Aim. The present population-based study aimed to assess prevalence of metabolic syndrome and itsrelated components in Iranian youth in the different sex, age, and residential subgroups. Method. Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were determined. Trained individuals measured waist circumference and blood pressure. Subjects with MetS were selected according to two definitions provided by the IDF and de Ferranti. Results. Among girls in intervention area, hypertriglyceridemia was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas using IDF definition. Significant differences were observed between boys in rural and urban areas regarding some components of metabolic syndrome including hypertriglyceridemia and high waist circumference. Besides, boys who are residents in urban areas had higher blood pressure, as well as higher waist circumference, than boys in rural areas. Conclusion. Our youth population is at significant risk of developing metabolic syndrome, and the pattern of this phenomenon seems to be discrepant in boys as well as in rural and urban areas probably due to the different lifestyle aspects, genetic factors, and racial differences.
Some pharmacological preconditioning approaches are utilized as an effective adjunct to myocardial protection, particularly following cardiac procedures. The current study addressed the potential clinical implications and protective effects of isoflurane as an anesthetic most applicable on postoperative myocardial function measured by cardiac biomarkers.
46 patients were included in the study. In 23 of them, preconditioning was elicited after the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass via a 5-minute exposure to isoflurane (2.5 minimum alveolar concentration), followed by a 10-minute washout before aortic cross clamping and cardioplegic arrest. 23 case-matched control patients underwent an equivalent period (15 minutes) of pre-arrest isoflurane-free bypass. Outcome measurements included creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels until 24 hours after the surgery.
None of the differences in enzyme levels at baseline and 24 hours after surgery between the two groups reached the threshold of statistical significance. The level of CPK was significantly reduced 24 hours after surgery compared with the baseline in the two groups. However, the postoperative release of CPK was consistently smaller in the isoflurane-preconditioned group than in the control group. The release of CK-MB displayed a statistically similar pattern. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed the effect of isoflurane regimen on reducing CPK level within the 24 hours after surgery compared with placebo.
Our study supports the cardio protective effect of isoflurane and the role of pharmacological preconditioning of the human heart by this volatile anesthetic during elective coronary artery bypass surgery.
Preconditioning; Isoflurane; Volatile Anesthetic; Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
This study aimed to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or waist to hip ratio (WHR) could be a better predictor of metabolic syndrome and, if so, what would be the cutoff points for these surrogates to appropriately differentiate metabolic syndrome in different age and sex subgroups. Methods. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS). In total, 468 individuals (194 with and 274 subjects without metabolic syndrome) according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) criteria were selected. Anthropometric indices were measured and plotted using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results. According to ROC curve analysis, WC and WHR parameters were better indicators of metabolic syndrome compared to BMI in women, whereas in men WHR had a lower discriminating value compared to the other two parameters. Among these three anthropometric parameters, BMI had a lower sensitivity and WC and WHR both had a higher sensitivity for predicting metabolic syndrome in women compared with in men. The cut points for WC were nearly equal in men and women, 90.3 versus 90.0, respectively. Women had higher cut points for BMI (28.5 kg/m2) compared to men (26.0 kg/m2). Our results showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for WC cut points specially in women. To predict metabolic syndrome, we looked into optimal age-specific cut points for BMI, WC, and WHR. The results indicated that WC had the highest discriminating value compared to other indicators in the different age subgroups. The optimal cut points for all three parameters gradually increased with age. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated that regardless of gender and age variables, WC could be a preferred parameter for predicting metabolic syndrome compared to BMI and WHR in Iranian population.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing among children and adolescents. However, the prevalence of this disorder varies based on its different definitions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS in Iranian adolescents in junior high and high schools according to the definitions provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and De Ferranti.
Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Demographic data was collected using validated questionnaires. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were determined. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by trained individuals. Subjects with MetS were selected according to two definitions provided by the IDF and De Ferranti. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare the prevalence of MetS and its components based on sex, school level, and the two definitions.
The mean age of junior high and high school students was 13.11 ± 1.21ad 15.93 ± 1.07 years old, respectively. The prevalence of MetS among all participants was 4.8% and 12.7% according to the definitions by the IDF and De Ferranti, respectively. It was significantly higher among boys compared to girls. According to the IDF definition, low HDL-C and hypertension were the most frequent components. Based on the De Ferranti, abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were the most frequent components.
The prevalence of MetS was higher in both groups of students based on De Ferranti definition compared to the IDF definition. The prevalence was not significantly different in boys and girls. Further studies to investigate the most suitable definition of MetS for Iranian adolescents are necessary.
Metabolic Syndrome; Adolescence; International Diabetes Federation and De Ferranti
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It affects approximately 18.0% of Iranian adults. This study aimed to estimate age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension and its control among Iranian persons older 19 years of age. It also tried to find and socioeconomic factors associated with hypertension control in Iranian population.
In Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) subjects were selected by multistage random sampling. The participants completed questionnaires containing demographic information, lifestyle habits, medical history, and consumption of relevant medications, especially antihypertensive agents. Income, marital status, and educational level were considered as socioeconomic factors. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medications. Controlled hypertension was considered as systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg among hypertensive subjects.
The prevalence of hypertension and controlled hypertension was 18.9% and 20.9%, respectively. We found significant relationships between hypertension and marital status, education, and income. At age ≥ 65 years old, odds ratio (OR) was 19.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.01-24.28] for hypertension. Middle family income (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58-0.87) and education level of 6-12 years (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.25-0.35) were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension (P = 0.001). Among subjects aging 65 years old or higher, the OR of controlled hypertension was 2.64 (95% CI: 1.61-4.33). Married subjects had a higher OR for controlled hypertension (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.36-3.52). Obesity had no significant relationships with controlled hypertension.
The IHHP data showed significant relationships between some socioeconomic factors and controlled hypertension. Therefore, as current control rates for hypertension in Iran are clearly unacceptable, we recommend preventive measures to control hypertension in all social strata of the Iranian population.
Socioeconomic Factor; High Blood Pressure; Control
Pharmacological therapy is a crucial step in the management of individuals with the metabolic syndrome, when lifestyle modifications alone cannot achieve the therapeutic goals. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of comprehensive interventions with the pharmacological treatment in individuals with the metabolic syndrome.
Material and methods
A cross-sectional population-based survey examined a sample of adults before and after conducting a community trial. Physical examination and blood sampling, data regarding the demographic characteristics, medical status and history of medication use were obtained. Pharmacologic treatment related to metabolic syndrome's components was also determined.
The most common pharmacologic agents consumed by individuals with metabolic syndrome were β-blockers (26.1% and 30.4% in 2001 and 2007, respectively), followed by lipid-lowering agents (5.4% and 14% in 2001 and 2007, respectively), with significant differences before and after intervention. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women than in men both before (36.4% vs. 14%) and after the community trial (26.1% vs. 16%, respectively) in the intervention areas (p < 0.001).
We found a significant increase in medication use to control blood pressure and dyslipidemia among the individuals with the metabolic syndrome, notably in the intervention areas. In addition to the population approach, the high-risk approach should be considered in community trials for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.
metabolic syndrome; pharmacological treatment; community trial; Iran
This study aimed to compare Iranian elderly with the middle-aged population in terms of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components.
This cross-sectional study was conducted using the data from the third phase of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Male and female residents of Isfahan over 19 years of age were selected by multistage cluster random sampling. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, health status, medical history, medications used, as well as waist circumference, weight, height, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was completed for all participants. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all subjects and examined for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. T-test and Mann-Whitney test were used for quantitative data and chi-square test was performed for qualitative data.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals aged over 60 years was significantly higher than those under 60 (49.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively; P < 0.001). Metabolic syndrome was also more prevalent among elderly females than in males (59.2% vs. 39.8%, respectively; P < 0.005). Some anthropometric measures such as height, body mass index, abdominal circumference, waist-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were significantly different in men and women below 60 years in comparison with those over 60 years (P < 0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences in most studied parameters between the elderly and non-elderly women (P < 0.001).
This study showed that metabolic syndrome has a relatively high prevalence in Iranian elderly people, especially in elderly women. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of the complication are recommended among this high-risk group to avoid the subsequent complications.
Metabolic Syndrome; Elderly; Iran
Myocardial infarction (MI) is an irreversible cardiomyocytes injury which begins after 15–20 minutes of coronary artery occlusion. The extent of infarction is modulated by a number of factors including collateral blood supplies, medications, and ischemic preconditioning. Although angioplasty and thrombolytic agents can relieve the cause of the infarction, the time from the occlusion onset to reperfusion determines the degree of irreversible myocardial injury. Experimental studies suggested that stem cells and progenitor cells derived from bone marrow can be used in the repair of cardiac tissue after acute MI. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility, safety and initial clinical outcome of intracoronary infusion of autologous progenitor cells in patients with acute MI.
Patients with a history of anterior MI and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35 % who were candidates for coronary angioplasty were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either control or bone marrow cell groups (each including 16 patients). Thallium scan and 17-segment echocardiography analysis for regional wall motion abnormality were performed before and 1 and 6 months after intracoronary infusion of bone marrow cells. The same tests were also conducted for the control group at identical time intervals. Quantitative variables were compared by independent t-test and paired t-test. Statistical significance was assumed at a value of P < 0.05.
LVEF in the case and control groups increased to 39.37 ± 2.47% and 31.00 ± 1.87%, respectively (P = 0.069 and 0.1, respectively). Wall motion abnormality index (WMAI) decreased insignificantly in both groups. Perfusion defect scores (PDSs) decreased significantly in the case group.
In this study, autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation by intracoronary catheter during angioplasty in patients with a history of severe LV dysfunction caused mild increases in LVEF.
Myocardial Infarction Left Ventricular Failure; Stem Cell
Hypertension prevention and control are among the most important public health priorities. We evaluated the impacts of a workplace intervention project “Stop Hypertension in Mobarakeh Steel Company” (SHIMSCO) on controlling hypertension in industrial workers.
The study was carried out in Mobarakeh Steel Company in Isfahan among 7286 male workers and employees. All individuals were evaluated for the presence of hypertension (HTN). According to examinations, 500 subjects with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg, and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, and/or those using antihypertensive medications were confirmed to have HTN and thus included in this study. They were questioned for sociodemographic characteristics, past medical history and medication use. They received an educational program including healthy lifestyle and self-care recommendations of HTN management and control as well as training for accurate blood pressure measurement and home monitoring for two years. SBP, DBP, weight, height and routine lab tests were measured for all hypertensive subjects before and after the interventions. Paired t-test, generalized estimation equation (GEE) and ordinary linear regression (OLR) were used for statistical analysis in SPSS.
The comparison of SBP and DBP before and after the educational program showed significant reductions in both parameters (−7.97 ± 14.72 and −2.66 ± 9.96 mmHg, respectively). However, a greater decrease was detected in case of DBP. GEE showed SBP and DBP to decrease about −0.115 and −0.054 mmHg/month. OLR also revealed reductions of 4.88 and 2.57 mmHg respectively in SBP and DBP upon adding each antihypertensive drug.
SHIMSCO, a 3-year interventional project in workplaces, was effective in reducing SBP and DBP among hypertensive employees and workers. We conclude that implementing simple educational programs in worksites can improve the management and control of hypertension and perhaps other chronic diseases.
Hypertension; Worksite; Industrial; Blood Pressure; Control
A common problem in cardiac surgery patients is decreased central venous pressure (CVP) and systemic blood pressure during transfer from operation room to intensive care unit (ICU). Since these reductions may lead to dangerous complications, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of vasopressors and isotonic fluids on hemodynamic status of cardiac surgery patients during their transfer to ICU.
This randomized single-blind clinical trial was conducted in Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran). A total number of 75 consecutive patients undergoing planned first-time coronary artery bypass grafting entered our study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), CVP, and pulse rate (PR) were recorded at 5 to 10 minutes before leaving operating room and immediately after hospitalization in the ICU. Subjects in the first group received 7 cc/kg intravenous normal saline (as an isotonic fluid) within 5-10 minutes. The second group received 10 mg ephedrine before being transferred to the ICU.
The mean age of participants was 61.0 ± 3.6 years. No significant change in PR was detected in normal saline group (P > 0.05). No significant differences were found in two groups in SBP before and after hospitalization in the ICU (P > 0.05). DBP and CVP had statistically significant reductions in both groups after hospitalization in the ICU (P < 0.001). The mean CVP was also reduced significantly (10.7 ± 2.9 vs. 8.2 ± 3.4; P < 0.001).
Significant reductions in mean values of DBP and CVP occur during cardiac surgery and after arrival to the ICU. These reductions cannot be prevented by administration of vasopressors, such as ephedrine, or infusion of isotonic fluids, such as normal saline. Further studies are required to assess whether more fluids, other types of fluids, or other drugs can stop this phenomenon.
Ephedrine; Cardiac Surgery; Isotonic Fluids; Intensive Care Unit
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common complication of cardiac surgery. Although it is managed easily, it can cause critical hemodynamic instabilities for intensive care patients. This observational study investigated the predictive power of P-wave dispersion (PWD) for the incidence of post cardiac surgery AF.
Among patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG), 52 patients were selected randomly. Before the operation, ejection fraction, regional wall motion abnormality, and mitral regurgitation were determined by echocardiography. Angiographic data provided information about stenosed vessels. PWD was measured before and after CABG. The incidence of post-CABG AF was determined by rhythm monitoring.
There were no significant differences in age, sex, stenosed vessels, maximum P-wave duration, the prevalence of hypertension, smoking, mitral regurgitation, and regional wall motion abnormality between post-CABG AF and non-AF groups (P > 0.05). The mean prevalence of diabetes mellitus in post-CABG AF group was more than non-AF group (P = 0.036). The mean ejection fraction in post-CABG AF group was lower than non-AF group (P < 0.005). The mean PWD in AF group vs. non-AF group before CABG was 47.5 vs. 23.7 ms. The mean values of post-surgical PWD in AF and non-AF groups were 48.10 and 24.4 ms, respectively. Before CABG, the mean ejection fraction value and minimum P-wave duration in AF group were lower than non-AF group (P < 0.005). A reverse relation was present between minimum P wave duration and PWD (P < 0.001). There was a negative association between high ejection fraction values and decreased PWD (P = 0.002).
Our data suggested minimum P wave duration, PWD, and low ejection fraction are as good predictors of AF in patients undergoing isolated CABG. The absence of differences in age, sex, smoking, hypertension, mitral regurgitation, and regional wall motion abnormality in our study was in contrast with other reports. On the other hand, increased rate of post-CABG AF in our diabetic patients with lower ejection fraction supports other studies. Overall, minimum P wave duration, PWD, and low ejection fraction can be used for patient risk stratification of AF after CABG.
Atrial Fibrillation; Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting; P-Wave Dispersion; Predictor
Numerous studies have now demonstrated that heart failure with a normal ejection fraction (HFnlEF) is common. Hypertension is also the most commonly associated cardiac condition in patients with HFnlEF. Despite the observed link between microalbuminuria, obesity, and cardiovascular disorders, this question has remained – ‘Which is more important for the prediction and prevention of diastolic dysfunction in non-diabetic hypertensive patients?’
The current study was a cross-section study conducted on a total of 126 non-diabetic hypertensive patients screened to identify those with hypertension. Urine creatinine was measured by the picric acid method and urine albumin content was measured by a sensitive, nephelometric technique. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) was determined as an indicator of microalbuminuria. Complete two-dimensional, doppler, and tissue-doppler echocardiography was performed and the recording of the diastolic function parameters was carried out.
High body mass index and high systolic blood pressure were positively correlated with the appearance of left ventricular hypertrophy, whereas, the UACR index had no significant relationship with hypertrophy. Multivariable analysis also showed that advanced age and systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with the E/E annulus parameter.
According to our investigation obesity is more important than microalbuminuria for the prediction and prevention of diastolic dysfunction in non-diabetic hypertensive patients.
Hypertension; microalbuminuria; heart failure; obesity
Early diagnosis of left ventricular mass (LVM) inappropriateness and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) can result in preventing diastolic left ventricular dysfunction and its related morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to determine if diastolic dysfunction is associated with LVH and inappropriate LVM.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and twenty five uncomplicated hypertension from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program underwent two-dimensional echocardiography. Inappropriate LVM was defined as an LVM index greater than 88 g/m2 of body-surface area in women and greater than 102 g/m2 in men. LVH-defined septal and posterior wall thickness greater than 0/9 cm in women and greater than 1 cm in men, respectively. Echocardiographic parameters, including early diastolic peak velocity (E)/late diastolic peak velocity (A), deceleration time (DT), and E/early mitral annulus velocity (E′) were measured.
The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the patients’ admission day were 142.87 ± 18.12 and 88.45 ± 9.18 mmHg, respectively. Totally, 21.7% of subjects had inappropriate LV mass that moderate and severe abnormal LV mass was revealed in 5.6% and 5.6%, respectively. The mean of age and BMI was significantly higher in patients with moderate left ventricular hypertrophy (P < 0.05). Adjusted by age, gender, BMI, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, both E/A ratio and deceleration time were higher in those with the severer ventricular hypertrophy. Subjects with severe showed significantly higher BMI 33. 7 ± 3.7 (P < 0.001). There was a slight difference between the grade of diastolic dysfunction and the severity of inappropriate LV mass (P = 0.065). But no significant difference was found between E/A, E/E′, and deceleration time and the level of inappropriate LV mass (P > 0.05). Spearman's Rank test was used to test the correlation between diastolic dysfunction and LV mass (P = 0.025).
LVH is correlated with the severity of diastolic dysfunction manifested by the E/A value and deceleration time, but inappropriate LVM can slightly predict diastolic dysfunction severity in uncomplicated hypertension.
Echocardiographic; left ventricular mass; left ventricular hypertrophy; Diastolic dysfunction
The measuring serum ferritin level as a sensitive inflammatory biomarker might effectively predict preterm delivery, but the power and the best cut-off point of this biomarker for predicting preterm labor in Iranian population has not been substantially identified. Our purpose was to determine what concentrations of serum ferritin could identify patients at risk for preterm delivery in Iranian population for the first time.
Materials and Methods:
This case control study involved 222 singleton pregnancies that were referred to referral university hospitals clinics in Isfahan. Women with spontaneous preterm delivery before 24–26 weeks (preterm delivery group, n = 69) and those who delivered at term (term delivery group, n = 153) were compared with respect to serum ferritin concentration. Venous blood samples were analyzed for the serum ferritin level using the ferritin quantitative test system-sensitive for the normal ferritin range.
Women who delivered before 37 weeks had a higher mean serum ferritin concentration than those who delivered after 37 weeks of gestation (26.7 ± 5.5 ng/mL versus 19.8 ± 3.6 ng/mL, P<0.001). A serum ferritin level of 22.5 ng/mL yielded the best combination with sensitivity of 78.3%, specificity of 83.0%, positive predictive value of 67.5%, and negative predictive value of 89.4% for prediction of preterm delivery.
The serum ferritin level provides an appropriate discrimination in predicting preterm delivery with an optimal cut-off value of 22.5 ng/mL in Iranian population.
Cut off; ferritin; predict; preterm labor; serum
This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of Euroscore (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation) in predicting perioperative mortality after cardiac surgery in Iranian patient population.
Data on 1362 patients undergoing coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) from 2007 to 2009 were collected. Calibration was assessed by Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to assess score validity. Odds ratios were measured to evaluate the predictive value of each risk factor on mortality rate.
The overall perioperative in hospital mortality was 3.6% whereas the Euroscore predicted a mortality of 3.96%. Euroscore model fitted well in the validation databases. The mean AUC was 66%. Mean length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay was 2.5 ± 2.5 days. Among risk factors, only left ventricular dysfunction, age and neurologic dysfunction were found to be related to mortality rate.
Euroscore did not have acceptable discriminatory ability in perioperative in hospital mortality in Iranian patients. It seems that development of a local mortality risk scores corresponding to our patients epidemiologic characteristics may improve prediction of outcome.
Euroscore model; hospital; mortality; preoperative; cardiac surgery
Renal artery stenosis is one of the important causes of hypertension and end stage renal failure. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and Doppler ultrasonography are non-invasive and safe diagnostic techniques that have also high sensitivity and specificity. Since the accuracy and reliability of these techniques depend upon technicians and softwares, we decided to evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of these techniques in Isfahan.
Our study included all the patients (37 patients) who underwent renal artery angiography during 2 years from May 2003 to May 2005 and up to six months after that had underwent MRA (21 patients) and Doppler sonography (16 patients) in Isfahan. Renal artery angiography was considered as the gold standard.
Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 100%, 25%, 25%, and 100% were obtained for MRA respectively. Specificity and positive predictive values (PPV) of Doppler sonography were 67%. Its sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPV) were 57%.
Although it seems that technician dependency, technical and software problems were the reasons of low specificity of gadolinium-enhanced MRA in our study, further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.
MRA; Doppler Ultrasonography; Renal Artery Stenosis.
To compare the early and late cardiovascular events as well as side effects of Osvix, a generic form of Clopidogrel versus Plavix regimens in patients with chronic stable angina, undergoing bare metal stent (BMS) or drug eluting stent (DES) placement, this study was carried out.
A total of 442 patients with chronic stable angina who were scheduled for elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were included in a randomized, double blind, multi-centric clinical trial being performed in 6 distinct university hospitals in 5 cities of Iran from March 2007 to November 2009. Baseline, demographic and history of risk factors were recorded using the patients’ medical charts. Stenting procedure was performed via transfemoral approach using low osmolar contrast agents. Patients underwent BMS or DES placements based on the physician selection and were randomly assigned to Osvix or Plavix groups. Patients were followed by telephone in 0 and 6 months intervals regarding the major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including death, myocardial infarction, in-stent thrombosis, stroke, target lesion revascularization, and target vascular revascularization. Angina episodes, bleeding, liver enzymes, neutrophils and platelets count were also assessed in these intervals.
There was not any significant difference between these two groups regarding the baseline characteristics. In the DES group, the 6-month mortality rate and the incidence of MACE in Osvix and Plavix groups were 0.9% and 1.9% (p = 0.61) and 1.8% and 4.9% (p = 0.26), respectively. During the follow up period after DES or BMS placement, there wasn’t any significant difference regarding neutrophil and platelet counts or liver enzymes between study groups.
Using Osvix and Plavix are followed by similar major cardiovascular events and side-effect profile in patients undergoing PCI.
Cardiovascular Events; Coronary Artery Stents; OPCES
There is limited data about the influence of timing of cardiac surgery in relation to diagnostic angiography and/or the impact of the amount of contrast media used during angiography on the occurance of acute renal failure (ARF). Therefore, in the present study the effect of the time interval between diagnostic angiography and cardiac surgery and also the amount of contrast media used during the diagnostic procedure on the incidence of ARF after cardiac surgery was investigated.
Data of 1177 patients who underwent different types of cardiac surgeries after cardiac catheterization were prospectively examined. The influence of time interval between cardiac catheterization and surgery as well as the amount of contrast agent on postoperative ARF were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.
The patients who progressed to ARF were more likely to have received a higher dose of contrast agent compared to the mean dose. However, the time interval between cardiac surgery and last catheterization was not significantly different between the patients with and without ARF (p = 0.05). Overall, postoperative peak creatinine was highest on day 0, then decreased and remained significantly unchanged after this period. Overall prevalence of acute renal failure during follow-up period had a changeable trend and had the highest rates in days 1 (53.57%) and 6 (52.17%) after surgery. Combined coronary bypass and valve surgery were the strongest predictor of postoperative ARF (OR: 4.976, CI = 1.613-15.355 and p = 0.002), followed by intra-aortic balloon pump insertion (OR: 6.890, CI = 1.482-32.032 and p = 0.009) and usage of higher doses of contrast media agent (OR: 1.446, CI = 1.033-2.025 and p = 0.031).
Minimizing the amount of contrast agent has a potential role in reducing the incidence of postoperative ARF in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but delaying cardiac surgery after exposure to these agents might not have this protective effect.
Contrast Media; Iodine Compounds; Adverse Effects; Acute Renal Failure; Cardiac Surgery; Angiography; Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
To investigate the association between Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Health related quality of life (QoL) in Iranian population.
We used data from the post-intervention phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a community trial for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and control. We recruited 9570 healthy adults, aged ≥ 19 years who were randomly selected using multistage random sampling method. World Health Organization QoL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) which contains 26 items was used to assess QoL. It assesses four domains of QoL; Physical health, Psychological health, Social relationship and Environmental issues. MetS was defined based on ATP III criteria.
The mean age of participants was 38.8±15.6 years (mean ± SD) and the prevalence of MetS was 22.5%. From all participant 18.2% were illiterate and 13.2% had university educational level. Two way multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) test after adjusting age showed significant difference between women with and without Mets in regard to physical health and social relations domains, while none of QoL domains was different in men with Mets in comparison to men without it.
After adjusting the role of socio-demographic factors as components of QoL score, no association was observed between QoL domains and MetS in men, while only social relations and physical health scores were higher in women with Mets compared to those without Mets. Other variety of health-related QoL assessment tools or definitions of MetS may show different relationship in the Iranian socio-cultural context.
Metabolic syndrome; Quality of life; General population
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity and overweight on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) control in a healthy lifestyle intervention program in Iran.
Within the framework of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a community trial that was conducted to prevent and control cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, two intervention counties (Isfahan and Najafabad) and one reference county (Arak) were selected. Demographic information, medical history, anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive medications use were asked by trained interviewers in addition to physical examination and laboratory tests for 12514 adults aged more than 19 years in 2001 and were repeated for 9572 adults in 2007.
In women, the frequency of HTN control change significantly neither in normal weight nor in those with high body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist to hip ratio (WHR). In men, the frequency of HTN control was only significant among those with high WHR, whereas the interaction between changes in intervention compared to reference area from 2001 to 2007 was significant in men with normal or high WC or WHR. In intervention area, the number of women with high BMI who controlled their DM increased significantly from 2001 to 2007 (p = 0.008), however, this figure decreased in men. In reference area, obesity indices had no significant association with DM control. The percentage of diabetic subjects with high WC who controlled their DM decreased non-significantly in intervention area compared to reference area in 2007. A non-significant increase in controlled DM among men and women with high WHR was observed between intervention and reference areas.
Our lifestyle interventions did not show any improving effect on HTN or DM control among obese subjects based on different obesity indices. Other lifestyle intervention strategies are suggested.
Hypertension; Diabetes; Obesity; Control; Prevention; Iran
We aimed to evaluate the changes over time in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in intervention and reference areas of a comprehensive community trial with reference area.
Data from independent sample surveys before and after implementation of the program (2001 vs.2007) were used to compare differences in the intervention and references areas over time. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg in non-diabetic patients and ≥130/80 mmHg in diabetic individuals and or taking antihypertensive medications. Interventional activities included educational strategies at population level as well as for hypertensive patients, their families and health professionals.
The study population of the baseline survey included 6175 (48.7% males) in the interventional area and 6339 (51.3% male) in the reference area. The corresponding figures in the post-intervention phase was 4717 (49.3% male) in the interventional area and 4853 (50.7% male) individuals in the reference area. The prevalence of hypertension had a non-significant decrease from 20.5%to 19.6%, in the interventional area whereas in the reference area, it increased from 17.4% to 19.6% (P = 0.003). If we consider Bp ≥ 140/90 in diabetic and non-diabetic patients as hypertension definition, the prevalence of hypertension in the interventional areas had a non-significant decrease from 18.9% in 2001 to 17.8% in 2007, whereas in the reference area, it had a significant rise from 15.7% to 17.9% (P = 0.002) respectively. Awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension had better improvement in urban and rural part of the interventional area compared to reference area. The awareness, treatment, and control rates of hypertension increased significantly in the age groups of more than 40 years, as well as in all groups of body mass index in interventional areas without significant change in the reference area. Mean systolic blood pressure of study population in the interventional area decreased from 116.13 ±19.37 to 112.92 ± 18.27 mmHg (P < 0.001) without significant change in reference area.
This comprehensive and integrated program of interventions was effective in tackling with the prevalence of hypertension, and may improve the awareness, treatment and control rates of this disorder in a developing country setting.
This study investigated the gender differences in association of some behavioural and socioeconomic factors with obesity indices in a population-based sample of 12,514 Iranian adults. The mean body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were significantly higher in women than in men. Current and passive smoking had an inverse association with BMI among males whereas current smoking, transportation by a private car, and longer duration of watching television (TV) had a positive association with BMI among females. Current and passive smoking, cycling, and Global Dietary Index (GDI) had an inverse association with WC among males. Higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, current and passive smoking, duration of daily sleep, and GDI had an inverse association with WC among females. Using a private car for transportation had a significant positive association with WHR among both males and females. Living in an urban area, being married, and having a higher education level increased the odds ratio of obesity among both the genders. Non-manual work also increased this risk among males whereas watching TV and current smoking increased this risk among females. Such gender differences should be considered for culturally-appropriate interventional strategies to be implemented at the population level for tackling obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk factors.
Cardiovascular diseases; Cross-sectional studies; Lifestyle; Obesity; Risk factors; Socioeconomic factors; Iran
The Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme (IHHP) is a community-based programme for non-communicable diseases prevention and control using both a population and high risk approach in Iran. This study demonstrated the efficacy of IHHP interventional strategies to improve lifestyle behaviours in a population at risk for developing cardiovascular diseases.
Material and methods
Healthy Lifestyle for NCDs High Risk Population is one of ten projects of IHHP. High risk individuals were defined as those who have at least one risk factor for developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Changes of behavioural indicators have been compared between two areas with a survey after 5 years of intervention.
Among high risk individuals in the intervention and reference areas, 77.8% and 82.5% had at least one major risk factor for CAD. The prevalence of major risk factors for CAD (except cigarette smoking) was decreased in both intervention and reference areas during 5 years of intervention and the pattern of diet and physical activity was improved.
Interventional activities in IHHP targeting the high risk population seem to be effective in improving lifestyle behaviour, increasing awareness and control of risk factors of the high risk population.
coronary artery disease; risk factor; healthy lifestyle; community interventions; developing country; Iran
There is no clear data about the optimum time for chest tube removal after coronary artery bypass surgery.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the chest tube removal time following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery on the clinical outcome of the patients.
Material and Methods:
An analysis of data from 307 patients was performed. The patients were randomized into two groups: in group 1 (N=107) chest tubes were removed within the first 24 hours after surgery, whereas in group 2 (N=200), chest tubes were removed in the second 24 hours after surgery. Demographics, lactate and pH at the beginning, during and after the operation, creatinine, left ventricular ejection fraction, inotropic drugs administration, length of ICU stay, and mortality data were collected. Respiratory rate and pain level was assessed.
In these surgeries, the mean± standard deviation for the aortic clamping time was 49.18±17.59 minutes and cardiopulmonary bypass time was 78.39±25.12 minutes. The amount of heparin consumed by the second group was higher (P <0.001) which could be considered as an important factor in increasing the drainage time after the surgery (P =0.047). The pain level evaluated 24 hours post-operation was lower in the first group, and the difference in the pain level between the 2 groups evaluated 30 hours post-operation was significant (P=0.016). The mean time of intensive care unit stay was longer in the second group but it was not statistically significant.
Early extracting of chest tubes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery when there is no significant drainage can lead to pain reduction and consuming oxygen is an effective measure after surgery toward healing; it doesn′t increase the risk of creation of plural effusion and pericardial effusion.
Timing; chest tube removal; coronary artery bypass graft surgery