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2.  Crystal structure of 1-benzoyl-3-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)thio­urea 
The title compound, C14H11FN2OS, contains two mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit, with different conformations. In mol­ecule A, the dihedral angles between the central thio­urea grouping and the phenyl and fluoro­benzene rings are 28.77 (8) and 41.82 (8)°, respectively, and the dihedral angle between the ring planes is 70.02 (9)°. Equivalent data for mol­ecule B are 8.46 (8), 47.78 (8) and 52.99 (9)°, respectively. Both mol­ecules feature an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which closes an S(6) ring. In the crystal, A+B dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(8) loops.
doi:10.1107/S1600536814018376
PMCID: PMC4186107  PMID: 25309204
crystal structure; thio­urea; amide; hydrogen-bonded dimers
3.  A study protocol: using demand-side financing to meet the birth spacing needs of the underserved in Punjab Province in Pakistan 
Reproductive Health  2014;11:39.
Background
High fertility rates, unwanted pregnancies, low modern contraceptive prevalence and a huge unmet need for contraception adversely affect women’s health in Pakistan and this problem is compounded by limited access to reliable information and quality services regarding birth spacing especially in rural and underserved areas. This paper presents a study protocol that describes an evaluation of a demand-side financing (DSF) voucher approach which aims to increase the uptake of modern contraception among women of the lowest two wealth quintiles in Punjab Province, Pakistan.
Methods/Design
This study will use quasi-experimental design with control arm and be implemented in: six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department; 24 social franchise facilities branded as ‘Suraj’ (Sun), led by Marie Stopes Society (a local non-governmental organization); and 12 private sector clinics in Chakwal, Mianwali and Bhakkar districts. The study respondents will be interviewed at baseline and endline subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. In addition, health service data will record each client visit during the study period.
Discussion
The study will examine the impact of vouchers in terms of increasing the uptake of modern contraception by engaging private and public sector service providers (mid-level and medical doctors). If found effective, this approach can be a viable solution to satisfying the current demand and meeting the unmet need for contraception, particularly among the poorest socio-economic group.
doi:10.1186/1742-4755-11-39
PMCID: PMC4059733  PMID: 24885657
Demand-side financing; Voucher; Social franchising; Quasi-experimental; Maternal health; Unmet need for modern contraception; Birth spacing; Study protocol; Punjab; Pakistan
4.  Rationale, design, and cohort enrolment of a prospective observational study of the clinical performance of the new contraceptive implant (Femplant) in Pakistan 
Introduction
The use of hormonal implants has gained positive traction in family planning programs in recent times. Compared to other popular methods, such as long-term reversible intrauterine devices, the use of hormonal implants as a family planning method has distinct advantages in terms of long-term efficiency and better user compliance and availability. This paper presents a study protocol to document and evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of Femplant (contraceptive implant) in Pakistan during the first year of its use among married women of reproductive age (18–44 years) at clinics in two provinces of Pakistan (Sindh and Punjab).
Materials and methods
A total of 724 married women were enrolled in a noncomparative prospective observational study. The study involved six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department in Sindh Province and 13 clinics run by the Marie Stopes Society (a local nongovernmental organization) in both provinces. The participation of women was subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. All respondents were interviewed at baseline and subsequently at each scheduled visit during the study period. Side effects, complications and adverse events, if any, were recorded for every participant at each visit to the facility.
Discussion
Over the next 5-year period (2013–2018), 27 million hormonal implants will be made available in lower- to middle-income countries by international donors and agencies. The evidence generated from this study will identify factors affecting the acceptability and satisfaction of end users with Femplant (Sino-implant II). This will help to guide policies to enhance access to and the use of long-acting contraceptive implants in Pakistan and similar developing countries.
doi:10.2147/IJWH.S58438
PMCID: PMC4045175  PMID: 24920939
safety; efficacy; acceptability; implant; Femplant; contraception; family planning; Pakistan
7.  Comparative sequence analysis of citrate synthase and 18S ribosomal DNA from a wild and mutant strains of Aspergillus niger with various fungi 
Bioinformation  2014;10(1):1-7.
A mutation was induced in Aspergillus niger wild strain using ethidium bromide resulting in enhanced expression of citric acid by three folds and 112.42 mg/mL citric acid was produced under optimum conditions with 121.84 mg/mL of sugar utilization. Dendograms of 18S rDNA and citrate synthase from different fungi including sample strains were made to assess homology among different fungi and to study the correlation of citrate synthase gene with evolution of fungi. Subsequent comparative sequence analysis revealed strangeness between the citrate synthase and 18S rDNA phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, the citrate synthase movement suggests that the use of traditional marker molecule of 18S rDNA gives misleading information about the evolution of citrate synthase in different fungi as it has shown that citrate synthase gene transferred independently among different fungi having no evolutionary relationships. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis was also employed to study genetic variation between wild and mutant strains of A. niger and only 71.43% similarity was found between both the genomes. Keeping in view the importance of citric acid as a necessary constituent of various food preparations, synthetic biodegradable detergents and pharmaceuticals the enhanced production of citric acid by mutant derivative might provide significant boost in commercial scale viability of this useful product.
Abbreviations
CS - Citrate synthase, CA - Citric acid, RAPD - Random amplified polymorphic DNA, TAF - Total amplified fragments, PAF - Polymorphic amplified fragments, CAF - Common amplified fragments.
doi:10.6026/97320630010001
PMCID: PMC3916811  PMID: 24516318
citrate synthase; Aspergillus niger; phylogenetic analysis; polymorphism; RAPD-PCR
8.  Impact of Social Franchising on Contraceptive Use When Complemented by Vouchers: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Rural Pakistan 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74260.
Background
Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society – a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan.
Methodology
We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11.
Results
Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1%) was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers.
Conclusion
Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training, accreditation and branding of the service providers, and ensuring uninterrupted contraceptive supplies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074260
PMCID: PMC3772094  PMID: 24069287
9.  5-Acetyl-3-(5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-1,3,4-thia­diazol-2(3H)-one monohydrate 
In the title hydrate, C13H10N4O2S·H2O, the dihedral angles between the central pyrazole ring and its pendant phenyl and thia­diazole rings are 9.93 (8) and 4.56 (7)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating [100] chains incorporating R 4 4(10) loops. A weak C—H⋯O inter­action helps to consolidate the packing.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813010817
PMCID: PMC3648319  PMID: 23723939
10.  Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in surgical patients presenting to a tertiary care teaching hospital in India: A preliminary study 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;7(2):155-159.
Background:
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often not diagnosed in patients presenting for surgical procedures thereby increasing the incidence of adverse perioperative course. Early diagnosis of this disease is important in modifying anesthetic management as well as utilizing specific means which may decrease the complications and improve the patient outcome.
Methods:
Patients greater than eighteen years of age, ASA I-III scheduled for elective surgical procedures under anesthesia were randomly selected. Their demographic data, diagnosis and nature of surgery were noted in a semi-structured performa. They were then screened for the presence of OSA with the help of a STOP BANG questionnaire.
Results:
This study included two hundred four patients randomly selected. Slight female predominance was seen in this sample (55.4%). Mean age of the subjects was 42.7 years (SD=15.08). 24.5% subjects were at high risk for OSA (STOP-BANG>3) with a male predominance (72% versus 37% in low risk group; X2=18.62; P<0.001). High risk OSA subjects had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (57% vs. 11.7% in low risk group; X2=33.35; P<0.001). Similarly, this group had a higher prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (14% versus 3.8% in low risk group; X2=6.54; P=0.03). Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (22%) and hypothyroidism (6%) was also higher in this group (5.2% and 1.9% in low risk group respectively; X2=15.42; P<0.001).
Conclusion:
High degree of suspicion and knowledge of association of OSA and medical diseases may help in detection of such cases and decrease the rate of perioperative complications thus improving patients safety.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.114072
PMCID: PMC3737691  PMID: 23956715
Anaesthesia; complication; obstructive sleep apnea; STOP BANG
11.  IUD discontinuation rates, switching behavior, and user satisfaction: findings from a retrospective analysis of a mobile outreach service program in Pakistan 
Background
In Pakistan, the uptake rate for the intrauterine device (IUD) is very low at 2.5%. The most popular modern contraceptive methods in Pakistan are female sterilization and use of condoms. The Marie Stopes Society established its mobile outreach service delivery program with the aim of increasing use of modern quality contraceptive services, including the long-term reversible IUD, by women living in hard-to-reach areas. The present study attempts to assess IUD discontinuation rates and associated factors, including switching behavior and level of satisfaction with this type of service delivery.
Methods
Using a cross-sectional approach, we contacted 681 women who had received an IUD from the Marie Stopes Society mobile outreach program during July and August 2009. Successful interviews were conducted with 639 of these women using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed with Stata 11.2 using simple descriptive Chi-square and Cox proportional techniques.
Results
Analysis revealed that 19.4% (95% confidence interval 16.3–22.5) of the women discontinued use of their IUD at 10 months and, of these women, the majority (69.4%) cited side effects as the main reason for discontinuation. Other factors, such as geographical catchment province, age of the woman, history of contraceptive use before IUD insertion, and side effects following insertion of the device, were found to be significantly associated with IUD. Amongst the women who had their IUD removed, 56.5% did not switch to any other contraceptive method, while 36.3% switched to either short-term or traditional methods, such as withdrawal, rhythm, and folk methods. Degree of satisfaction with the device was also significantly associated with discontinuation.
Conclusion
Early discontinuation and not switching to another contraceptive method increases the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Health care workers should be trained in managing clients’ concerns about the IUD to prevent discontinuation and providing counseling services for clients to select an alternative contraceptive method if they decide to discontinue.
doi:10.2147/IJWH.S36785
PMCID: PMC3555552  PMID: 23359788
intrauterine device; mobile outreach services; discontinuation; Pakistan
12.  2-[(2-Hy­droxy­naphthalen-1-yl)methyl­idene­amino]-5,6,7,8-tetra­hydro-4H-cyclo­hepta­[b]thio­phene-3-carbonitrile 
Two independent mol­ecules, A and B, comprise the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C21H18N2OS, with the difference in the angle of orientation between the naphthalene ring system and the mean plane of the cyclo­heptyl ring [16.13 (1) in A and 11.48 (5)° in B], being evident. The cyclo­heptyl ring adopts a distorted chair conformation in each mol­ecule with r.m.s. deviations of 0.2345 (4) (A) and 0.2302 (4) Å (B). Intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bonding generates planar six-membered S(6) loops with r.m.s. deviations of 0.0099 (1) (A) and 0.0286 (1) Å (B).
doi:10.1107/S160053681300007X
PMCID: PMC3569254  PMID: 23424477
13.  Nanostructured materials with biomimetic recognition abilities for chemical sensing 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2012;7(1):328.
Binding features found in biological systems can be implemented into man-made materials to design nanostructured artificial receptor matrices which are suitable, e.g., for chemical sensing applications. A range of different non-covalent interactions can be utilized based on the chemical properties of the respective analyte. One example is the formation of coordinative bonds between a polymerizable ligand (e.g., N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and a metal ion (e.g., Cu(II)). Optimized molecularly imprinted sensor layers lead to selectivity factors of at least 2 compared to other bivalent ions. In the same way, H-bonds can be utilized for such sensing purposes, as shown in the case of Escherichia coli. The respective molecularly imprinted polymer leads to the selectivity factor of more than 5 between the W and B strains, respectively. Furthermore, nanoparticles with optimized Pearson hardness allow for designing sensors to detect organic thiols in air. The ‘harder’ MoS2 yields only about 40% of the signals towards octane thiol as compared to the ‘softer’ Cu2S. However, both materials strongly prefer molecules with -SH functionality over others, such as hydrocarbon chains. Finally, selectivity studies with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reveal that artificial receptors yield selectivities between WGA and bovine serum albumin that are only about a factor of 2 which is smaller than natural ligands.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-328
PMCID: PMC3434081  PMID: 22721566
Bivalent copper ions; Organic vapors; Wheat germ agglutinin lectin; Escherichia coli; Quartz crystal microbalance
14.  A Case of Fetus in Fetu 
Fetus in fetu is a rare developmental aberration, characterized by encasement of partially developed monozygotic, diamniotic, and monochorionic fetus into the normally developing host. A 4-month-old boy presented with abdominal mass. Radiological investigations gave the suspicion of fetus in fetu. At surgery a fetus enclosed in an amnion like membrane at upper retroperitoneal location was found and excised. The patient is doing well after the operation.
PMCID: PMC3418045  PMID: 22953303
Fetus in fetu;  Teratoma;  Abdominal mass
15.  Butyl 4-(4-methyl­benzene­sulfonamido)­benzoate 
In the title compound, C18H21NO4S, the aromatic rings are almost normal to each other, with a dihedral angle of 89.27 (18)°. The mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action, which generates an S(6) motif. In the crystal, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds lead to the formation of chains propagating along [010]. Neighbouring chains are linked via a C—H⋯π inter­action. The –CH2CH2CH3 atoms of the butyl group are disordered over two sets of sites, with a refined site-occupancy ratio of 0.536 (16):0.464 (16).
doi:10.1107/S1600536812015413
PMCID: PMC3344642  PMID: 22590404
16.  Methyl 5-bromo-2-hy­droxy­benzoate 
The title compound, C8H7BrO3, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation for the non-H atoms = 0.055 Å). In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into C(6) chains propagating in [010]. Very weak aromatic π–π inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.984 (5) and 3.982 (5) Å] also occur.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812016297
PMCID: PMC3344579  PMID: 22590341
17.  Cyano­methyl 4-(4-methyl­benzene­sulfonamido)­benzoate 
The title mol­ecule, C16H14N2O4S, adopts an L-shaped conformation, with the central C—S—N—C torsion angle being −69.1 (3)°. The two benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 89.94 (15)°. The mol­ecular conformation may be influenced by a weak intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond which generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the b axis. Weak C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds connect the chains into a two-dimensional network parallel to (011). The crystal studied was an inversion twin, the ratio of components being 0.7 (1):0.3 (1).
doi:10.1107/S1600536812017126
PMCID: PMC3344598  PMID: 22590360
18.  Propyl 2-(4-methyl­benzene­sulfonamido)­benzoate 
In the title compound, C17H19NO4S, the terminal ethyl group is disordered over two sets of sites, with refined site occupancies of 0.536 (7) and 0.464 (7). The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 81.92 (12)°. The mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by intra­molecular N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which generate S(6) motifs. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b axis.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812015528
PMCID: PMC3344515  PMID: 22590277
19.  2-{4-[Acet­yl(eth­yl)amino]­benzene­sulfonamido}­benzoic acid 
In the title compound, C17H18N2O5S, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 68.59 (10)° and the C—S—N—C torsion angle is −81.84 (18)°. The mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, generating an S(6) ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812013864
PMCID: PMC3344450  PMID: 22590212
20.  Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan 
BMC Women's Health  2012;12:8.
Background
Modern Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is very safe, highly effective reversible and inexpensive family planning method which offers 5-10 years of protection against pregnancy. The contraceptive use in Pakistan has been merely 30% for over a decade with IUCD being the least used method. Higher discontinuation rates are documented in developing countries; however no such data is available for Pakistan. Marie Stopes Society (MSS) established a social franchise outlets network branded as 'SURAJ' (Sun) in Pakistan to provide quality family planning services. This study attempts to determine IUCD discontinuation rates and its associated risk factors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 3000 clients who availed IUCD services from Suraj provider 6, 12 and 24 month back,. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17.0; adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to see associations between discontinuation and its risk factors.
Case presentation
We found that 22.7% of the IUCD acceptors experienced some health problem; while the overall discontinuation rate was 18.9% with average time of usage of 7.4 (SD ± 5.8) months before discontinuation. Half of them showed health concerns (49.8%); of which a majority (70.2%) returned to Suraj provider for IUCD removal. Women living in Punjab, residing at a travelling time of 30-60 minutes and no previous use of contraceptive are more likely to discontinue IUCD. However, among total women 81.7% still expressed willingness to avail IUCD services from Suraj provider in future, if needed.
Conclusion
The findings suggest a need for training the providers and field workers to prevent early discontinuation of IUCD among the Suraj clients and by addressing the health concerns through proper counseling, continued follow-up and immediate medical aid/referral in case of complications.
doi:10.1186/1472-6874-12-8
PMCID: PMC3337819  PMID: 22458444
Intra-uterine contraceptive device; Clients' satisfaction; Contraception; Family planning counseling; Social franchising
21.  Benzyl 2-{4-[2-(4-chloro­benzoyl­amino)­eth­yl]phen­oxy}-2-methyl­propionate 
In the title compound, C26H26ClNO4, the central phenyl­ene ring is oriented at dihedral angles of 5.06 (14) and 64.14 (5)°, respectively, with respect to aromatic rings of the benzyl and chloro­phenyl groups. The centroid–centroid distance between the central phenyl­ene ring and the aromatic ring of the benzyl group is 4.028 (12) Å. In the crystal, inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond generate a chain along (100). C—H⋯O inter­actions are also observed.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811039249
PMCID: PMC3201476  PMID: 22058827
22.  2,4,6-Trimethyl­pyridinium 4-nitro­benzoate–4-nitro­benzoic acid (1/1) 
The asymmetric unit of the title co-crystal, C8H12N+·C7H4NO4 −·C7H5NO4, contains two cations, two anions and two neutral 4-nitro­benzoic acid mol­ecules. In the crystal, O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the ions and mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional network.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811032922
PMCID: PMC3200921  PMID: 22058980
23.  4-[(4-Meth­oxy­benzene­sulfonamido)­meth­yl]cyclo­hexane-1-carb­oxy­lic acid 
In the title compound, C15H21NO5S, two crystallographically independent mol­ecules are linked into a dimer by a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an R 2 2(8) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules are further linked by inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional network parallel to (012). Additional stabilization is provided by weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811030650
PMCID: PMC3200917  PMID: 22058911
24.  4-(4-Meth­oxy­benzene­sulfonamido)­benzoic acid 
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H13NO5S, contains two independent mol­ecules in which the dihedral angles between the aromatic rings are 83.45 (11) and 86.65 (9)°. In the crystal, the independent mol­ecules are connected by N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a double-chain structure along [401]. A weak π–π stacking inter­action with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.7509 (13) Å and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are also observed.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811025098
PMCID: PMC3151892  PMID: 21837222
25.  4-[(4-Methyl­benzene­sulfonamido)­meth­yl]cyclo­hexa­necarb­oxy­lic acid 
The title compound, C15H21NO4S, crystallized with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit in which the dihedral angles between the mean planes of the benzene and cyclo­hexane rings are 78.3 (2) and 67.6 (2)°. The substituents of the cyclo­hexyl rings are in equatorial orientations. In the crystal, both mol­ecules form R 2 2(6) carb­oxy­lic acid inversion dimers via pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Further N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O inter­actions generate a three-dimensional network.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811020083
PMCID: PMC3151904  PMID: 21836976

Results 1-25 (36)