Identifying factors contributing to the increased risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in each population is vital, because of its life-threatening outcome. The current study aims to find the diagnostic performance of some laboratory coagulation markers for predicting DVT in an Iranian population complaining of DVT in the lower limbs.
Patients and Methods:
For this study, 66 consecutive patients with documented DVT, admitted to the Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for the first time, were considered as the case group and 33 patients without DVT documentations were included as the control group. DVT was considered when there was visualization of thrombus or non-compressibility of the vein, confirmed by bilateral lower extremity compression Doppler ultrasonographic examination. Homocysteine, antiphospholipid, and anticardiolipin antibodies were measured in both groups by using sensitive ELISA kits. Protein C was measured via a functional clotting method, and prothrombin was measured by a kinetic, enzymatic assay.
Multivariable analysis showed that the serum homocysteine levels was potentially associated with the presence of DVT after adjusting for age and gender (OR: 1.038, 95% CI: 1.007-1.070, P = 0.017). Comparison of the C statistic showed a partially good discrimination of homocysteine for DVT, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve being 0.614 and with the optimal cut-off value of 16.5 micromol/L (μmol/L) for men and 14.5 μmol/L for women.
Hyperhomocysteinemia could be considered as an independent risk factor for DVT, with an actual acceptable prognostic value, in the Iran population.
Biochemical diagnostic; deep venous coagulopathy; incidence
The role of plasma fibrinogen, a key regulator of inflammation processes and increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) to predict metabolic syndrome (MetS) is currently under investigation. We assessed differences in the indicators of cIMT and also plasma fibrinogen level between MetS and non-MetS subjects. We also assessed the role of these two parameters for independently relationship with MetS state.
The subjects in this cross-sectional survey were population-based samples of 93 men and women aged ≥ 35 years and over who were selected from the Isfahan cohort study, Isfahan, Iran. Fibrinogen was measured by the clotting assay of Clauss. Ultrasound studies of the carotid artery were performed to measure cIMT. MetS defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III.
The mean level of plasma fibrinogen was not different in the two groups with and without MetS (240.10 ± 27.80 vs. 242.56 ± 35.82, P = 0.714), but the mean of cIMT was considerably higher in MetS group than in non-MetS group (0.85 ± 0.06 mm vs. 0.66 ± 0.09 mm, P < 0.001). Using a multivariable logistic regression model, high cIMT could effectively predict MetS state with the presence of different components of MetS (odds ratio = 17.544, 95% confidence interval = 2.151-142.860, P = 0.008). The optimal cutoff point of cIMT for discriminating these two clinical states was 0.6 mm yielding a sensitivity of 61.5% and a specificity of 59.6%.
Individuals with MetS demonstrated increased cIMT values compared with those without MetS. However, high plasma fibrinogen level may not be associated with MetS state.
Metabolic Syndrome; Carotid Intima-Media Thickness; Fibrinogen; Prediction
Aim. The present study aims to explore the effects of vitamin E and omega-3 on endothelial function indicators among adolescents with metabolic syndrome. Method. In a randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled trial, 90 young individuals, aged 10 to 18 years, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to receive either vitamin E tablets (400 IU/day) or omega-3 tablets (2.4 gr/day) or placebo. For assessing endothelial functional state, the serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured by ELISA test. Results. The use of omega-3 supplementation for eight weeks led to significant increase in serum HDL level compared with the group treated with vitamin E or placebo group. In this regard, no significant correlations were found between the change in VEGF and baseline levels of other markers including anthropometric indices and serum lipids. Omega-3 could significantly reduce VEGF with the presence of other baseline variables (Beta = −12.55; P = 0.012). Conclusion. The administration of omega-3 can effectively improve endothelial function in adolescents with metabolic syndrome by reducing the level of serum VEGF, as a major index for atherosclerosis progression and endothelial destabilization. Omega-3 can be proposed as a VEGF antagonist for improving endothelial function in metabolic syndrome. The clinical implications of our findings should be assessed in future studies.
Background. According to the present evidences suggesting association between low testosterone level and prediction of reduced exercise capacity as well as poor clinical outcome in patients with heart failure, we sought to determine if testosterone therapy improves clinical and cardiovascular conditions as well as quality of life status in patients with stable chronic heart failure.
Methods. A total of 50 male patients who suffered from congestive heart failure were recruited in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomized to receive an intramuscular (gluteal) long-acting androgen injection (1 mL of testosterone enanthate 250 mg/mL) once every four weeks for 12 weeks or receive intramuscular injections of saline (1 mL of 0.9% wt/vol NaCl) with the same protocol. Results. The changes in body weight, hemodynamic parameters, and left ventricular dimensional echocardiographic indices were all comparable between the two groups. Regarding changes in diastolic functional state and using Tei index, this parameter was significantly improved. Unlike the group received placebo, those who received testosterone had a significant increasing trend in 6-walk mean distance (6MWD) parameter within the study period (P = 0.019). The discrepancy in the trends of changes in 6MWD between study groups remained significant after adjusting baseline variables (mean square = 243.262, F index = 4.402, and P = 0.045). Conclusion. Our study strengthens insights into the beneficial role of testosterone in improvement of functional capacity and quality of life in heart failure patients.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is more prevalent among Iranian adolescences. This study aimed to find the relationship between obesity and MetS among different education grades of Iranian adolescence.
Materials and Methods:
Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were measured. Trained individuals measured waist circumference and blood pressure. MetS was defined according to the De Ferranti definition.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.6% and 6.2% in junior and 11.5% and 4.3% in high school students, respectively. Obese subjects in both grades have higher waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride than comparable groups. Multiple logistic regression models showed that overweight and obesity were strongly associated with MetS components analyzed. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight and obese in junior high school students were 1.47 and 2.23 times more likely to be having high TG, respectively, whereas overweight and obese in high school-students were also more likely to have elevated TG [ORs 1.94 (1.28-2.94), 4.96 (2.39-10.3) respectively].
Obese children have the highest prevalence of MetS. Prevalence of MetS-related components has reached high level among Iranian adolescences that were overweight or obese.
Adolescence; metabolic syndrome; obesity
It is expected that dairy products such as cheeses, which are the main source of cholesterol and saturated fat, may lead to the development or increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; however, the results of different studies are inconsistent. This study was conducted to assess the association between cheese consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in an Iranian adult population.
Information from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) was used for this cross-sectional study with a total of 1,752 participants (782 men and 970 women). Weight, height, waist and hip circumference measurement, as well as fasting blood samples were gathered and biochemical assessments were done. To evaluate the dietary intakes of participants a validated food frequency questionnaire, consists of 49 items, was completed by expert technicians. Consumption of cheese was classified as less than 7 times per week and 7-14 times per week.
Higher consumption of cheese was associated with higher C-Reactive Protein (CRP), apolipoprotein A and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level but not with fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein B. Higher consumption of cheese was positively associated with consumption of liquid and solid oil, grain, pulses, fruit, vegetable, meat and dairy, and negatively associated with Global Dietary Index. After control for other potential confounders the association between cheese intake and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.81; 96%CI: 0.71-0.94), low HDL-C level (OR: 0.87; 96%CI: 0.79-0.96) and dyslipidemia (OR: 0.88; 96%CI: 0.79-0.98) became negatively significant.
This study found an inverse association between the frequency of cheese intake and cardiovascular risk factors; however, further prospective studies are required to confirm the present results and to illustrate its mechanisms.
Cheese consumption; cardiovascular risk factors; food frequency questionnaire
Aim. This study aimed to investigate which anthropometric indices could be a better predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS)
and the cut-off points for these surrogates to appropriately differentiate MetS in the Iranian elderly. Method. The present cross-sectional
study was conducted on a sample of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII). In total,
206 elderly subjects with MetS criteria were selected. Anthropometric indices were measured and plotted using receiver operating characteristic (ROC)
curves. Results. WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.683; 95% CI 0.606–0.761 and 0.680;
95% CI 0.602–0.758, resp.) for MetS. WC at a cut of 94.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity
64% and 68% specificity to predict the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity for MetS and MetS
components. WC has the best ability to detect MetS which followed by WHtR and BMI had a lower discriminating value comparatively. Conclusion.
WC is the best predictor for predicting the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors among Iranian elderly population and the best value of WC is
94.5 cm. This cut-off values of WC should be advocated and used in Iranian men until larger cross-sectional studies show different results.
Recently, higher efficacy of the combination of long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist and inhaled corticosteroids on controlling asthma symptoms has been hypothesized. This study aimed to examine the clinical effects of the combination of Budesonide with formoterol (Symbicort) and Budesonide (Pulmicort) alone in persistent asthma.
Materials and Methods:
In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial, 76 patients with definite diagnosis of moderate-to-severe asthma were randomized to receive Pulmicort 180 mcg/inhalation two puffs twice daily, or receive Symbicort 80/4.5 mg/inhalation two puffs twice daily, or receive Symbicort 160/4.5 mg/inhalation two puffs twice daily for 3 months. All participants were initially evaluated by spirometry for assessing respiratory parameters and also the level of asthma control was assessed by Asthma Control Test (ACT).
More significant improvement in spirometry parameters, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, as well as in peak expiratory flow (PEF) in both groups of Symbicort with the regimens 80/4.5 mg/inhalation or 160/4.5 mg/inhalation 2 puffs twice daily compared with Pulmicort group, ACT score was significantly improved in Symbicort group with the regimens 160/4.5 mg/inhalation compared with both Symbicort groups with lower dosage and Pulmicort group. Response to treatment in PEF parameter and also in ACT level was significantly more in those who received Symbicort with the regimens 160/4.5 mg/inhalation compared with other two interventional groups adjusted for gender and age.
Symbicort with the regimens 160/4.5 mg/inhalation has higher efficacy in reducing asthma symptom and improving its control compared with low doses of this drug and with Pulmicort.
Asthma symptom; symbicort; pulmicort
Background. Nowadays, herbs they are considered to be the main source of effective drugs for lowering serum lipids and lipid peroxidation. The present experimental animal study aimed to assess the impact of Ferulago angulata on serum lipid profiles, and on levels of lipid peroxidation. Methods. Fifty male Wistar rats, weighing 250–300 g, were randomly divided into five equal groups (ten rats in each). The rat groups received different diets as follows: Group I: fat-rich diet; Group II: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 400 mg/kg; Group III: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 600 mg/kg; Group IV: fat-rich diet plus atorvastatin; Group V: common stock diet. The levels of serum glucose and lipids and the atherogenic index were measured. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA), thiol oxidation, carbonyl concentrations, C-reactive proteins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in each group of rats. Results. Interestingly, by adding a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata to the high-fat diet, the levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the high-fat diet rats were both significantly reduced. This result was considerably greater compared to when atorvastatin was added as an antilipid drug. The beneficial effects of the Ferulago angulata extract on lowering the level of triglycerides was observed only when a high dosage of this plant extraction was added to a high fat diet. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde, was significantly affected by the use of the plant extract in a high-fat diet, compared with a normal regimen or high-fat diet alone. Conclusion. Administration of a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata can reduce serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. It can also inhibit lipid peroxidation.
Context: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common cause of acute
Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals, Google Scholar, PubMed,
EBSCO and Web of Science have been searched.
Results: It is necessary to identify at risk patients at early stages to implement
preventive strategies to decrease the incidence of this nephropathy. However, mechanisms of CIN have not
fully explained yet. It seems that mechanisms which mediated by nitric oxide and prostaglandin-induced
vasodilatation have been played a crucial role in the CIN. Hemodynamic changes of renal blood flow,
which causes hypoxia in the renal medulla and direct toxic effects of contrast media on renal cells,
are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of CIN. Contrast media is normally divided into
iso-osmolar, low-osmolar, and high-osmolar. N-acetylcysteine is considered as one of the best
choices to prevent CIN in high-risk groups.
Conclusions: The first aim to prevent CIN is identifying high-risk subjects and
controlling associate risk factors. As significant differences existed between contrasts agents due to
their physicochemical properties, low-osmolar or iso-osmolar contrast media should be used to prevent CIN
in at-risk patients. The volume of contrast media should be as low as possible.
Contrast-induced nephropathy; Contrast media; Percutaneous coronary intervention
Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse association between dietary fiber and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between MetS and consumption of legumes in adults in Isfahan, Iran.
This cross-sectional study was carried out on 2027 individuals who were a subsample of the 3rd phase of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). Basic characteristics information such as age, sex, smoking status, and physical activity were collected using a questionnaire. A validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary behaviors. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), glucose, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured, and MetS was defined based on Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Multiple logistic regression models examined associations of frequency consumption of legumes with MetS occurrence and its components.
All MetS components were less prevalent among subjects with regular legume intake (P < 0.01). Legume intake was inversely associated with the risk of MetS, after adjustment for confounding factors in women. Life style adjusted odds ratio of Mets between highest and lowest tertile and no consumption (as reference category) of legume intake were 0.31 (0.13, 0.70), 0.38 (0.17, 0.87), respectively, in women (P = 0.01).
This study showed that age has a crucial role in MetS incidence; therefore, after further age adjustment to lifestyle adjusted model there was no significant difference in lower and higher tertile of legume intake and MetS.
Legumes; Metabolic Syndrome; Iran
Various devices have been recently employed for percutaneous closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Although the high effectiveness of device closure techniques has been clearly determined, a few studies have focused on the cost-effectiveness and also postoperative complications of these procedures in comparison with open surgery. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of PDA occlusion by Amplatzer and coil device in comparisong with open surgery.
In this cross-sectional study, a randomized sample of 201 patients aged 1 month to 16 years (105 patients with device closure and 96 patients with surgical closure) was selected. The ratio of total pulmonary blood flow to total systemic blood flow, the Qp/Qs ratio, was measured using a pulmonary artery catheter. The cost analysis included direct medical care costs associated with device implantation and open surgery, as well as professional fees. All costs were calculated in Iranian Rials and then converted to US dollars.
There was no statistical difference in mean Qp/Qs ratio before the procedure between the device closure group and the open surgery group (2.1 ± 0.7 versus 1.7 ± 0.6, P = 0.090). The mean measured costs were overall higher in the device closure group than in open closure group (948.87 ± 548.76 US$ versus 743.70 ± 696.91 US$, P < 0.001). This difference remained significant after adjustment for age and gender (Standardized Beta = 0.160, P = 0.031). PDA closure with the Amplatzer ductal occluder (1053.05 ± 525.73 US$) or with Nit-Occlud coils (PFM) (912.73 ± 565.94 US$, P < 0.001) was more expensive than that via open surgery. However, the Cook detachable spring coils device closure (605.65 ± 194.62 US$, P = 0.650) had a non-significant cost difference with open surgery. No event was observed in the device closure group regarding in-hospital mortality or morbidity; however, in another group, 2 in-hospital deaths occurred, two patients experienced pneumonia and seizure, and one suffered electrolyte abnormalities including hyponatremia and hypocalcemia.
Although open surgery seems to be less expensive than device closure technique, because of lower mortality and morbidity, the latter group is more preferable.
Cost-effectiveness; Outcome; Device Closure; Open Surgery Closure; Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Background. The purpose of this study was to answer the question whether a single testing for microalbuminuria results in a reliable conclusion leading costs saving. Methods. This current cross-sectional study included a total of 126 consecutive persons. Microalbuminuria was assessed by collection of two fasting random urine specimens on arrival to the clinic as well as one week later in the morning. Results. In overall, 17 out of 126 participants suffered from microalbuminuria that, among them, 12 subjects were also diagnosed as microalbuminuria once assessing this factor with a sensitivity of 70.6%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 100%, a NPV of 95.6%, and an accuracy of 96.0%. The measured sensitivity, specificity, PVV, NPV, and accuracy in hypertensive patients were 73.3%, 100%, 100%, 94.8%, and 95.5%, respectively. Also, these rates in nonhypertensive groups were 50.0%, 100%, 100%, 97.3%, and 97.4%, respectively. According to the ROC curve analysis, a single measurement of UACR had a high value for discriminating defected from normal renal function state (c = 0.989). Urinary albumin concentration in a single measurement had also high discriminative value for diagnosis of damaged kidney (c = 0.995). Conclusion. The single testing of both UACR and urine albumin level rather frequent testing leads to high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy as well as high predictive values in total population and also in hypertensive subgroups.
Background. Recent studies confirmed cardioprotective role of intravenous magnesium for the prevention of cardiac events, but effect of dietary intake of this mineral via recommended dietary regimens on control and inhibition of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors has been questioned. The aim of the present study was to determine effect of Mediterranean dietary approach on serum magnesium concentration among Iranian patients with CAD. Method. Baseline characteristics and clinical data of 102 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of CAD and candidates for isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were entered into the study. Laboratory parameters especially serum magnesium concentration were measured after 12–14 h of overnight fasting and before operation. Nutritional status was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and the diet score was calculated on the basis of Mediterranean diet quality index (Med-DQI). Results. No significant differences were found in the concentrations of albumin, last fasting blood sugar, last creatinine, and lipid profiles between the groups with Mediterranean dietary score < 5 and the group with higher dietary score; however, serum magnesium concentration in the first group was higher than that in the group with higher dietary score. Linear multivariate regression analysis showed that the lower Mediterranean dietary score was a predictor for serum magnesium concentration after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion. Taking Mediterranean dietary regimen can be associated with increased level of serum magnesium concentration, and thus this regimen can be cardioprotective because of its effects on serum magnesium.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health concerns and increase in the incidence of MetS caused a rise in the rates of global morbidity, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle modification, a healthy diet, and pharmacological treatment and bariatric surgery are recommended in order to control this syndrome. Molecular mechanisms of metabolic disorders are essential in order to develop novel, valid therapeutic strategies. MicroRNA-33 plays imperative regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes including collaboration with sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, high-density lipoprotein formation, fatty acid oxidation, and insulin signaling. Investigation of these molecules and their genetic targets may potentially identify new pathways involved in complex metabolic disease processes, improve our understanding of metabolic disorders, and influence future approaches to the treatment of obesity. This article reviews the role of miRNA-33 in metabolic syndrome, and highlights the potential of using miRNA-33 as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for this syndrome.
MicroRNA-33; Insulin Resistance Syndrome X; Regulatory Role
C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the.
In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts correlated with the number of Mets components in the women.
The findings of this study suggest substantial implications for the prevention and management of the MetS and atherosclerotic diseases, as these involve the suppression of inflammatory conditions rather than the incitement of anti-inflammatory conditions.
C-reactive protein level; metabolic syndrome; white blood cell count
Aim. The present population-based study aimed to assess prevalence of metabolic syndrome and itsrelated components in Iranian youth in the different sex, age, and residential subgroups. Method. Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were determined. Trained individuals measured waist circumference and blood pressure. Subjects with MetS were selected according to two definitions provided by the IDF and de Ferranti. Results. Among girls in intervention area, hypertriglyceridemia was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas using IDF definition. Significant differences were observed between boys in rural and urban areas regarding some components of metabolic syndrome including hypertriglyceridemia and high waist circumference. Besides, boys who are residents in urban areas had higher blood pressure, as well as higher waist circumference, than boys in rural areas. Conclusion. Our youth population is at significant risk of developing metabolic syndrome, and the pattern of this phenomenon seems to be discrepant in boys as well as in rural and urban areas probably due to the different lifestyle aspects, genetic factors, and racial differences.
A 26-year-old man presenting with a transient episode of dysarthria and dizziness, 3 weeks prior to admission, was referred to our center to be evaluated for transient ischemic attack (TIA). The patient had been previously admitted to a different hospital and echocardiography was reported normal at that center, but upon presenting to our institution strand-like masses in the left ventricle (LV) were detected. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed two distinct mobile LV masses suggesting a diagnosis of papillary fibroelastoma. CT angiography and histopathological studies confirmed this diagnosis.
Some pharmacological preconditioning approaches are utilized as an effective adjunct to myocardial protection, particularly following cardiac procedures. The current study addressed the potential clinical implications and protective effects of isoflurane as an anesthetic most applicable on postoperative myocardial function measured by cardiac biomarkers.
46 patients were included in the study. In 23 of them, preconditioning was elicited after the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass via a 5-minute exposure to isoflurane (2.5 minimum alveolar concentration), followed by a 10-minute washout before aortic cross clamping and cardioplegic arrest. 23 case-matched control patients underwent an equivalent period (15 minutes) of pre-arrest isoflurane-free bypass. Outcome measurements included creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels until 24 hours after the surgery.
None of the differences in enzyme levels at baseline and 24 hours after surgery between the two groups reached the threshold of statistical significance. The level of CPK was significantly reduced 24 hours after surgery compared with the baseline in the two groups. However, the postoperative release of CPK was consistently smaller in the isoflurane-preconditioned group than in the control group. The release of CK-MB displayed a statistically similar pattern. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed the effect of isoflurane regimen on reducing CPK level within the 24 hours after surgery compared with placebo.
Our study supports the cardio protective effect of isoflurane and the role of pharmacological preconditioning of the human heart by this volatile anesthetic during elective coronary artery bypass surgery.
Preconditioning; Isoflurane; Volatile Anesthetic; Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
This study aimed to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or waist to hip ratio (WHR) could be a better predictor of metabolic syndrome and, if so, what would be the cutoff points for these surrogates to appropriately differentiate metabolic syndrome in different age and sex subgroups. Methods. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS). In total, 468 individuals (194 with and 274 subjects without metabolic syndrome) according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) criteria were selected. Anthropometric indices were measured and plotted using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results. According to ROC curve analysis, WC and WHR parameters were better indicators of metabolic syndrome compared to BMI in women, whereas in men WHR had a lower discriminating value compared to the other two parameters. Among these three anthropometric parameters, BMI had a lower sensitivity and WC and WHR both had a higher sensitivity for predicting metabolic syndrome in women compared with in men. The cut points for WC were nearly equal in men and women, 90.3 versus 90.0, respectively. Women had higher cut points for BMI (28.5 kg/m2) compared to men (26.0 kg/m2). Our results showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for WC cut points specially in women. To predict metabolic syndrome, we looked into optimal age-specific cut points for BMI, WC, and WHR. The results indicated that WC had the highest discriminating value compared to other indicators in the different age subgroups. The optimal cut points for all three parameters gradually increased with age. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated that regardless of gender and age variables, WC could be a preferred parameter for predicting metabolic syndrome compared to BMI and WHR in Iranian population.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing among children and adolescents. However, the prevalence of this disorder varies based on its different definitions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS in Iranian adolescents in junior high and high schools according to the definitions provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and De Ferranti.
Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Demographic data was collected using validated questionnaires. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were determined. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by trained individuals. Subjects with MetS were selected according to two definitions provided by the IDF and De Ferranti. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare the prevalence of MetS and its components based on sex, school level, and the two definitions.
The mean age of junior high and high school students was 13.11 ± 1.21ad 15.93 ± 1.07 years old, respectively. The prevalence of MetS among all participants was 4.8% and 12.7% according to the definitions by the IDF and De Ferranti, respectively. It was significantly higher among boys compared to girls. According to the IDF definition, low HDL-C and hypertension were the most frequent components. Based on the De Ferranti, abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were the most frequent components.
The prevalence of MetS was higher in both groups of students based on De Ferranti definition compared to the IDF definition. The prevalence was not significantly different in boys and girls. Further studies to investigate the most suitable definition of MetS for Iranian adolescents are necessary.
Metabolic Syndrome; Adolescence; International Diabetes Federation and De Ferranti
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It affects approximately 18.0% of Iranian adults. This study aimed to estimate age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension and its control among Iranian persons older 19 years of age. It also tried to find and socioeconomic factors associated with hypertension control in Iranian population.
In Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) subjects were selected by multistage random sampling. The participants completed questionnaires containing demographic information, lifestyle habits, medical history, and consumption of relevant medications, especially antihypertensive agents. Income, marital status, and educational level were considered as socioeconomic factors. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medications. Controlled hypertension was considered as systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg among hypertensive subjects.
The prevalence of hypertension and controlled hypertension was 18.9% and 20.9%, respectively. We found significant relationships between hypertension and marital status, education, and income. At age ≥ 65 years old, odds ratio (OR) was 19.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.01-24.28] for hypertension. Middle family income (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58-0.87) and education level of 6-12 years (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.25-0.35) were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension (P = 0.001). Among subjects aging 65 years old or higher, the OR of controlled hypertension was 2.64 (95% CI: 1.61-4.33). Married subjects had a higher OR for controlled hypertension (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.36-3.52). Obesity had no significant relationships with controlled hypertension.
The IHHP data showed significant relationships between some socioeconomic factors and controlled hypertension. Therefore, as current control rates for hypertension in Iran are clearly unacceptable, we recommend preventive measures to control hypertension in all social strata of the Iranian population.
Socioeconomic Factor; High Blood Pressure; Control
Pharmacological therapy is a crucial step in the management of individuals with the metabolic syndrome, when lifestyle modifications alone cannot achieve the therapeutic goals. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of comprehensive interventions with the pharmacological treatment in individuals with the metabolic syndrome.
Material and methods
A cross-sectional population-based survey examined a sample of adults before and after conducting a community trial. Physical examination and blood sampling, data regarding the demographic characteristics, medical status and history of medication use were obtained. Pharmacologic treatment related to metabolic syndrome's components was also determined.
The most common pharmacologic agents consumed by individuals with metabolic syndrome were β-blockers (26.1% and 30.4% in 2001 and 2007, respectively), followed by lipid-lowering agents (5.4% and 14% in 2001 and 2007, respectively), with significant differences before and after intervention. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women than in men both before (36.4% vs. 14%) and after the community trial (26.1% vs. 16%, respectively) in the intervention areas (p < 0.001).
We found a significant increase in medication use to control blood pressure and dyslipidemia among the individuals with the metabolic syndrome, notably in the intervention areas. In addition to the population approach, the high-risk approach should be considered in community trials for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.
metabolic syndrome; pharmacological treatment; community trial; Iran
This study aimed to compare Iranian elderly with the middle-aged population in terms of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components.
This cross-sectional study was conducted using the data from the third phase of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Male and female residents of Isfahan over 19 years of age were selected by multistage cluster random sampling. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, health status, medical history, medications used, as well as waist circumference, weight, height, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was completed for all participants. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all subjects and examined for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. T-test and Mann-Whitney test were used for quantitative data and chi-square test was performed for qualitative data.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals aged over 60 years was significantly higher than those under 60 (49.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively; P < 0.001). Metabolic syndrome was also more prevalent among elderly females than in males (59.2% vs. 39.8%, respectively; P < 0.005). Some anthropometric measures such as height, body mass index, abdominal circumference, waist-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were significantly different in men and women below 60 years in comparison with those over 60 years (P < 0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences in most studied parameters between the elderly and non-elderly women (P < 0.001).
This study showed that metabolic syndrome has a relatively high prevalence in Iranian elderly people, especially in elderly women. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of the complication are recommended among this high-risk group to avoid the subsequent complications.
Metabolic Syndrome; Elderly; Iran
Myocardial infarction (MI) is an irreversible cardiomyocytes injury which begins after 15–20 minutes of coronary artery occlusion. The extent of infarction is modulated by a number of factors including collateral blood supplies, medications, and ischemic preconditioning. Although angioplasty and thrombolytic agents can relieve the cause of the infarction, the time from the occlusion onset to reperfusion determines the degree of irreversible myocardial injury. Experimental studies suggested that stem cells and progenitor cells derived from bone marrow can be used in the repair of cardiac tissue after acute MI. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility, safety and initial clinical outcome of intracoronary infusion of autologous progenitor cells in patients with acute MI.
Patients with a history of anterior MI and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35 % who were candidates for coronary angioplasty were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either control or bone marrow cell groups (each including 16 patients). Thallium scan and 17-segment echocardiography analysis for regional wall motion abnormality were performed before and 1 and 6 months after intracoronary infusion of bone marrow cells. The same tests were also conducted for the control group at identical time intervals. Quantitative variables were compared by independent t-test and paired t-test. Statistical significance was assumed at a value of P < 0.05.
LVEF in the case and control groups increased to 39.37 ± 2.47% and 31.00 ± 1.87%, respectively (P = 0.069 and 0.1, respectively). Wall motion abnormality index (WMAI) decreased insignificantly in both groups. Perfusion defect scores (PDSs) decreased significantly in the case group.
In this study, autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation by intracoronary catheter during angioplasty in patients with a history of severe LV dysfunction caused mild increases in LVEF.
Myocardial Infarction Left Ventricular Failure; Stem Cell