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1.  Comparing cardiovascular factors in opium abusers and non-users candidate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery 
In some opinions, opium consumption has traditionally been considered to be a means to lower blood lipids and to put off heart diseases. In this study, the relationship between opium consumption and risk factors of coronary artery diseases, hemodynamic factors and cardiac related functions before and after surgery was evaluated.
Materials and Methods:
In a cross-sectional study 325 patient's candidate for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were enrolled in a period of 6 months. Opium addicted patients were recognized based on taking history from the patients by an anaesthesiologist. Serum lipid profile was determined at the beginning of the study. Frequency and distribution of coronary artery diseases were assessed according to the pre-operative coronary angiography.
From 325 patients, 117 patients were opium abusers and 208 patients were not. Mean duration of opium abuse was 12.6 ± 7.7 years. Mean total serum cholesterol levels were not significantly different in abusers and non-users patients (185 ± 47 vs. 190 ± 49, P > 0.05). Mean level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly higher in addicted group (121 ± 27 vs. 81 ± 22, P < 0.05). Mean triglyceride level was also higher in addicted patients (203 ± 114 vs. 162 ± 98, P < 0.05). The prevalence of diabetes and glucose levels was considerably lower in opium addicted cases. Mean body mass index was also lower in addicted patients significantly (25.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.5 ± 4.1, P < 0.05).
There may be a relationship between opium abuse and aggravating lipid profile and hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery disease.
PMCID: PMC4300596  PMID: 25625118
Coronary disease; opium/adverse effects; risk factors
2.  Prevalence of Delirium in Opium Users after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery 
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, especially delirium commonly occurs after cardiac surgery. Clinical evidences suggest an increase in delirium in opium abusers after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery. In this study, the prevalence of delirium in addict (opium user) and nonaddict patients after CABG were compared.
In a cross-sectional study after obtaining institutional approval and informed consent, 325 patients candidate for elective CABG were included in the study. All patients with history of opium abuse met the criteria for opioid dependence using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition definitions. Delirium after CABG was assessed in addict (opium user) and nonaddict patients up to a maximum of 5 days after surgery with the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist.
A total of 325 patients were evaluated (208 without and 117 with a history of opium abuse). Postoperative delirium occurred within 72 h after surgery in 44.31% of all patients. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of postoperative delirium between the opium users (80.7%) and nonaddict patients (25%) in the intensive care unit (P < 0.001). Opium addiction was a risk factor for postoperative delirium after CABG Surgery.
Delirium after CABG surgery is more prevalent in opium users compared with nonaddict patients. Therefore, opium abuse is a possible risk factor for postoperative delirium in cardiac surgical patients.
PMCID: PMC4124569  PMID: 25105003
Addiction; cardiac surgery; delirium; intensive care unit; opium
3.  Comparative evaluation of the effects of hydroxyethyl starch on coagulation state of patients during brain tumor surgeries in comparison to crystalloids by thromboelastography 
Hypercoagulability has been reported in primary brain tumors which can lead to thrombotic complications. Hydroxyethyl starch (hetastarch) is a synthetic colloid solution with adverse effects on blood coagulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of hetastarch in reducing thromboembolic events in these patients.
Materials and Methods:
In a double-blinded clinical trial, 60 brain tumor surgery patients were randomly divided into two groups and given 10 mL/kg hetastarch or normal saline during surgery. Blood coagulation was compared before and after infusion of these fluids within and between groups by thromboelastography (TEG).
There were no significant differences in bleeding (P = 0.126), duration of surgery (P = 0.504), and fluid intake (0.09L) between the two groups. Percentage of changes in R (R: Time to initiate fibrin formation), K (K: Measure of the speed taken to reach a specific level of clot strength), and Ly30 (Ly30: Percent of fibrin distraction after 30 minutes of clot formation) in the crystalloid group were -20.61 ± 26.46, -30.02 ± 49.10, and 1.27 ± 22.63, and that in the colloid group were 22.10 ± 26.11, 41.79 ± 37.15, and 59.09 ± 37.12, respectively. Deterioration in hemostasis during and after surgery was not observed.
There was a reduction in the speed of clot formation and increase in clot lysis in the hetastarch group. Coagulability was decreased in the colloid group. Infusion of 10 mL/kg hetastarch in brain tumor resection surgeries can probably decrease susceptibility of these patients to deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and thromboembolic events.
PMCID: PMC3963329  PMID: 24672558
Brain tumor; hetastarch; hypercoagulability; thromboelastography
4.  The effect of lidocaine on reducing the tracheal mucosal damage following tracheal intubation 
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of lidocaine solution in the cuff of the endotracheal tube in reducing mucosal damage following tracheal intubation.
Materials and Methods:
This was a randomized controlled trial study undertaken in the intensive care unit patients. Participants, who met all eligibility criteria, were randomly assigned to one of two groups of patients, according to whether lidocaine or air was used to fill the tracheal tube cuff. The tracheal mucosa at the site of cuff inflation was inspected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and scored at the 24 h and 48 h after intubation.
In all, 51 patients (26 patients in the lidocaine group and 25 patients in the control group) completed the study. After 24 h, erythema and/or edema of tracheal mucosa were seen in 2 patients (7.7%) of lidocaine group and 6 patients (24%) of air group (P = 0.109). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that lidocaine has a significant protective effect against mucosal damage (odds ratio = 0.72, confidence interval = 0.60-0.87).
The inflation of the tracheal tube cuff with lidocaine was superior to air in decreasing the incidence of mucosal damage in the 24 h and 48 h post intubation.
PMCID: PMC3872578  PMID: 24381613
Intubation; lidocaine; mechanical ventilation; mucosal damage
5.  Evaluation of intravenous neostigmine infusion on tolerance of enteral nutrition in Intensive Care Unit patients 
Based on the dramatic response of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction to neostigmine, we designed this study to evaluate the effect of neostigmine on the tolerance of enteral feeding in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 60 patients hospitalized in the ICU of Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran entered the study. They were randomly assigned to one of the two groups of case (who received intravenous neostigmine infusion) and control (normal saline). They were compared with respect to incidence of constipation, diarrhea, and vomiting. Arrhythmia, bronchospasm, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were also evaluated at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h.
The frequency distribution of constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, and increase in gastric lavage volume in the intervention group was 20%, 33.3%, 46.7% and 43.3%, while these indices in the control group were 40%, 30%, 43.3%, and 63.3%, respectively (P > 0.05). Arrhythmia was observed in 3% and 6% in the case and control groups, respectively. Bronchospasm was not detected in any of patients.
There was no significance difference between neostigmine and normal saline with respect to tolerance of enteral nutrition in ICU patients.
PMCID: PMC3872581  PMID: 24381616
Enteral feeding tolerance; Intensive Care Unit; neostigmine
6.  Can Selection of Mechanical Ventilation Mode Prevent Increased Intra-Abdominal Pressure in Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit? 
Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) results in dysfunction of vital organs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mechanical ventilation mode on IAP.
In a cohort study, a total of 60 patients aged 20-70 years who were admitted to the ICU and underwent mechanical ventilation were recruited. Mechanical ventilation included one of the three modes: Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) group, synchronize intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) group, or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) group. For each patient, mechanical ventilation mode and its parameters, blood pressure, SpO2, and status of tube feeding and IAP were recorded.
Our findings indicate that the study groups were not significantly different in terms of anthropometric characteristics including age (64.5 ± 4, P = 0.1), gender (male/female 31/29, P = 0.63), and body mass index (24 ± 1.2, P = 0.11). Increase IAP was related to the type of respiratory mode with the more increased IAP observed in SIMV mode, followed by BIPAP and CPAP modes (P = 0.01). There were significant correlations between increased IAP and respiratory variables including respiratory rate, pressure support ventilation, and inspiratory pressure (P < 0.05). Tube feeding tolerance through NG-tube was lower in SIMV group, followed by BIPAP and CPAP groups (P < 0.05).
There is a significant relationship between respiratory modes and IAP; therefore, it is better to utilize those types of mechanical ventilation like CPAP and BIPAP mode in patients who are prone to Intra-abdominal hypertension.
PMCID: PMC3733186  PMID: 23930166
Abdominal compartment syndrome; intra-abdominal pressure; mechanical ventilation mode
7.  Correlation between timing of tracheostomy and duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with potentially normal lungs admitted to intensive care unit 
There is insufficient evidence to conclude that the timing of tracheostomy alters the duration of mechanical ventilation, hence this study was designed to investigate the correlation between timing of tracheostomy and duration of mechanical ventilation for patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) with potentially normal lungs.
Materials and Methods:
In a retrospective study for a period of 2 years, all adult patients admitted to the medical ICU of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences who needed endotracheal intubation and prolonged mechanical ventilation were considered for inclusion in this study. Data of underlying disease, causes of respiratory failure, age and gender, duration of mechanical ventilation, and interval between intubation time and tracheostomy were collected. The correlations between intubation period and ventilation period were analyzed using a Pearson correlation test.
Sixty-six percent of patients (100 patients) were men. The mean ± SD of age of patients was 56.2 ± 20.8 years (18–90 years.). The timing of tracheostomy (duration of endotracheal intubation until tracheostomy) did not exhibit any correlation with the length of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.43, r = 0.08). The timing of tracheostomy had not any correlation with the age of patients (P = 0.20, r = 0.129). The length of mechanical ventilation had not any correlation with the age of patients (P = 0.83, r = 0.02). The timing of tracheostomy was similar in men and women (P = 0.5). Mechanical ventilation period was not significantly different in both genders (P = 0.89).
Our study with mentioned sample size could not show any relationship between timing of tracheostomy and duration of mechanical ventilation in patients under mechanical ventilation with good pulmonary function in ICU.
PMCID: PMC3507024  PMID: 23210084
Critical illness; intensive care unit; mechanical ventilation; tracheostomy
9.  Diagnostic performance and discriminative value of the serum ferritin level for predicting preterm labor 
The measuring serum ferritin level as a sensitive inflammatory biomarker might effectively predict preterm delivery, but the power and the best cut-off point of this biomarker for predicting preterm labor in Iranian population has not been substantially identified. Our purpose was to determine what concentrations of serum ferritin could identify patients at risk for preterm delivery in Iranian population for the first time.
Materials and Methods:
This case control study involved 222 singleton pregnancies that were referred to referral university hospitals clinics in Isfahan. Women with spontaneous preterm delivery before 24–26 weeks (preterm delivery group, n = 69) and those who delivered at term (term delivery group, n = 153) were compared with respect to serum ferritin concentration. Venous blood samples were analyzed for the serum ferritin level using the ferritin quantitative test system-sensitive for the normal ferritin range.
Women who delivered before 37 weeks had a higher mean serum ferritin concentration than those who delivered after 37 weeks of gestation (26.7 ± 5.5 ng/mL versus 19.8 ± 3.6 ng/mL, P<0.001). A serum ferritin level of 22.5 ng/mL yielded the best combination with sensitivity of 78.3%, specificity of 83.0%, positive predictive value of 67.5%, and negative predictive value of 89.4% for prediction of preterm delivery.
The serum ferritin level provides an appropriate discrimination in predicting preterm delivery with an optimal cut-off value of 22.5 ng/mL in Iranian population.
PMCID: PMC3525035  PMID: 23264791
Cut off; ferritin; predict; preterm labor; serum
10.  The efficacy of preventive parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on intubation time, blood gas parameters, narcotic requirement, and pain relief after open heart surgery: A randomized clinical trial study 
Postsurgical pain usually results in some complications in the patients. This study has tried to investigate the effects of parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on postoperative pulmonary and pain consequences in patients after open heart surgery.
In a prospective double blind clinical study, 100 consenting patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were randomized into two groups. In case group, bupivacaine was injected at both sides of sternum, immediately before sternal closure. In the control group, no intervention was performed. Then, the patients were investigated regarding intubation period, length of ICU stay, arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters, morphine requirement, and their severity of postoperative pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS) device.
No differences were found between the two groups regarding to age, sex, pump time, operation time, and body mass index and preoperative cardiac ejection fraction. Mean intubation length in case group was much shorter than that in control group. Mean PaO2 in case group was lower in different checking times in postoperative period. The patients in the case group needed less morphine compared to those in the control group during the 24-hour observation period in the ICU. Finally, mean VAS scores of pain in case group were significantly lower than those in control group at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively.
Patients’ pain relief by parasternal single injection of bupivacaine in early postoperative period can facilitate earlier ventilator weaning and tracheal extubation after open heart surgery as well as achieving lower pain scores and narcotic requirements.
PMCID: PMC3214351  PMID: 22091262
Bupivacaine; Cardiac surgical procedures; Pain; Postoperative; Analgesia
11.  Efficacy of Glucose-Insulin-Potassium Infusion on Left Ventricular Performance in Type II Diabetic Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Artery Bypass Graft.Dy 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(2):62-68.
Glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) may improve cardiovascular performance after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Our study investigated whether an infusion of GIK during elective CABG surgery in type II diabetic patient improved left ventricular performance.
We measured left ventricular ejection fraction and troponin (Tn), a myofibrillar structural protein. In this research, after ethics committee approval, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were enrolled into a randomized simple sampling, prospective, double-blind clinical trial study. In the case group, 500 cc dextrose water 5% plus 80 IU regular insulin and 40 mEq KCL were infused at the rate of 30 cc/hr. Patients in control group received 5% dextrose solution at the rate of 30cc/hr. Venous blood samples were taken before induction of anesthesia, after removal of the aortic clamp and before discharging from hospital. The Mann-Whitney-test was used to test for differences in troponin concentration between the groups. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there was a difference in the proportion of patients with a low ejection fraction (<45%) in the case group compared with that in the control group. Changes in potassium and glucose concentrations over time within the groups were examined by ANOVA and paired t-tests. P < 0.05 was regarded as significant level for all tests.
In this study, 50 patients with type 2 DM were evaluated in case and control groups. The mean age ± SD in the case group was 57.7 ± 9.9 years and in the other group was 61.2 ± 8.4 years. The groups were well-matched for age, sex and number of bypass grafts. Randomization did not give an equal distribution of male and female patients. There wasn't any significant difference in ejection fraction between the case and control groups before and after CABG (P > 0.05). Troponin concentration in the case group was 3.3 ± 5.0 and in the control group was 3.9 ± 5.1. There was no significant difference in Tn between the two groups before and after CABG (P > 0.05). There was not any significant difference in hospitalization time between the two groups.
The results suggested that GIK can't improve left ventricular performance in routine CABG surgery.
PMCID: PMC3347817  PMID: 22577416
Cardiovascular surgery; Glucose-Insulin-Potassium; Cardiac troponin

Results 1-11 (11)