Enterobacteriaceae produces AmpC β-lactamases that make them
resistant to commonly used antibiotics. AmpC β-lactamases can be
chromosomal-mediated or plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (PABLs). The present
study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of PABLs production in clinical
isolates in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella
Among 1328 culture positive samples, 511 isolates were identified as E.
coli (81.02%, n = 414) and K.
pneumonia (18.98%, n = 97). Cefoxitin resistance
was observed in E. coli (19.57%, n = 81) and
K. pneumoniae (22.68%, n = 22). Out of
these cefoxitin resistant isolates, 40.74% (n = 33) E.
coli and 54.55% (n = 12) K.
pneumoniae came out to be PABL producers. Prevalence of both PABLs
and ESBLs in E. coli and K. pneumoniae was
29.24% (n = 8) and 47% (n = 5), respectively.
Isolates coproducing PABLs and ESBL exhibited increased minimum inhibitory
concentrations (MICs) for selected cephalosporins. This study documented a high
frequency of PABLs producing isolates from hospital which may lead to serious
antibiogram; E. coli; ESBLs; K. pneumoniae; PABLs
Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of human infections.
The present study was undertaken to investigate Bergenia
ciliata, Jasminum officinale, and Santalum
album for their potential activity against human bacterial
B. ciliata, J. officinale, and S.
album extracts were prepared in cold and hot water. The activity of
plant extracts and selected antibiotics was evaluated against five bacterial
pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus
subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli using agar well
Among the three medicinal plants, B. ciliata extracts displayed
potential activity against bacterial pathogens. Cold water extract of
Bergenia ciliate showed the highest activity against
B. subtilis, which is comparable with a zone of inhibition
exhibited by ceftriaxone and erythromycin. J. officinale and
S. album extracts demonstrated variable antibacterial
activity. Further studies are needed to explore the novel antibacterial
antibacterial activity; Bergenia ciliata; Jasminum officinale; plant extracts; Santalum album
It is difficult to study the breakdown of disc tissue over several years of exposure to bending and lifting by experimental methods. There is also no finite element model that elucidates the failure mechanism due to repetitive loading of the lumbar motion segment. The aim of this study was to refine an already validated poro-elastic finite element model of lumbar motion segment to investigate the initiation and progression of mechanical damage in the disc under simple and complex cyclic loading conditions. Continuum damage mechanics methodology was incorporated into the finite element model to track the damage accumulation in the annulus in response to the repetitive loading. The analyses showed that the damage initiated at the posterior inner annulus adjacent to the endplates and propagated outwards towards its periphery under all loading conditions simulated. The damage accumulated preferentially in the posterior region of the annulus. The analyses also showed that the disc failure is unlikely to happen with repetitive bending in the absence of compressive load. Compressive cyclic loading with low peak load magnitude also did not create the failure of the disc. The finite element model results were consistent with the experimental and clinical observations in terms of the region of failure, magnitude of applied loads and the number of load cycles survived.
Lumbar spine; Disc degeneration; Fatigue failure; Finite element modeling; Continuum damage mechanics
The offset connector can allow medial and lateral variability and facilitate intralaminar screw incorporation into the construct. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without offset connector using a three dimensional finite element model of a C6-7 cervical spine segment.
Finite element models representing C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without the offset connector were developed. Range of motion (ROM) and maximum von Mises stresses in the vertebra for the two techniques were compared under pure moments in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation.
ROM for intralaminar screw construct with offset connector was less than the construct without the offset connector in the three principal directions. The maximum von Misses stress was observed in the C7 vertebra around the pedicle in both constructs. Maximum von Mises stress in the construct without offset connector was found to be 12-30% higher than the corresponding stresses in the construct with offset connector in the three principal directions.
This study demonstrated that the intralaminar screw fixation with offset connector is better than the construct without offset connector in terms of biomechanical stability. Construct with the offset connector reduces the ROM of C6-7 segment more significantly compared to the construct without the offset connector and causes lower stresses around the C7 pedicle-vertebral body complex.
Cervical spine; Intralaminar screw; Finite element method; Biomechanics
This article looks at the steady flow of Micropolar fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer in the presence of Newtonian heating. The relevant partial differential equations have been reduced to ordinary differential equations. The reduced ordinary differential equation system has been numerically solved by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. Influence of different involved parameters on dimensionless velocity, microrotation and temperature is examined. An excellent agreement is found between the present and previous limiting results.
Hepatitis C, caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a contagious disease of the liver which infects more than 170 million people world-wide and around 16 million in Pakistan. HCV associated infection spreads mainly by blood-to-blood contact. In recent years, many studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in Pakistan; however, no data is available on HCV infection from the largest province of Pakistan. Therefore, the present study focuses on the prevalence of HCV infection in the young male blood donor population of Quetta region of Balochistan, Pakistan.
A total of 356 blood samples were collected from blood donors (age range 17–25 years) at Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. Blood samples were screened for HCV positivity by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA).
Out of 356 blood samples, the overall HCV prevalence was 20.8%. Among the HCV positive cases, the age group with 25 years was more frequently infected with a prevalence of 26.3%.
The present study provides the preliminary information about high HCV prevalence among the young male donor population in Balochistan province. This data may be helpful in formulating public health strategy for the prevention of risk factors associated with spreading of the disease. Furthermore, we recommend that in public sector hospitals and health care units ELISA should be preferred for anti-HCV detection over ICT.
Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay; Hepatitis C virus; Immunochromatography; Quetta; Pakistan
HCV has become a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and is a major health concern worldwide. To date,
there is no vaccine available in the market to tackle this disease, therefore there is a strong need to develop antiviral compounds
that can target all genotypes of HCV with the same efficiency. Medicinal plants have low cost and are less toxic therefore, extracts
of medicinal plants can serve as important antiviral agents against HCV. This study was designed to screen phytochemicals of
Accacia nilotica to find a potent drug candidate that can inhibit HCV infection effectively.
Docking of NS3/4A protease and Flavonoids of Accacia nilotica revealed that most of the flavonoids bound deeply with the active
site of NS3/4A protease. Compound 01 showed a high ranking on docking score. All other compounds also showed reliable
docking scores and had interactions with the binding cavity of NS3/4A protease, suggesting them as a potent drug candidate to
block HCV replication.
To recognize binding interactions of Accacia nilotica phytochemicals with NS3/4A protease, molecular docking was performed to
find potential inhibitor against NS3/4A protease of HCV. After post docking analysis, important interactions were found between
active compounds and active site of NS3/4A protease. It can be concluded from the study that phytochemicals of Accacia nilotica
may serve as a potential drug candidate with relatively simple structural changes against HCV NS3/4A protease.
Rabies is an avertable viral disease caused by the rabid animal to the warm blooded animals (zoonotic) especially human. Rabies occurs in more than 150 countries and territories. According to an estimation by WHO, almost 55,000 people die because of rabies every year. The Dogs are the major reason behind this, approximately 99% human deaths caused by dog's bites. Developing and under developing countries, both are the victims of rabies. With the post-exposure preventive regimes, 327,000 people can prevent this disease annually.
The current article mainly covers the genome, virology, symptoms, epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and the high risk countries around the globe.
Rabies; Zoonosis; Vaccine; Prevention
Hepatitis C virus causes acute and chronic hepatitis and can lead to permanent liver damage and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a significant number of patients via oxidative stress, insulin resistance (IR), fibrosis, liver cirrhosis and HCV induced steatosis. HCV induced steatosis and oxidative stress causes steato-hepatitis and these pathways lead to liver injury or HCC in chronic HCV infection. Steatosis and oxidative stress crosstalk play an important role in liver damage in HCV infection. This Review illustrates viral and host factors which induce Oxidative stress, steatosis and leads toward HCC. It also expresses Molecular cascade which leads oxidative stress and steatosis to HCC.
The popliteal pterygium syndrome is a congenital malformation that includes orofacial, musculoskeletal and genitourinary anomalies. It is a rare autosomal dominant disorder. We report one family with popliteal pterygium syndrome affecting father and his two daughters, who underwent surgical corrections for multiple congenital malformations.
Popliteal pterygium syndrome; Autosomal dominant disorder; Familial
The effects of fetal calf serum (FCS) heat inactivation and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination on cell physiology have been studied, but their effect on the proteome of cultured cells has yet to be described. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of heat inactivation of FCS and LPS contamination on the human T lymphoblast proteome. Human T lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCRF-CEM) cells were grown in FCS, either non-heated, or heat inactivated, having low (< 1 EU/mL) or regular (< 30 EU/mL) LPS concentrations. Protein lysates were resolved by 2-DE followed by phospho-specific and silver nitrate staining. Differentially regulated spots were identified by nano LC ESI Q-TOF MS/MS analysis.
A total of four proteins (EIF3M, PRS7, PSB4, and SNAPA) were up-regulated when CCRF-CEM cells were grown in media supplemented with heat inactivated FCS (HE) as compared to cells grown in media with non-heated FCS (NHE). Six proteins (TCPD, ACTA, NACA, TCTP, ACTB, and ICLN) displayed a differential phosphorylation pattern between the NHE and HE groups. Compared to the low concentration LPS group, regular levels of LPS resulted in the up-regulation of three proteins (SYBF, QCR1, and SUCB1).
The present study provides new information regarding the effect of FCS heat inactivation and change in FCS-LPS concentration on cellular protein expression, and post-translational modification in human T lymphoblasts. Both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS were shown to modulate the expression and phosphorylation of proteins involved in basic cellular functions, such as protein synthesis, cytoskeleton stability, oxidative stress regulation and apoptosis. Hence, the study emphasizes the need to consider both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS as factors that can influence the T lymphoblast proteome.
CCRF-CEM cells; FCS heat inactivation; LPS; proteome; phosphoproteome
HCV causes acute and chronic hepatitis which can eventually lead to permanent liver damage hepatocellular carcinoma and death. HCV glycoproteins play an important role in HCV entry by binding with CD81 receptors. Hence inhibition of virus at entry step is an important target to identify antiviral drugs against HCV.
Methods and result
The present study elaborated the role of CD81 and HCV glycoprotein E2 in HCV entry using retroviral pseudo-particles of 3a local genotype. Our results demonstrated that HCV specific antibody E2 and host antibody CD81 showed dose- dependent inhibition of HCV entry. HCV E2 antibody showed 50% reduction at a concentration of 1.5 ± 1 μg while CD81 exhibited 50% reduction at a concentration of 0.8 ± 1 μg. In addition, data obtained with HCVpp were also confirmed with the infection of whole virus of HCV genotype 3a in liver cells.
Our data suggest that HCV specific E2 and host CD81 antibodies reduce HCVpp entry and full length viral particle and combination of host and HCV specific antibodies showed synergistic effect in reducing the viral titer.
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is widely used as a post transplantation medicine to prevent acute organ rejection. In the present study we used proteomics approach to identify proteome alterations in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) after treatment with therapeutic dose of MPA. Following 72 hours MPA treatment, total protein lysates were prepared, resolved by two dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by QTOF-MS/MS analysis. Expressional regulations of selected proteins were further validated by real time PCR and Western blotting.
The proliferation assay demonstrated that therapeutic MPA concentration causes a dose dependent inhibition of HEK-293 cell proliferation. A significant apoptosis was observed after MPA treatment, as revealed by caspase 3 activity. Proteome analysis showed a total of 12 protein spots exhibiting differential expression after incubation with MPA, of which 7 proteins (complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, electron transfer flavoprotein subunit beta, cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit, peroxiredoxin 1, thioredoxin domain-containing protein 12, myosin regulatory light chain 2, and profilin 1) showed significant increase in their expression. The expression of 5 proteins (protein SET, stathmin, 40S ribosomal protein S12, histone H2B type 1 A, and histone H2B type 1-C/E/F/G/I) were down-regulated. MPA mainly altered the proteins associated with the cytoskeleton (26%), chromatin structure/dynamics (17%) and energy production/conversion (17%). Both real time PCR and Western blotting confirmed the regulation of myosin regulatory light chain 2 and peroxiredoxin 1 by MPA treatment. Furthermore, HT-29 cells treated with MPA and total kidney cell lysate from MMF treated rats showed similar increased expression of myosin regulatory light chain 2.
The emerging use of MPA in diverse pathophysiological conditions demands in-depth studies to understand molecular basis of its therapeutic response. The present study identifies the myosin regulatory light chain 2 and peroxiredoxin 1 along with 10 other proteins showing significant regulation by MPA. Further characterization of these proteins may help to understand the diverse cellular effects of MPA in addition to its immunosuppressive activity.
HEK-293 cells; proteome; mycophenolic acid; drug toxicology; differential proteomics
Parasitic twining is a rare type of monozygotic monochorionic monoamniotic asymmetrical conjoined twin. We report a case of epigastric heteropagus twin. An ultrasound scan showed a defect of 1.5 cm in the epigastrium. CT showed soft tissue lobulated mass with fat and air components coming out of the epigastric defect. At operation rudimentary alimentary canal with no viscera, was found in the parasite. The parasite was easily separated from the host.
Conjoined twin; Monochorionic monoamniotic; Epigastric heteropagus twin
Mutations of PCDH15, encoding protocadherin 15, can cause either combined hearing and vision impairment (type 1 Usher syndrome; USH1F) or nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB23). Human PCDH15 is reported to be comprised of 35 exons and encodes a variety of isoforms with 3 to 11 ectodomains (EC), a transmembrane domain and a carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain (CD). Building on these observations we describe an updated gene structure that has four additional exons of PCDH15 and isoforms that can be subdivided into four classes. Human PCDH15 encodes three alternative, evolutionarily conserved unique cytoplasmic domains (CD1, CD2 or CD3). Families ascertained on the basis of prelingual hearing loss were screened for linkage of this phenotype to markers for PCDH15 on chromosome 10q21.1. In seven of twelve families segregating USH1 we identified homozygous mutant alleles (1 missense, 1 splice site, 3 nonsense and 2 deletion mutations) of which six are novel. One family was segregating nonsyndromic deafness DFNB23 due to a homozygous missense mutation. To date in our cohort of 557 Pakistani families, we have found 11 different PCDH15 mutations that account for deafness in 13 families. Molecular modeling provided mechanistic insight into the phenotypic variation in severity of the PCDH15 missense mutations. We did not find pathogenic mutations in five of the twelve USH1 families linked to markers for USH1F, which suggest either the presence of mutations of yet additional undiscovered exons of PCDH15, mutations in the introns or regulatory elements of PCDH15, or an additional locus for type I USH at chromosome 10q21.1.
DFNB23; Usher syndrome; protocadherin 15; PCDH15; deafness; retinitis pigmentosa