chain reaction method. Statistical analyses were done using the chi-square, t-test or ANOVA tests. Results: Our study showed that the frequency of semi-methylated promoter (methylated/unmethylated status) was significantly higher in CVD patients than that in controls (OR = 6.521, 95% CI = 2.211-19.215, P = 0.008). However, a completely methylated promoter (methylated/methylated status) was not detected in any subjects in either of the two groups tested. Additionally, the analysis of clinical data according to the methylation status of NPC1 gene demonstrated that serum levels of total cholesterol, total triglycerides, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are influenced by NPC1 methylation, so that subjects with a completely unmethylated promoter (Unmethylated/unmethylated status) held lower levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C and higher levels of HDL-C. Conclusion: Our findings propose that the NPC1 promoter methylation is a probable mechanism that can result in reduced/impaired NPC1 expression/activity and may thus contribute to progression of CVD.
doi:10.6091/ibj.11432.2013
PMCID: PMC3677679  PMID: 23567849
Niemann-pick type C1 (NPC1); Promoter methylation; cardiovascular disease
17.  Analysis of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 and MMP-9 genes’ methylation and their expression profiles with risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 
Indian Journal of Human Genetics  2013;19(2):144-149.
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate the effect of promoter methylation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
CTLA-4 and MMP-9 promoter methylation were investigated using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) in blood samples taken from 80 NAFLD individuals and 95 healthy controls. The expression levels of CTLA-4 and MMP-9 were also assessed in 10 blood and 9 liver tissues mRNA samples from NAFLD patients. These cases were compared to the blood (n = 10) samples of healthy controls with real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR.
RESULTS:
No significant relationship was found for methylation of CTLA-4 and MMP-9 between cases and controls. The relative expression of CTLA-4 and MMP-9 mRNA in NAFLD was not significantly different compared to healthy control samples.
CONCLUSION:
For the first time, our outcomes indicate that the methylation status of CTLA-4 and MMP-9 genes has no significant function on the process of NAFLD.
doi:10.4103/0971-6866.116106
PMCID: PMC3758718  PMID: 24019613
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4; expression; gene; methylation; matrix metalloproteinases-9; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
18.  Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Echinophora platyloba D.C against some of food-borne pathogenic bacteria 
Veterinary Research Forum  2013;4(2):123-127.
Echinophora Platyloba D.C as a medicinal plant is used for preservation of foods and treatment of many diseases in different regions of Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and investigation of the antibacterial effects of essential oil as well as methanol extract from aerial part of Echinophora Platyloba D.C against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. Thyphimurium and E. coli. Chemical analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) showed that ocimene (26.51%), 2,3-Dimethyl-cyclohexa-1,3-diene (9.87%), alpha-pinene (7.69%) and gamma-dodecanolactone (5.66%) were dominant components of essential oil and the main constituents of methanol extract were o-Cymene (28.66%), methanol (8.50%), alpha-pinene (7.42%) and gamma-decalactone (5.20%). The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive against gram-negative bacteria. The most sensitive bacteria to essential oil and extract of Echinophora Platyloba D.C were L. mono-cytogenes and S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of essential oil against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 6250 and 12500 ppm, respectively. MIC of methanol extract against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was 25000 ppm. Therefore, purifying and evaluation of antibacterial effects of the active substances of the essential oil and methanol extract of this plant for future application as antibacterial agents and food preservatives to combat pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms is recommended.
PMCID: PMC4313014
Antimicrobial activity; Echinophora Platyloba D.C; Essential oil; Methanol extract
19.  Different Faces of Hepatocellular Carcinoma as a Health Threat in 21st Century 
Hepatitis Monthly  2013;13(2):e9308.
doi:10.5812/hepatmon.9308
PMCID: PMC3632001  PMID: 23613688
Biological Markers; Alpha 1 Antitrypsin; lobaplatin; Aflatoxins; Hepatitis B Virus; Hepatitis C
20.  Functional Polymorphisms of FAS and FASL Gene and Risk of Breast Cancer – Pilot Study of 134 Cases 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53075.
Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system is one of the key apoptotic signaling entities in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. De-regulation of this pathway, i.e. by mutations may prevent the immune system from the removal of newly-formed tumor cells, and thus lead to tumor formation. The present study investigated the association between −1377 G/A (rs2234767) and −670 A/G (rs1800682) polymorphisms in Fas as well as single nucleotide polymorphisms INV2nt −124 A/G (rs5030772) and −844 C/T (rs763110) in FasL in a sample of Iranian patients with breast cancer. This case-control study was done on 134 breast cancer patients and 152 normal women. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples. The polymorphisms were determined by using tetra-ARMS-PCR method. There was no significant difference in the genotype distribution of FAS rs2234767 polymorphism between cases and controls. FAS rs1800682, FASL rs5030772, and FASL rs763110 genotypes showed significant associations with an increasing risk of breast cancer (odds ratio OR = 3.18, P = 0.019; OR = 5.08, P = 0.012; OR = 2.40, P = 0.024, respectively). In conclusion, FAS rs2234767 was not associated with breast cancer risk. Though, FAS rs1800682, FASL rs5030772, and FASL rs763110 polymorphisms were associated with the risk of breast cancer in the examined population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053075
PMCID: PMC3543397  PMID: 23326385
21.  Socioeconomic characteristics and controlled hypertension: Evidence from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):77-81.
BACKGROUND
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It affects approximately 18.0% of Iranian adults. This study aimed to estimate age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension and its control among Iranian persons older 19 years of age. It also tried to find and socioeconomic factors associated with hypertension control in Iranian population.
METHODS
In Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) subjects were selected by multistage random sampling. The participants completed questionnaires containing demographic information, lifestyle habits, medical history, and consumption of relevant medications, especially antihypertensive agents. Income, marital status, and educational level were considered as socioeconomic factors. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medications. Controlled hypertension was considered as systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg among hypertensive subjects.
RESULTS
The prevalence of hypertension and controlled hypertension was 18.9% and 20.9%, respectively. We found significant relationships between hypertension and marital status, education, and income. At age ≥ 65 years old, odds ratio (OR) was 19.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.01-24.28] for hypertension. Middle family income (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58-0.87) and education level of 6-12 years (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.25-0.35) were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension (P = 0.001). Among subjects aging 65 years old or higher, the OR of controlled hypertension was 2.64 (95% CI: 1.61-4.33). Married subjects had a higher OR for controlled hypertension (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.36-3.52). Obesity had no significant relationships with controlled hypertension.
CONCLUSION
The IHHP data showed significant relationships between some socioeconomic factors and controlled hypertension. Therefore, as current control rates for hypertension in Iran are clearly unacceptable, we recommend preventive measures to control hypertension in all social strata of the Iranian population.
PMCID: PMC3653252  PMID: 23696763
Socioeconomic Factor; High Blood Pressure; Control
22.  Association of IRGM Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Zahedan, Southeast Iran 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:950801.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. IRGM1 is an important protein in the innate immune response against intracellular pathogens by regulating autophagy. Polymorphisms in the IRGM genes are known to influence expression levels and may be associated with outcome of infections. This case-control study was done on 150 patients with PTB and 150 healthy subjects to determine whether the IRGM polymorphisms at positions −1208 A/G (rs4958842), −1161 C/T (rs4958843), and −947 C/T (rs4958846) were associated with PTB. The polymorphisms were determined using tetra-amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (T-ARMS-PCR). The results showed that the IRGM −1161 C/T and −947 C/T polymorphisms were associated with decreased susceptibility to PTB (OR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.03–0.13, P < 0.001 and OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.013–0.55, P < 0.001, resp.). No significant difference was found among the groups regarding −1208 A/G polymorphism. In conclusion we found that the IRGM −1161 C/T and −947 C/T polymorphisms but not −1208 A/G polymorphism provide relative protection against PTB in a sample of Iranian population.
doi:10.1100/2012/950801
PMCID: PMC3461614  PMID: 23049477
23.  Comparison of Serum Apolipoprotein Levels of Diabetic Children and Healthy Children with or without Diabetic Parents 
Cholesterol  2012;2012:490381.
Introduction. The association of diabetes and atherosclerosis with disorders of lipids and lipoproteins, notably high apolipoprotein B (apoB) and low apolipoprotein A1(apoA1) is well established. Because of the beginning of the atherosclerosis' process from early life, in this study, the plasma levels of apoA1 and apoB were compared in diabetic children with type I diabetes mellitus(DM), healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs),and healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDPs). Methods. This case-control study was conducted among 90 children aged 9–18 years. Serum levels of apoA and apoB were compared among 30 diabetic children (DM), 30 healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs), and 30 healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDP). Results. The mean serum apoA1 was higher in DM (153 ± 69 mg/dL) followed by HNDPs (138 ± 58 mg/dL) and HDPs (128 ± 56 mg/dl), but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean apoB value in HNDPs was significantly lower than DM and HDPs (90 ± 21 mg/dL versus 127 ± 47 and 128 ± 38 mg/dL, P < 0.05, respectively). The mean apoB levels in DM (127 ± 47 mg/dl) and HDP (128 ± 38 mg/dL) were not statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Diabetic children and healthy children with diabetic parent(s) are at higher risk of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Thus for primordial and primary prevention of atherosclerosis, we suggest screening these children for low plasma apoA1 and high plasma apoB levels.
doi:10.1155/2012/490381
PMCID: PMC3395115  PMID: 22811893
24.  Evaluation of heart rate reserve and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome in Isfahan, Iran 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(2):70-75.
BACKGROUND
Lack of heart rate increase proportionate to exercise causes poor prognosis. Moreover, inflammatory factors such as C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with atherosclerosis. The current study compared these two indices in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome in Isfahan, Iran.
METHODS
This study was performed on 203 people without and 123 patients with metabolic syndrome who were randomly selected from the participants of the Isfahan Cohort Study. The demographic data, waist circumference, blood pressure, height, and weight of the participants were recorded. Moreover, serum tr`viglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) levels were measured. Exercise test was carried out according to the Bruce standard protocol and heart rate reserve (HRR) was determined and recorded. The age-adjusted data was analyzed using generalized linear regression and student's t-test in SPSS15.
RESULTS
The mean ages of participants without and with metabolic syndrome were 54.16 ± 8.61 and 54.29 ± 7.6 years, respectively. The corresponding values for mean LDL levels were 116.17 ± 24.04 and 120.12 ± 29.55 mg/dl. TG levels were 140.38 ± 61.65 and 259.99 ± 184.49 mg/dl for subjects without and with the metabolic syndrome, respectively. The mean FBS levels were 81.81 ± 9.90 mg/dl in the participants without the syndrome and 107.13 ± 48.46 mg/dl in those with metabolic syndrome. The mean systolic blood pressure was 116.06 ± 13.69 mmHg in persons without metabolic syndrome and 130.73 ± 15.15 mmHg in patients with the syndrome. The values for mean diastolic levels in the two groups were 76.52 ± 6.69 and 82.84 ± 8.7 mmHg, respectively. While the two groups were not significantly different in terms of HRR (P = 0.27), hs-CRP levels in the metabolic syndrome group was significantly higher than the other group (P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION
We failed to establish a relationship between HRR and the metabolic syndrome. However, the observed relationship between metabolic syndrome and hs-CRP level, which is an inflammatory factor, indicates elevated levels of hs-CRP in patients with metabolic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3463992  PMID: 23056106
Metabolic Syndrome; Exercise Test; Heart Rate Reserve; High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein
25.  Association of particulate air pollution and secondhand smoke on endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation in healthy children 
Background:
This study aimed to determine the association of particulate matters with endothelial function, measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) of brachial artery, in children with or without exposure to secondhand smoke.
Methods:
This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2011 in Isfahan, which is the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The areas of the city with lowest and highest air pollution were determined, and in each area, 25 prepubescent boys with or without exposure to daily tobacco smoke in home were selected, i.e. 100 children were studied in total.
Results:
FMD was significantly smaller in those living in high-polluted area and those exposed to secondhand smoke. Multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age and body mass index, showed that both passive smoking status and living area in terms of particulate air pollution were effective determinants of the brachial artery diameter. The standardized coefficient of passive smoking status was –0.36 (SD = 0.09, P < 0.0001) showing negative association with percent increase in FMD. Likewise, the percent increase in brachial artery diameter was lower in passive smoker children. Similar relationship was documented for PM10 concentration with a regression coefficient of –0.32 (SD = 0.04, P < 0.0001). Without considering passive smoking variable, PM10 concentration has significant independent effect on FMD level.
Conclusion:
Our findings provide evidence on the association of environmental factors on endothelial dysfunction from early life. Studying such associations among healthy children may help identify the underlying mechanisms. The clinical implications of environmental factors on early stages of atherosclerosis should be confirmed in longitudinal studies.
PMCID: PMC3526122  PMID: 23267390
Air pollution; children; endothelium-dependent brachial artery; smoke

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