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1.  The Impacts of Cardiac Rehabilitation Program on Echocardiographic Parameters in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction 
Introduction. The accurate impact of exercise on coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with left ventricular dysfunction is still debatable. We studied the effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on echocardiography parameters in CAD patients with ventricular dysfunction. Methods. Patients with CAD who had ventricular dysfunction were included into an exercise-based rehabilitation program and received rehabilitation for eight weeks. All subjects underwent echocardiography before and at the end of the rehabilitation program. The echocardiography parameters, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), LV end-diastolic (LVEDD) and end-systolic diameters (LVESD), and peak exercise capacity measured in metabolic equivalents (METs), were assessed. Results. Seventy patients (mean age = 57.5 ± 10.2 years, 77.1% males) were included into the study. At the end of rehabilitation period, the LVEF increased from 45.14 ± 5.77% to 50.44 ± 8.70% (P < 0.001), and the peak exercise capacity increased from 8.00 ± 2.56 to 10.08 ± 3.00 METs (P < 0.001). There was no significant change in LVEDD (54.63 ± 12.96 to 53.86 ± 8.95 mm, P = 0.529) or in LVESD (38.91 ± 10.83 to 38.09 ± 9.04 mm, P = 0.378) after rehabilitation. Conclusion. Exercise training in postmyocardial infarction patients with ventricular dysfunction could have beneficial effects on cardiac function without adversely affecting LV remodeling or causing serious cardiac complications.
doi:10.1155/2013/201713
PMCID: PMC3891233  PMID: 24459599
2.  Lipid profile in antipsychotic drug users: A comparative study 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(3):198-202.
BACKGROUND
Schizophrenic patients who receive antipsychotic drugs may be highly prone to metabolic disorders such as weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of atypical and conventional antipsychotics on lipid profile.
METHODS
128 schizophrenic patients were enrolled into the study. Patients were divided into two groups. One group had received one type of atypical antipsychotic drug, and, the other, one type of conventional antipsychotic drug. They were considered as atypical and conventional groups. Moreover, both groups had not used any other antipsychotic drugs during the past year. Demographic data and food frequency questionnaire were completed by the participants. Serum triglyceride, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, and apolipoprotein A and B (Apo B) were tested by blood sample drawing after 12 hours of fasting through the antecubital vein. Student’s t-test was used to compare atypical and conventional groups.
RESULTS
There was no significant difference in age, gender, duration of illness, period of drug consumption, and age at onset of illness in the two groups. Patients in the atypical group used clozapine and risperidone (46.9%) more than olanzapine. In the conventional group 81.3% of patients used phenothiazines. Comparison between lipid profile in the conventional and atypical groups showed a significantly higher mean in TC (P = 0.01), LDL (P = 0.03), and Apo B (P = 0.01) in conventional group than the atypical group.
CONCLUSION
In schizophrenic patients, the level of lipid profile had been increased in both atypical and conventional antipsychotic users, especially conventional users, so the effect of antipsychotic drugs should be investigated periodically.
PMCID: PMC3681276  PMID: 23766777
Atypical Antipsychotic; Conventional Antipsychotic; Lipid Profile
3.  Heart rate recovery in exercise test in diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(3):167-171.
BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has a lot of complications such as macrovessel and microvessel disease. Another complication of DM is cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN), which have effect on automatic nervous system of heart. Failure in heart rate slowing after exercise is a presentation of this abnormality.
METHODS
We selected diabetic patients and divided them to case and control group based on microalbuminuria. Case group comprised of diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and control group included those without microalbuminuria. Patients in both groups exercised on treadmill using Bruce protocol and heart rate was measured in first and second minutes in the recovery period.
RESULTS
We selected 35 patients with microalbuminuria (case group) and 35 without microalbuminuria (control group) among diabetic patients. No statistically significant difference was seen in sex and age between case and control groups. Heart rate recovery in the first minute of recovery in the case and control groups did not show significant difference; but in the second minute of recovery, it was significantly higher in control group (97 ± 19.4 vs. 101.9 ± 12.4 beat per minute, P = 0.04).
CONCLUSION
In this study we evaluated the heart rate recovery or deceleration in diabetic patients with albuminuria and without microalbuminuria in recovery phase after exercise test. We found out that heart rate recovery at the second minute in the case and control groups has statistically significant difference but at the first minute, it did not.
PMCID: PMC3681282  PMID: 23766772
Diabetes Mellitus; Exercise Test; Heart Rate Recovery
4.  Association of serum potassium level with ventricular tachycardia after acute myocardial infarction 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(2):79-81.
BACKGROUND
One of the causes of mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is ventricular tachycardia. Abnormal serum Potassium (K) level is one of the probable causes of ventricular tachycardia in patients with AMI. This study carried out to determine the relationship between serum potassium level and frequency of ventricular tachycardia in early stages of AMI.
METHODS
Ina cross-sectional study on 162 patients with AMI in the coronary care unit (CCU) of Nour Hospital (Isfahan, Iran), the patients' serum potassium level was classified into three groups: 1) K<3.8 mEq/l, 2) 3.8≤K<4.5 mEq/l and 3) K≥4.5 mEq/l. The incidence of ventricular tachycardia in the first 24 hours after AMI was determined in each group by chi-square statistical method.
RESULTS
The frequency of ventricular tachycardia in the first 24 hours after AMI in K< 3.8 mEq/l, 3.8≤K<4.5 mEq/l and K≥4.5 mEq/l groups were 19.0%, 9.6% and 9.9% respectively. The high frequency of this arrhythmia in the first group as compared with the second and the third group was statistically significant.
CONCLUSION
Hypokalemia increased the probability of ventricular tachycardia in patients with AMI. Thus, the follow up and treatment of hypokalemia in these patients is of special importance.
PMCID: PMC3463994  PMID: 23056108
Acute Myocardial Infarction; Ventricular Tachycardia; Hypokalemia; SerumPotassium Level

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