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1.  Subclinical hypothyroidism: Controversies to consensus 
Diagnoses of subclinicaal hypothyroidism (SCH) is biochemically made, when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels is elevated while free thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference range. SCH is diagnosed after excluding all other causes of elevated TSH levels. Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is related to number of factors including initial serum TSH concentration, presence of auto antibodies, family history and presence goiter. Various screening recommendations for thyroid function assessment are in practice. There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric issues, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Consensus will require more large randomized clinical studies involving various age groups and medical condition, especially in developing countries. All these efforts will definitely improve our understanding of disease and ultimately patient outcomes.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.123555
PMCID: PMC4046597  PMID: 24910826
Hypothyroidism; Sub Clinical Hypothyroidism; Early Thyroid failure; Risks associated with subclinical hypothyroidism
2.  A simple technique to insert urodynamic catheter in difficult cases 
doi:10.5489/cuaj.11070
PMCID: PMC3328566  PMID: 22511427
3.  Isolated Terminal Myelocystocele: A Rare Spinal Dysraphism 
Terminal myelocystocele is a rare spinal dysraphism that present as lumbosacral mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for preoperative diagnosis. A 2.5 months old female baby presented with lumbosacral skin covered mass. There were no associated neurological deficits. MRI of the lesion suggested two cysts, one of which was continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. At operation terminal myelocystocele was found with tethering of the spinal cord. Untethering of the spinal cord and repair of the myelocystocele performed with uneventful recovery.
PMCID: PMC3418015  PMID: 22953270
Terminal myelocystocele; Spinal dysraphism; Myelomeningocele
4.  Oculocutaneous Albinism associated with Axenfeld’s Anomaly 
Oculocutaneous albinism and anterior mesodermal dysgenesis are well-known heritable conditions, but their occurrence in association has only been rarely reported. We present cases of three siblings of a family with identical presentation suggesting that this association may be more than just a coincidence. This association is worth noting, as this could be one of the causes of ocular morbidity and poor vision in oculocutaneous albinism.
PMCID: PMC3074661  PMID: 21509091
Albinism; Oculocutaneous; Axenfeld anomaly; Hereditary; Consanguinity; Association
5.  Design and Synthesis of New Dual Binding Site Cholinesterase Inhibitors: in vitro Inhibition Studies with in silico Docking 
Cholinesterases (ChEs) play a vital role in the regulation of cholinergic transmission. The inhibition of ChEs is considered to be involved in increasing acetylcholine level in the brain and thus has been implicated in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. We have designed and synthesized a series of novel indole derivatives and screened them for inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Most of the tested compounds exhibited inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE. Among them 4f and 6e showed the highest AChE inhibitory activity with IC50 91.21±0.06 and 68.52±0.04 μM, respectively. However compound 5a exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against BChE (IC50 55.21±0.12 μM).
doi:10.2174/15701808113106660078
PMCID: PMC3977535  PMID: 24719609
Acetylcholinesterase; Alzheimer’s disease; Butyrylcholinesterase; Hydrazides; Indole derivatives; Molecular docking; SAR.

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