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1.  Hormonal profile in children with isolated hypospadias associates better with comprehensive score of local anatomical factors as compared to meatal location or degree of chordee 
Background:
To evaluate if hormonal profile of children with isolated hypospadias (IH) associates better with comprehensive local anatomical factor score (LAFS) than with clinically adjudged urethral meatus location or severity of chordee/k.j.
Material and Methods:
Ninety-nine children with IH were enrolled, as per inclusion criteria. Meatal location was recorded at first clinical examination in OPD; while LAFS was computed per-operatively using indigenously devised scale, except for neonates. Hypospadiacs were first classified into three standard meatal based groups and subsequently into LAFS based two groups (≤19, >19). For all participants, pre HCG and post HCG (96 hour post- injection) estimation of serum gonadotropins, DHEA-S, estrogen (E), progesterone (P), testosterone (T) and Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was done. Statistical tests were applied to assess significance of hormonal levels with respect to meatal location, chordee and LAFS.
Results:
Only FSH levels differed significantly among meatal based groups; while among LAFS groups, multiple hormonal differences were noted; with poor LAFS associated significantly with higher FSH, LH and lower E, T/DHT. Children with severe degree of chordee had poorer T output and a significantly lower LAFS as compared to those with moderate/mild chordee.
Conclusion:
Serotoli cell dysfunction, indirectly indicated by high FSH was found among midpenile hypospadiacs and those with poorer LAFS. Since groups based on LAFS revealed multiple intergroup hormonal differences than what was seen for meatal/chordee based groups; LAFS should be considered a better guide for prognostication and for deciding about hormonal supplementation. Lower androgenic output was particularly noted in children with severe chordee.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.137519
PMCID: PMC4138916  PMID: 25143917
Children; human chorionic gonadotropin; hormones; hypospadias; local anatomical factor
2.  Pedicled Omental Onlay Flap for Post-Traumatic Intrahepatic Major Ductal Injury 
We report a 5-year-old girl who presented with post traumatic biliary leakage that failed to respond to conservative management for two weeks. Surgical exploration in the third week revealed a partially healed 5 cm long hepatic laceration in the right lobe of the liver. Bile was found leaking through a rent in the major right intra-hepatic duct at the apex of liver laceration. A pedicled onlay omental flap was used to buttress this rent as direct closure was not possible due to friable tissue. The child recovered uneventfully.
PMCID: PMC3863827  PMID: 24381834
Post traumatic intra-hepatic bile duct; Omental flap; Bile leak
3.  Colonic Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour Presenting as Intussusception 
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rare in paediatric patients and have a discrete clinicopathological and molecular divergence from that observed in adults. In the present report we present a case of a 2-month-old female in whom colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumour acted as a lead point of colocolic intussusception. Laparoscopically assisted reduction of the intussusception and resection of tumour was done.
PMCID: PMC3754404  PMID: 24040597
Gastrointestinal stromal tumour;  Colonic intussusception;  Child
4.  Laparoscopic-assisted transanal pull-through for Hirschsprung's disease: Comparison between partial and near total laparoscopic mobilization of rectum 
Background:
Transanal pull-through with laparoscopic assistance is gaining popularity. How much rectal dissection to do laparoscopically and how much transanally is not clear. Laparoscopic rectal mobilization is akin to open pelvic dissection of Swenson's operation — the most physiological procedure. Through this comparative study, we aim to evolve a technique that maximizes the benefits of Swenson's technique and minimizes the problems of a transanal procedure.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty patients (19 boys and one girl, newborn to 6 years) with Hirschsprung's disease (HD) were randomized for laparoscopic-assisted transanal pull-through (LATAPT) either by near complete (Group A) or partial (Group B) laparoscopic mobilization of rectum. Patients were followed up for at least 3 months. Demographic profile; operative details (time taken, blood loss, operative difficulty, and complications); postoperative course (duration of urinary catheter, oral feeding, and hospital stay); and follow-up stooling pattern, consistency, and continence were compared in the two groups.
Results:
The time taken for laparoscopic mobilization was marginally higher in group A, but the time taken for transanal dissection in this group was significantly less than in group B. All other comparisons showed no significant difference in the two groups. Stool frequency and continence improved with time in both groups.
Conclusion:
Extent of laparoscopic mobilization of rectum does not appear to be a factor deciding the outcomes. No recommendations could be made in view of the small number of cases. However, it shows that laparoscopic assistance can be used to maximize the benefits of Swenson type of operation and a transanal pull-through.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.129596
PMCID: PMC3983770  PMID: 24741208
Endorectal pull-through; Hirschsprung's; laparoscopy; transanal
5.  Laparoscopic repair of hernia in children: Comparison between ligation and nonligation of sac 
Aim:
The essence of the current techniques of laparoscopic hernia repair in children is suture ligation of the neck of the hernia sac at the deep ring with or without its transection. Some studies show that during open hernia repair, after transection at the neck it can be left unsutured without any consequence. This study was aimed to see if the same holds true for laparoscopic hernia repair.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty patients (52 boys and eight girls, 12-144 months) with indirect inguinal hernia were randomized for laparoscopic repair either by transection of the sac alone (Group I) or transection plus suture ligation of sac at the neck (Group II). Outcome was assessed in terms of time taken for surgery, recurrence, and other complications.
Result:
Thirty-eight hernia units in 28 patients were repaired by transection alone (Group I) and 34 hernia units in 29 patients were repaired by transection and suture ligation (Group II). Three patients were found to have no hernia on laparoscopy. Recurrence rate and other complications were not significantly different in the two groups. All recurrences occurred in hernias with ring size more than 10 mm.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic repair of hernia by circumferential incision of the peritoneum at the deep ring is as effective as incision plus ligation of the sac.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.129597
PMCID: PMC3983771  PMID: 24741209
Hernia; laparoscopy; ligation; repair; sac
6.  Chylothorax after Primary Repair of Esophageal Atresia with Tracheo-esophageal Fistula: Successful Management by Biological Fibrin Glue 
A neonate, who had undergone primary repair of esophageal atresia with tracheo-esophageal fistula, developed right pleural effusion in the postoperative period. It was initially misdiagnosed as an anastomotic leak, but later confirmed to be chylothorax. Conservative treatment failed. Application of biological fibrin glue (sealant) on the mediastinum through a thoracotomy was curative.
PMCID: PMC3468335  PMID: 23061032
Esophageal atresia;  Tracheo-esophageal fistula;  Chylothorax;  Fibrin glue
7.  Scoliotic deformity and asymptomatic cervical syrinx in a 9 year old with caudal regression syndrome 
We report late presentation of caudal regression syndrome in a 9 year old presenting with a scoliotic deformity. She in addition had an asymptomatic cervical syrinx and vitiligo. We discuss the reasons for this unusual constellation of symptomatology present in our case.
doi:10.4103/1817-1745.106476
PMCID: PMC3611907  PMID: 23560005
Caudal regression syndrome; cervical syrinx; vitiligo
9.  Soft tissue covers in hypospadias surgery: Is tunica vaginalis better than dartos flap? 
Aim:
To compare tunica vaginalis with dartos flap as soft tissue cover in primary hypospadias repair.
Materials and Methods:
25 cases (age range: 12-132 months; all fresh cases) of primary hypospadias were prospectively repaired by tubularized incised plate (TIP)/TIP + graft urethroplasty using tunica vaginalis flap (TVF) as soft tissue cover to urethroplasty (group A). Their results were compared with another set (group B) of age- and anatomy-matched controls (25 patients operated during the previous 3 years) who had undergone TIP repair using dartos flap as soft tissue cover. Statistical analysis of results was done with Fischer's exact test.
Results:
Group A: No fistula, skin necrosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture. One case had partial wound dehiscence that resolved on conservative treatment with no sequelae. One case required catheter removal on 3rd day because of severe bladder spasm. There was no testicular atrophy/ascent. Group B: 3 fistulae – all required surgery. There were three cases of superficial skin necrosis that healed spontaneously without sequel. There was no meatal stenosis/urethral stricture. The difference in fistula rate between both the groups, however, was not statistically significant (P = 0.4).
Conclusion:
TVF may have an edge over dartos fascia for soft tissue coverage of the neourethra.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.91080
PMCID: PMC3263032  PMID: 22279358
Dartos fascia; hypospadias; tunica vaginalis flap; urethrocutaneous fistula
10.  Use of pre and intra-operative bronchoscopy in management of bronchial injury following blunt chest trauma 
Blunt chest trauma resulting in right bronchial tear in an 8-year-old girl is reported. Use of bronchoscopy in the management of such an injury is highlighted.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.83498
PMCID: PMC3160053  PMID: 21897575
Blunt trauma chest; bronchoscopy; lobectomy; tracheo-bronchial injury
11.  The surged faradic stimulation to the pelvic floor muscles as an adjunct to the medical management in children with rectal prolapse 
BMC Pediatrics  2009;9:44.
Background
To assess the role of the surged faradic stimulation to the pelvic floor muscles as an adjunct to the conservative management in the children of idiopathic rectal prolapse
Methods
Study design: Prospective
Setting: Pediatric Surgery Department, Pt BD Sharma, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak
Subjects: 47 consecutive children with idiopathic rectal prolapse attending the Pediatric Surgery out patient department from July 2005 to June 2006
Methodology: The information pertaining to duration and the extent of rectal prolapse, predisposing or associated medical conditions, results of local clinical examination were noted. Surged faradic stimulation using modified intraluminal rectal probe, was given on the alternate days. The conventional conservative medical management was also continued. The extent of relief and the number of the sittings of faradic stimulation required were noted at various stages of follow-ups
Statistical Methods: Mean values between those completely cured and others; poor responders and others were compared with t-test and proportions were compared with Chi square test. The p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results
The mean number of sittings in the completely cured group (n = 28(64%)) was (12.4 ± 7.8) and was comparable with very poor responder (n = 6(13%). There was higher percentage of relief (76%) at the first follow up (at 15 days) in completely cured Vs other (37%) and also the poor responders showed (20%) Vs other (68%) and was statistically significant.
Conclusion
With use of faradic stimulation, even the long-standing rectal prolapse can be fully cured. The follow up visit at 2 weeks is very important to gauge the likely success of this modality in treatment of the patients with rectal prolapse. Those showing poor response at this stage may require alternative treatment or take a long time to get cured
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-9-44
PMCID: PMC2715404  PMID: 19602234

Results 1-11 (11)