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1.  Effect of Different Physical Activity Training Methods on Overweight Adolescents 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(2):45-49.
BACKGROUND
In view of the growing trend of obesity around the world, including in our country, and the effect of reduced physical activity in increasing the incidence of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents and limitations of families in providing transport for their children to attend exercise classes, as well as time limitations of students in taking part in these classes, accessing appropriate methods for presenting physical activity training seems essential.
METHODS
This non-pharmacological clinical trial was performed during six months from May to November 2007 on 105 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years with obesity, randomly assigned to 3 groups of thirty-five. Nutrition and treatment behavior were the same in all groups, but physical activity training in the first group was taking part in physical activity training classes twice a week, in the second group by providing a training CD, and in the third group via face-to-face training. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric indicators were measured and recorded.
RESULTS
Mean body mass index (BMI) of participants in group attended physical activity training classes, and in the group undergone training with CD, after the interventions was significantly lower than that before the intervention.
CONCLUSION
Our findings demonstrated that training using CDs can also be effective in reducing BMI in overweight and obese children and adolescents as much as face-to-face education and participation in physical training classes. Extending such interventions can be effective at the community level.
PMCID: PMC3347816  PMID: 22577413
Children; Adolescents; Physical activity; Education; Obesity; Treatment
2.  Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population-based Sample of Children and Adolescents in Isfahan, Iran 
Objectives:
This study was conducted to explore the barriers to physical activity in a representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents.
Methods:
The study was conducted in 2007 in urban and rural areas of Isfahan district in Iran. In the qualitative part, we used the grounded theory approach, including semi-structured focus group discussions and indepth interviews. The quantitative part comprised 600 randomly selected students.
Results:
The qualitative study included 34 school students (16 girls), 20 parents (11 mothers) and 11 school staff. All students disclosed that studying was a priority. They pointed to lack of safe and easy-access place for physical activity and unsupportive family as the main barriers. Lack of self-confidence and low selfworth were the two other concepts developed in this context. Parents pointed to lack of safe and easy-access place for activity followed by the priority of studying. The concepts derived from interviews with school staff included unhealthy modeling of parents, priority of studying, and inadequate public knowledge about how to integrate physical activity in routine daily life. The quantitative survey comprised 600 students including 286 (47.8%) girls. Parents’ education level had inverse association with children’s physical activity level. Significant inverse associations of self-efficacy and physical activity levels were documented.
Conclusions:
Increasing the public knowledge about adopting physical activity habits in routine daily life, informing the families and students about the benefits of physical activity to improve learning, as well as providing safe places such as using the school facilities in non-school hours should be considered in planning effective preventive strategies and interventions.
PMCID: PMC3075475  PMID: 21566774
Physical activity; Pediatric; Barriers; Prevention; Iran
3.  Association of the components of the metabolic syndrome with non- alcoholic fatty liver disease among normal-weight, overweight and obese children and adolescents 
Objectives
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, abnormalities of liver enzymes and sonographic fatty liver, as well as the inter-related associations in normal weight, overweight and obese children and adolescents.
Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 1107 students (56.1% girls), aged 6-18 years in Isfahan, Iran. In addition to physical examination, fasting blood glucose, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes were determined. Liver sonography was performed among 931 participants. These variables were compared among participants with different body mass index (BMI) categories.
Results
From lower to higher BMI category, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and systolic blood pressure increased, and HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly. Elevated ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were documented in respectively 4.1%, 6.6% and 9.8% of normal weight group. The corresponding figure was 9.5%, 9.8% and 9.1% in overweight group, and 16.9%, 14.9% and 10.8% in obese group, respectively. In all BMI categories, ALT increased significantly by increasing the number of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Odds ratio for elevated liver enzymes and sonographic fatty liver increased significantly with higher number of the components of the metabolic syndrome and higher BMI categories before and after adjustment for age.
Conclusions
Because of the interrelationship of biochemical and sonographic indexes of fatty liver with the components of the metabolic syndrome, and with increase in their number, it is suggested to determine the clinical impact of such association in future longitudinal studies.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-1-29
PMCID: PMC2805605  PMID: 20028551

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