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1.  C/EBP homologous protein modulates liraglutide-mediated attenuation of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis 
The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), a major transcriptional regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis, is implicated in lipotoxicity-induced ER stress and hepatocyte apoptosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We have previously demonstrated that the glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonist, liraglutide, protects steatotic hepatocytes from lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis by improved handling of free fatty acid (FFA)-induced ER stress. In the present study, we investigated whether CHOP is critical for GLP-1 mediated restoration of ER homeostasis and mitigation of hepatocyte apoptosis in a murine model of NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis). Our data show that despite similar caloric intake, CHOP KO (CHOP−/−) mice fed a diet high in fat, fructose, and cholesterol (HFCD) for sixteen weeks developed more severe histological features of NASH compared with wild type (WT) controls. Severity of NASH in HFCD-fed CHOP−/− mice correlated with significant decrease in peroxisomal β-oxidation, and increased de novo lipogenesis and ER stress-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis. Four weeks of liraglutide treatment markedly attenuated steatohepatitis in HFCD-fed WT mice by improving insulin sensitivity, and suppressing de novo lipogenesis and ER stress-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis. However, in the absence of CHOP, liraglutide did not improve insulin sensitivity, nor suppress peroxisomal β-oxidation or ER stress- mediated hepatocyte apoptosis. Taken together, these data indicate that CHOP protects hepatocytes from HFCD-induced ER stress, and plays a significant role in the mechanism of liraglutide-mediated protection against NASH pathogenesis.
doi:10.1038/labinvest.2016.61
PMCID: PMC4965279  PMID: 27239734
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; C/EBP homologous protein; apoptosis
2.  Effect of bleaching agents having a neutral pH on the surface of mineral trioxide aggregate using electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis 
Aim:
To investigate the effect of bleaching agents having a neutral pH on the surface of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) used as a coronal seal material for nonvital bleaching, beneath the bleaching agent, with the help of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Materials and Methods:
Six samples of plastic tubes filled with white MTA (Angelus white) were kept in 100% humidity for 21 days. Each sample was divided into 2 and made into 12 samples. These were then divided into three groups. Group A was exposed to Opalescence Boost 40% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (Ultradent). Group B to Opalescence 10% carbamide peroxide (Ultradent) and Group C (control group) not exposed to any bleaching agent. After recommended period of exposure to bleaching agents according to manufacturers’ instructions, the samples were observed under SEM with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis system (JSM-6380 LA).
Results:
There were no relevant changes in color and no statistically significant surface structure changes of the MTA in both the experimental groups.
Conclusion:
The present findings suggest that even high concentration HP containing bleaching agents with neutral pH can be used on the surface of MTA without causing structural changes. The superior sealing ability of MTA and the high alkalinity would prevent cervical resorption postbleaching.
doi:10.4103/0972-0707.190004
PMCID: PMC5026102  PMID: 27656061
Carbamide peroxide; energy-dispersive X-ray; mineral trioxide aggregate; opalescence boost; scanning electron microscopy
3.  IFN-induced Guanylate Binding Proteins in Inflammasome Activation and Host Defense 
Nature immunology  2016;17(5):481-489.
Traditional views of the inflammasome highlight pre-existing core components being assembled under basal conditions shortly after infection or tissue damage. Recent work, however, suggests the inflammasome machinery is also subject to tunable or inducible signals that may accelerate its autocatalytic properties and dictate where inflammasome assembly takes place in the cell. Many of these immune signals operate downstream of interferon (IFN) receptors to elicit inflammasome regulators, including a new family of IFN-induced GTPases termed guanylate binding proteins (GBPs). Here, we examine the critical roles for IFN-induced GBPs in directing inflammasome subtype-specific responses and their consequences for cell-autonomous immunity against a wide variety of microbial pathogens. We discuss emerging mechanisms of action and the potential impact of these GBPs on predisposition to sepsis and other infectious or inflammatory diseases.
doi:10.1038/ni.3440
PMCID: PMC4961213  PMID: 27092805
4.  Relationship between Interleukin-6 (−174G/C and −572C/G) Promoter Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis 
Pulse  2016;4(2-3):61-68.
Background
Polymorphisms of −174G/C and −572C/G in the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter gene can affect both transcription and secretion of IL-6 and may be involved in the inflammatory mechanisms in early and delayed phases after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The role of these polymorphisms remains unclear for the pathogenesis of ICH.
Methods
PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Google Scholar searches were conducted from January 1, 1950 to February 29, 2016 and were supplemented with relevant articles identified in the references. The following search terms were used: (‘interleukin-6’ or ‘IL-6’) and (‘genetic polymorphism’ or ‘single nucleotide polymorphisms’ or ‘SNP’) and (‘intracerebral hemorrhage’ or ‘ICH’) and (‘hemorrhagic stroke’ or ‘HS’). Fixed or random effects models were used to estimate the pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Begg's funnel plot was used to assess the potential for publication bias.
Results
In our meta-analysis, three case-control studies involving 446 ICH cases and 2,322 controls were included. No significant association was observed for the IL-6 (-174G/C and −572C/G) gene polymorphisms with the risk of ICH under dominant, recessive and allelic models.
Conclusion
Our meta-analysis suggests that IL-6 gene polymorphisms are not associated with the risk of ICH. However, caution must be taken while considering the results of our meta-analysis due to the presence of small sample size. Our results cannot be extrapolated to represent the effect of entire IL-6 genetic polymorphism on stroke patients worldwide. Therefore, further well-designed studies with large sample size are warranted to validate our findings and provide a profound conclusion.
doi:10.1159/000447677
PMCID: PMC5052694  PMID: 27752477
Interleukin-6; Cytokine; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Single nucleotide polymorphisms
5.  Association between Apolipoprotein ε4 Gene Polymorphism and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis 
Annals of Neurosciences  2016;23(2):113-121.
Background
Previous studies examining the association of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism with the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between APOE ε4 gene polymorphism and risk of IS.
Summary
A literature search for genetic association studies published before May 30, 2015, was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases. The following search terms were used: (apolipoprotein E) or (APOE) and (ε4) and (polymorphism) or (polymorphisms) and (‘ischemic stroke’ or ‘IS’) and (‘cerebral infarction’ or ‘CI’) and (‘genetic polymorphism’ or ‘single nucleotide polymorphisms’ or ‘SNP’). ORs and 95% CIs were used to calculate the strength of association. Begg's funnel plot was used to assess the potential for publication bias. In our meta-analysis, 26 case-control studies involving 6,397 IS cases and 19,053 controls were included. Overall significant association between carrier of ε4 allele and risk of IS was observed (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.10-1.85, p = 0.007). In the subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, a significant association between Apo ε4 carrier and risk of IS was observed in Asian studies (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.04-2.25, p = 0.031) whereas borderline significant association between APO ε4 carrier and risk of IS was observed in Caucasian studies (OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.95-1.93, p = 0.093).
Key Messages
Our meta-analysis suggests that APOE ε4 allele is associated with higher risk of IS in Asian population as compared to Caucasian population.
doi:10.1159/000443568
PMCID: PMC5020389  PMID: 27647962
Apolipoprotein-E; Association study; Ischemic stroke; Cerebral infarction; Meta-analysis; Gene polymorphism
8.  Evaluation of Skill-oriented Training on Enhanced Syndromic Case Management (ESCM) of Reproductive Tract Infections / Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTI/STIs) of Care Providers from Three-tier Health-care System of Gujarat 
Background:
Enhanced syndromic case management (ESCM) deals with reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections. Capacity building of service providers not only boosts the program but also inputs from them improve the quality of services.
Objectives:
To (1) identify problem areas from providers' perspectives and the gaps in knowledge and application and (2) assess the gains (if any) through pre and post-training evaluation.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 121 participants (medical/para medical) from various medical colleges, district/sub-district hospitals/ community health centers, and urban dispensaries across Gujarat were trained at a teaching institute. Trainings were of 2-3 days duration involving different learning methodology. Pre- and post-training evaluation were done on a designed pro forma and data were entered in MS office Excel 2007. Gains in knowledge/skills if any were assessed by comparing pre-/post-evaluation responses and applying test of significance (x2 test).
Observations:
Out of total 121 participants, half (60) were doctors and the rest were paramedics [staff nurse (SN) and lab technicians (LT)]. Doctors revealed significant gain in basics of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and sexually transmitted infections (STI), syndrome identification, STI/HIV co-infection, and ESCM and less gain in asymptomatic STI/ complications, vulnerability, male reproductive organs, causes of vaginal/urethral discharge, STI complications, cervical cancer screening, and limitation of syndromic management. Gain was statistically significant in basics of RTI/STI amongst adolescent in paramedics; lab technicians showed significant gain in knowledge of laboratory-related areas.
Conclusion:
Assessment revealed (1) poor baseline knowledge and (2) gains following training sometimes significant and other times not significant even in core areas. Quality monitoring and contents/ methodologies modification are essential for robust trainings. Gains in skills could not be assessed through this evaluation.
doi:10.4103/0970-0218.183594
PMCID: PMC4919930  PMID: 27385870
Enhanced syndromic case management (ESCM); reproductive tract infections (RTI); sexually transmitted infections (STIs); training evaluation
9.  Evaluation of the Serum Levels of Nitric Oxide among Diabetic Patients and its Correlation with Lipid Profile as well as Oxidative Stress in North Indian Setting 
Introduction
Diabetes mellitus is a disease with a rapidly increasing prevalence, needs continue research for novel methods to both prevent and treat this disorder. Obesity and decreased physical activity are the major risk factor for the development of diabetes. Recently the emphasis is focused on oxidative stress in pathogenesis of this disease.
Aim
To assess the serum levels of Nitric Oxide (NO) among diabetic patients and its correlation with lipid profile as well as oxidative stress in north Indian setting.
Materials and Methods
This was a cross-sectional study. Subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes for more than 1 year and age between 30 to 50 years with hyperuricaemia were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups: Group I- Type 2 diabetics with dyslipidemia and hyperuricaemia, Group II- Type 2 diabetics with dyslipidemia and normouricaemia and Group III- Type 2 diabetics with normolipidemia and normouricaemia.
Results
The nitric oxide level was significantly lower in Group I and Group II than Group III. The oxidative stress parameters had poor correlation with NO level in all the groups.
Conclusion
Our data suggests that there is definite role of Nitric Oxide (NO) in pathogenesis of type -2 diabetes mellitus with dyslipidemia and hyperuricaemia.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2016/15548.7868
PMCID: PMC4948447  PMID: 27437271
Dyslipidemia; Free radical; HbA1c; Hyperuricaemia; Middle aged
10.  “On-The-Spot” Arresting of Chondroitin Sulphate Proteoglycans: Implications for Ovarian Adenocarcinoma Recognition and Intervention 
Ovarian Cancer (OC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated death among women. The underlying biochemical cause of OC proliferation is usually attributed to the over-expression of Chondroitin Sulphate Proteoglycans (CSPGs) wherein the CS-E subgroup plays a major role in tumor cell proliferation by over-expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hereby hypothesize that by targeting the OC extracellular matrix using a CS-E-specific antibody, GD3G7, we could provide spatial delivery of crosslinkers and anti-VEGF agents to firstly induce in vivo crosslinking and complexation (arresting) of CS-E into a “biogel mass” for efficient and effective detection, detachment and reduction of tumorous tissue, and secondly inhibit angiogenesis in OC. It is further proposed that the antibody-assisted targeted delivery of CS-E crosslinkers can bind to highly anionic CS-E to form a polyelectrolyte complex to inhibit the formation of ovarian tumor spheroids that are responsible for spheroid-induced mesothelial clearance and progression of OC. The hypothesis also describes the potential in vivo “On-The-Spot” CSPG crosslinkers such as sodium trimetaphosphate (physical crosslinker), 1,12-diaminododecane (chemical crosslinker), poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (synthetic polymer), and chitosan (natural polyelectrolyte-forming agent). In conclusion, this hypothesis proposes in vivo spatial crosslinking of CSPGs as a potential theranostic intervention strategy for OC—a first in the field of cancer research.
doi:10.3390/ijms17071136
PMCID: PMC4964509  PMID: 27438831
ovarian cancer; proteoglycans; crosslinked chondroitin sulphate; complexation; tumor proliferation; GD3G7 antibody; anti-VEGF
11.  Chromosome territory relocation during DNA repair requires nuclear myosin 1 recruitment to chromatin mediated by ϒ-H2AX signaling 
Nucleic Acids Research  2016;44(17):8272-8291.
During DNA damage response (DDR), certain gene rich chromosome territories (CTs) relocate to newer positions within interphase nuclei and revert to their native locations following repair. Such dynamic relocation of CTs has been observed under various cellular conditions, however, the underlying mechanistic basis of the same has remained largely elusive. In this study, we aim to understand the temporal and molecular details of such crosstalk between DDR signaling and CT relocation dynamics. We demonstrate that signaling at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by the phosphorylated histone variant (ϒ-H2AX) is a pre-requisite for damage induced CT relocation, as cells deficient in ϒ-H2AX signaling fail to exhibit such a response. Inhibition of Rad51 or DNA Ligase IV mediated late steps of double strand break repair does not seem to abrogate CT relocation completely. Upon DNA damage, an increase in the levels of chromatin bound motor protein nuclear myosin 1 (NM1) ensues, which appears to be functionally linked to ϒ-H2AX signaling. Importantly, the motor function of NM1 is essential for its recruitment to chromatin and CT relocation following damage. Taking these observations together, we propose that early DDR sensing and signaling result in NM1 recruitment to chromosomes which in turn guides DNA damage induced CT relocation.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkw573
PMCID: PMC5041470  PMID: 27365048
12.  Assessment of Functional EST-SSR Markers (Sugarcane) in Cross-Species Transferability, Genetic Diversity among Poaceae Plants, and Bulk Segregation Analysis 
Genetics Research International  2016;2016:7052323.
Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are important resource for gene discovery, gene expression and its regulation, molecular marker development, and comparative genomics. We procured 10000 ESTs and analyzed 267 EST-SSRs markers through computational approach. The average density was one SSR/10.45 kb or 6.4% frequency, wherein trinucleotide repeats (66.74%) were the most abundant followed by di- (26.10%), tetra- (4.67%), penta- (1.5%), and hexanucleotide (1.2%) repeats. Functional annotations were done and after-effect newly developed 63 EST-SSRs were used for cross transferability, genetic diversity, and bulk segregation analysis (BSA). Out of 63 EST-SSRs, 42 markers were identified owing to their expansion genetics across 20 different plants which amplified 519 alleles at 180 loci with an average of 2.88 alleles/locus and the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.51 to 0.93 with an average of 0.83. The cross transferability ranged from 25% for wheat to 97.22% for Schlerostachya, with an average of 55.86%, and genetic relationships were established based on diversification among them. Moreover, 10 EST-SSRs were recognized as important markers between bulks of pooled DNA of sugarcane cultivars through BSA. This study highlights the employability of the markers in transferability, genetic diversity in grass species, and distinguished sugarcane bulks.
doi:10.1155/2016/7052323
PMCID: PMC4908241  PMID: 27340568
13.  Modulation of ileal bile acid transporter (ASBT) activity by depletion of plasma membrane cholesterol: association with lipid rafts 
Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) represents a highly efficient conservation mechanism of bile acids via mediation of their active transport across the luminal membrane of terminal ileum. To gain insight into the cellular regulation of ASBT, we investigated the association of ASBT with cholesterol and sphingolipid-enriched specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts and examined the role of membrane cholesterol in maintaining ASBT function. Human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells stably transfected with human ASBT, human ileal brush-border membrane vesicles, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were utilized for these studies. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of ASBT protein with lipid rafts. Disruption of lipid rafts by depletion of membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) significantly reduced the association of ASBT with lipid rafts, which was paralleled by a decrease in ASBT activity in Caco-2 and HEK-293 cells treated with MβCD. The inhibition in ASBT activity by MβCD was blocked in the cells treated with MβCD-cholesterol complexes. Kinetic analysis revealed that MβCD treatment decreased the Vmax of the transporter, which was not associated with alteration in the plasma membrane expression of ASBT. Our study illustrates that cholesterol content of lipid rafts is essential for the optimal activity of ASBT and support the association of ASBT with lipid rafts. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which ASBT activity may be rapidly modulated by alterations in cholesterol content of plasma membrane and thus have important implications in processes related to maintenance of bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis.
doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00237.2007
PMCID: PMC4880014  PMID: 18063707
detergent-insoluble microdomains; floatation on Optiprep density gradient; bile acid absorption
14.  A Co-blended Locust Bean Gum and Polymethacrylate-NaCMC Matrix to Achieve Zero-Order Release via Hydro-Erosive Modulation 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2015;16(6):1377-1389.
Locust bean gum (LBG) was blended with a cellulose/methacrylate-based interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) to assess the hydro-erosive influence of addition of a polysaccharide on the disposition and drug delivery properties inherent to IPEC matrix. The addition of LBG modulated the drug (levodopa) release characteristics of the IPEC by reducing excessive swelling and preventing bulk erosion. After 8 h in pH 4.5 dissolution medium, gravimetric analysis established that IPEC tablet matrix eroded by 30% of the initial weight due to bulk erosion while LBG-blended IPEC (LBG-b-IPEC) demonstrated surface erosion accounting to 62% of initial weight (596→226.8 mg). Mathematical modeling of the drug release data depicted a transformation from non-Fickian mechanism (IPEC matrices) to zero-order drug release pattern (LBG-b-IPEC matrices) with the linearity of release profile being close to 1 (R2 = 0.99). Physicochemical characterizations employing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) explicated that LBG interacted with IPEC by its hydrophilic groups associating with the existing water-holding bodies of IPEC to produce compact matrices. The lattice atomistic modeling elucidated that LBG acted as a linker with the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds generating a highly stabilized polysaccharide-polyelectrolytic structure which influenced the improved properties observed.
doi:10.1208/s12249-015-0326-9
PMCID: PMC4666261  PMID: 25956484
controlled release; interpolyelectrolyte complex; levodopa; locust bean gum; oral drug delivery; swelling and erosion
15.  Outcome of arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repair: Are the results improving with improved techniques and equipment?: A retrospective case series 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2016;50(3):297-302.
Background:
Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction. More recently, there has been a renewed interest in understanding the subscapularis tears. There are multiple articles in the literature showing the short term results of isolated subscapularis tendon repair. However, the midterm and long term outcome studies for arthroscopic subscapularis repair are few. This study evaluates the functional outcome after arthroscopic subscapularis repair.
Materials and Methods:
The records of 35 patients who underwent an arthroscopic subscapularis repair between May 2008 and June 2012 were included in this retrospective study. The records of all patients were reviewed. There were 22 males and 13 female patients with mean age of 58.2 years (range 41-72 years). All patients had a complete history, physical examination, and radiographs of their shoulders. Visual analogue scale (VAS), range of movements, power of cuff muscles, and modified University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) score were assessed.
Results:
The mean followup was 2.8 years (range 2-4 year). Functional outcome after arthroscopic subscapularis repair has an excellent outcome as analysed by clinical outcome, VAS score and UCLA score. Results were analyzed and had statistically significant values. The VAS for pain improved significantly (P < 0.001), and the mean modified UCLA score improved significantly (P < 0.001) from 14.24 ± 4.72 preoperatively to 33.15 ± 2.29 at 2 years postoperative. According to the UCLA system, there were 22 excellent, 11 good, and 2 fair results. Around 95% of patients returned to their usual work after surgery.
Conclusion:
At a median followup of 2 years, 95% of patients had a good to excellent result after an arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repair. We conclude that the midterm results show that arthroscopic subscapularis repair remains a good option for the treatment of patients with subscapularis tendon repair.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.181788
PMCID: PMC4885299  PMID: 27293291
Arthroscopy; rotator cuff; subscapularis repair; University of California at Los Angeles classification; Tendon injuries; endoscopic surgical procedure; rotator cuff; shoulder joint
16.  Evaluation of the American Heart Association 2015 revised Jones criteria versus existing guidelines 
Heart Asia  2016;8(1):30-35.
Objectives
To compare the diagnostic yield of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) by the American Heart Association/ American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) 2015 revised Jones criteria with the WHO 2004 and Australian guidelines 2012.
Methods
Retrospective observational study in 93 cases of suspected ARF admitted to the Division of Paediatric Cardiology between January 2012 and December 2014. WHO 2004, Australian guidelines and AHA/ACC 2015 Jones criteria were applied to assess definite and probable ARF.
Results
Of the 93 cases, 50 were diagnosed as the first episode of ARF and 43 as a recurrence of the condition. Subclinical carditis was a predominant presentation (38%) in the first episode group (p<0.01) whereas in the recurrence group carditis (88%) was the main presentation (p<0.01). Among the joint manifestations, the majority of patients in both the first episode group and the recurrence group presented with arthralgia. Of all the patients with suspected ARF (50), 34% of cases did not fulfil the standard Jones criteria 2004; however, 86% qualified as having ARF on applying the Australian and AHA/ACC 2015 criteria. Surprisingly in the recurrence group only 67% of the patients fulfilled AHA/ACC 2015 despite the modifications incorporated beyond WHO 2004; however, all the patients fulfilled the Australian guidelines either as definite (88.4%) or probable (11.6%). Inclusion of subclinical carditis, polyarthralgia and monoarthritis as major criteria influenced the diagnosis to definite ARF in 20%, 10% and 4% of patients, respectively.
Conclusions
The clinical manifestations of ARF, comprising subclinical carditis and arthralgia, are possibly milder in the Indian population; hence, inclusion of subclinical carditis, polyarthralgia and monoarthritis as major criteria in the newer guidelines has improved the diagnostic yield of ARF. In the absence of a gold standard for the diagnosis of ARF, it is not possible to comment on sensitivity and specificity.
doi:10.1136/heartasia-2015-010709
PMCID: PMC4898634  PMID: 27326228
VALVULAR DISEASE
17.  Impact Evaluation of Domains of Learning on Universal Work Precautions (UWP) Amongst Nursing Staff in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Western India 
Introduction:
Second key strategy of National AIDS Control Program (NACP IV) is comprehensive care and support by providing quality services through zero stigma and discrimination. Quality of services can be improved by eliminating stigma and discrimination and making health care provider aware of associated occupational hazards. Nursing staff play crucial role and are more at risk therefore their understanding, perception and skill must be assessed in different domains of learning to improve the contents and methodology of trainings.
Material and Methods:
Total 85 nursing staff underwent 1 day training in 3 batches focusing on Universal Work Precautions (UWP), Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) and sensitization of the participants towards PLHA (People living with HIV/AIDS). Their learning was evaluated under different domains (cognitive, psychomotor and affective) using structured questionnaire.
Results:
In pretest evaluation scores showed minor and statistically not significant variations in terms of participant's gender, age, designation work experience and status of having received any similar training in the past. Impact of the training was visible as overall mean scores increased from 10.6 ± 2.7 to 13.8 ± 5.8; gain being statistically highly significant (P value < 0.001). Gain was highest in cognitive (from 58% to 77%) followed by psychomotor (from 48% to 62%) and minimal in affective domain (from 75% to 76%).
Conclusions:
After undergoing the training, participants were benefitted more in cognitive domain than psychomotor and affective domain. Acquired knowledge, skill and communication skill if evaluated as done in this study will improve the methodology of such trainings making them more effective.
doi:10.4103/0970-0218.173493
PMCID: PMC4799637  PMID: 27051089
Domains of learning; nursing staff; post exposure prophylaxis (PEP); universal work precautions (UWP)
18.  Association of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1-509C/T Gene Polymorphism with Ischemic Stroke: A Meta Analysis 
Introduction:
Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory property, which has been considered as an essential risk factor in the inflammatory process of Ischemic Stroke (IS), by involving in the pathophysiological progression of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and lipid metabolisms. -509C/T TGF-β1 gene polymorphism has been found to be associated with the risk of IS. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a relatively comprehensive account of the relation between -509C/T gene polymorphisms of TGF-β1 and susceptibility to IS.
Methods:
A review of literature for eligible genetic association Studies published before October 20, 2014 was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and Trip database. The strength of association was calculated by pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals using RevMan 5.3 software. Heterogeneity was examined using Higgins I-squared, Tau-squared, and Chi-squared tests.
Results:
A total of 2 studies involving 614 cases and 617 controls were found. The overall estimates did not show any significant relation between TGF-β1-509C/T polymorphism and risk of IS under dominant (CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.01, 95%CI=0.31 to 3.26; P=0.99), recessive (CC vs. CT+TT: OR=0.94, 95%CI=0.47 to 1.90; P=0.87), and allelic models (T vs. C: OR=1.06, 95%CI=0.55 to 2.04; P=0.86).
Conclusion:
This meta-analysis showed that TGF-β1-509C/T gene polymorphism has no significant association with the susceptibility of IS. Further well-designed prospective studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these findings.
doi:10.15412/J.BCN.03070202
PMCID: PMC4892324  PMID: 27303603
Transforming growth factor beta; Cytokine; Inflammation; Cerebral infarction; Ischemic stroke; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Meta-analysis
19.  Association between Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (−238G/A and −308G/A) Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis 
Pulse  2016;3(3-4):217-228.
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory pleiotropic cytokine which may contribute to the initiation and progression of ischemic stroke (IS). Thus far, numerous studies have been performed to examine the association between −238G/A (rs361525) and −308G/A (rs1800629) polymorphisms in the promoter regions of the TNF-α gene and susceptibility to IS, but results are still conflicting. The aim of this meta-analysis is to provide a relatively comprehensive account of the association between TNF-α −238G/A and −308G/A gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to IS. A literature search for eligible candidate gene studies published before April 20, 2015, was conducted in the PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases. The following combinations of main keywords were used: (‘Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha’ or ‘TNF-α’) and (‘ischemic stroke’ or ‘cerebral infarction’ or ‘IS’) and (‘genetic polymorphism’ or ‘single nucleotide polymorphisms’ or ‘SNP’). Fixed- or random-effect models were used to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Meta-analysis was carried out by using RevMan 5.3 software. For TNF-α −238G/A gene polymorphism, 7 case-control studies with a total of 1,846 IS patients and 1,905 controls showed a significant association with susceptibility to IS under a dominant model (AA + GA vs. GG; OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.11-1.76; p value 0.004). For TNF-α −308G/A gene polymorphism, 16 case-control studies with a total of 5,651 IS patients and 5,792 controls showed a significant protective association with susceptibility to IS under a dominant model (AA + GA vs. GG; OR, 0.78, 95% CI, 0.63-0.97; p value 0.03). Our meta-analysis shows that TNF-α −238G/A gene polymorphism is more likely to be associated with the risk of IS in Caucasian populations as compared to Asian populations. However, TNF-α −308G/A gene polymorphism is more likely to be protective against IS in Asian populations as compared to Caucasian populations. Further large, well-designed prospective epidemiological studies are needed to confirm these findings.
doi:10.1159/000443770
PMCID: PMC4865080  PMID: 27195243
Inflammatory gene; Polymorphisms; Tumor necrosis factor-α; Cytokines; Ischemic stroke; Cerebral infarction; Meta-analysis
20.  Saturated fat and cholesterol are critical to inducing murine metabolic syndrome with robust nonalcoholic steatohepatitis☆ 
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Up to a third of NAFLD subjects are at risk for developing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Many rodent models fail to replicate both MetS and NASH. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable mouse model of NASH and MetS using a diet containing cholesterol, saturated fat and carbohydrate that is reflective of Western diets of North Americans. Experimental design: We used adult male C57BL/6 J 4- to 5-week-old mice and administered a solid diet containing 0.2% cholesterol, 45% of its calories from fat, with 30% of the fat in the form of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. We also provided carbohydrate largely as high-fructose corn syrup equivalent in water. In a separate cohort, we gave the identical diet in the absence of cholesterol. Glucose and insulin tolerance testing was conducted throughout the feeding period. The feeding was conducted for 16 weeks, and the mice were sacrificed for histological analysis, markers of MetS, liver inflammation, circulating lipids, as well as liver staining for fibrosis and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Results: We found that cholesterol significantly increased serum leptin, interleukin-6, liver weight and liver weight/body weight ratio, fibrosis and liver α-SMA. Conclusions: Mice administered a diet accurately reflecting patterns associated with humans afflicted with MetS can reliably replicate features of MetS, NASH and significant liver fibrosis. The model we describe significantly reduces the time by several months for development of stage 3 hepatic fibrosis.
doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.11.002
PMCID: PMC4727836  PMID: 25577467
Fibrosis; NASH; Adipocytokine; Cholesterol; Fructose
21.  Genetic association between inflammatory genes (IL-1α, CD14, LGALS2, PSMA6) and risk of ischemic stroke: A meta-analysis 
Meta Gene  2016;8:21-29.
Background
Sequence variations in genes involved in inflammatory system are known to contribute to the risk of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) including stroke. Very few number of studies have been published in the context of the association between Interleukin-1α(IL-1α), CD14 cell surface glycoprotein (CD14), Galectin-2-encoding gene (LGALS2)and proteasome subunit type 6 (PSMA6) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to ischemic stroke (IS).
Objective
The present meta-analysis aimed to provide a comprehensive account of the association between IL-1α (-C889T and -C511T), CD14 (-C159T), LGALS2 (-C3279T) and PSMA6 (-C8G) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to IS.
Methods
A literature search for eligible genetic studies published before August 31, 2015 was conducted in the PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, OVID, and Google Scholar databases. Fixed or random effects models were used to estimate the Pooled Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using RevMan 5.3 software.
Results
Total 21 studies were included in our meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between IL-1α (-C889T) [OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.67–2.08, P = 0.58], IL-1α (-C511T) [OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.66–1.37, P = 0.77], LGALS2(-C2379T) [OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.02–4.26, P = 0.37] and CD14 (-C260T) [OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.77–1.11, P = 0. 42] gene polymorphisms and risk of IS. However, protective level of association was observed between PSMA6 (-C8G) gene polymorphism and susceptibility to IS under the recessive model [OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08–0.72, P = 0.01].
Conclusion
Our meta-analysis shows that IL-1α (-C889T and -C511T), CD14 (-C159T), LGALS2 (-C3279T) and gene polymorphisms are not significantly associated with the risk of IS while PSMA6 (-C8G) gene polymorphism may play a protective role with the susceptibility of IS. Further prospective large epidemiological studies are needed to confirm these findings in different populations.
doi:10.1016/j.mgene.2016.01.003
PMCID: PMC4792905  PMID: 27014587
Inflammatory gene; Polymorphisms; Cytokines; Ischemic stroke; Cerebral infarction; Meta-analysis
22.  Study on Subclinical Hypothyroidism and its Association with Various Inflammatory Markers 
Introduction
Subclinical hypothyroidism shows the mimic reaction more like to frank hypothyroidism which creates the dilemma. Inflammatory markers can be helpful in assessment of adverse effects of subclinical hypothyroidism, are not very well studied in the past. So the aim of this study was to investigate the role of inflammatory markers in Subclinical hypothyroidism patients.
Materials and Methods
The study population consisted of 154 patients with recently diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism and 100 healthy controls. TSH, FT4 & T3 were estimated by enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-C were estimated by spectrophotometric method. LDL – C was calculated by Friedewald formula. Inflammatory markers (ESR, C-reactive protein & Interleukin 6) were also estimated by enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results
In this study the level of TSH Mean ± SD (11.12±4.17 vs 2.73±0.80) and T3 Mean ± SD (0.96±0.17 vs 1.08±0.26) were significantly higher (<0.001) in subclinical hypothyroidism. Serum concentration of FT4 was not significantly different between the groups. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-C were significantly higher in patients group. While the level of HDL-C was significantly lower in SCH patients compared to euthyroid group. TSH level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers in subclinical hypothyroidism, which were significantly different in subclinical hypothyroidism.
Conclusion
This study suggests that subclinical hypo-thyroidism patients have increased inflammatory markers along with dyslipidemia and due to that future risk of further development of cardiovascular disorder can occur. Level of inflammatory markers increases in patients as disease progress if left untreated.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2015/14640.6806
PMCID: PMC4668398  PMID: 26674140
Cardiovascular risk; CRP; Dyslipidemia; Interleukin-6
23.  Prediction of Upper Limb Motor Recovery after Subacute Ischemic Stroke Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
Journal of Stroke  2016;18(1):50-59.
Early evaluation of the pyramidal tract using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a prerequisite to decide the optimal treatment or to assess appropriate rehabilitation. The early predictive value of DTI for assessing motor and functional recovery in ischemic stroke (IS) has yielded contradictory results. The purpose is to systematically review and summarize the current available literature on the value of Fractional Anisotropy (FA) parameter of the DTI in predicting upper limb motor recovery after sub-acute IS. MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and Cochrane CENTRAL searches were conducted from January 1, 1950, to July 31, 2015, which was supplemented with relevant articles identified in the references. Correlation between FA and upper limb motor recovery measure was done. Heterogeneity was examined using Higgins I-squared, Tau-squared. Summary of correlation coefficient was determined using Random Effects model. Out of 166 citations, only eleven studies met the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review and six studies were included in the meta-analysis. A random effects model revealed that DTI parameter FA is a significant predictor for upper limb motor recovery after sub-acute IS [Correlation Coefficient=0.82; 95% Confidence Interval-0.66 to 0.90, P value<0.001]. Moderate heterogeneity was observed (Tau-squared=0.12, I-squared=62.14). The studies reported so far on correlation between DTI and upper limb motor recovery are few with small sample sizes. This meta-analysis suggests strong correlation between DTI parameter FA and upper limb motor recovery. Well-designed prospective trials embedded with larger sample size are required to establish these findings.
doi:10.5853/jos.2015.01186
PMCID: PMC4747076  PMID: 26846758
Ischemic stroke; Diffusion tensor imaging; Hemiparesis; Diffusion tensor tractography; Upper limb recovery; Prediction

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