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author:("jaz, luna")
1.  Transorbital penetrating brain injury to frontal lobe by a wheel spoke 
Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is rare and the severest form of head injury with a high morbidity and mortality. A 3.5-year-old girl presented with PBI with a wheel spoke. Computerized tomography scan with three-dimensional skull reconstruction depicted its extent from the medial side of the roof of the right orbit to the right frontal lobe with a cavitation around the spoke. The spoke was removed by manipulation under general anesthesia from the entry site without a formal craniotomy. Postoperative outcome was uneventful.
PMCID: PMC4302551  PMID: 25624934
Frontal lobe injury; penetrating brain injury; wheel spoke
3.  Congenital pouch colon with ileovesical and colovesical fistulae: A new variant 
We report a case of persistent cloaca and type I congenital pouch colon associated with ileovesical and colovesical fistulae. Such a malformation has not been reported so far.
PMCID: PMC3221165  PMID: 22121321
Congenital pouch colon; Ileovesical fistula; persistent cloaca
4.  Congenital pouch colon 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(5):546-547.
PMCID: PMC3183695  PMID: 21911998
5.  Pulmonary sequestration cyst in a patient of cerebral palsy 
Pulmonary sequestration cyst is a rare entity in pediatric patients. Most of the time, it is diagnosed as an incidental finding. It is associated with other congenital anomalies, especially congenital diaphragmatic hernia. We report a patient of cerebral palsy presented with vomiting and recurrent chest infections. He was diagnosed to have hiatal hernia on computed tomography scan of chest. At operation, a pulmonary sequestration cyst along with hiatal hernia, malrotation, and meckel's diverticulum was encountered. The sequestration cyst was managed through transhiatal approach.
PMCID: PMC3162762  PMID: 21886959
Bronchopulmonary sequestration; foregut malrotation; hiatal hernia; meckel's diverticulum
6.  Decorative crystal balls causing intestinal perforation 
Crystal jelly balls are used for decorative purpose in homes and offices. They swell on contact with water. We managed a patient with a clinical diagnosis of acute abdomen. At surgery, there was fecal peritonitis and three ileal perforations caused by previously ingested decorative crystal balls.
PMCID: PMC3160050  PMID: 21897572
Acute abdomen; crystal balls; generalized peritonitis; intestinal perforation; missing foreign body
7.  Lymph Nodal Infarction Simulating Acute Appendicitis 
A number of diseases can present as acute right iliac region pain. Lymph node infarction, located adjacent to the cecum, mimicking acute appendicitis in a 13-year-old boy is presented here.
PMCID: PMC3418018  PMID: 22953280
Lymph node infarction;  Acute appendicitis;  Pain right iliac region
8.  Mature Gastric Teratoma: The Mixed Exogastric and Endogastric Variety  
Gastric teratomas are extremely rare tumors. A 15-day-old neonate presented with abdominal mass. Ultrasound of abdomen showed mixed echogenicity lesion. CT scan showed a mass with solid and cystic components and internal calcifications. At operation a tumor arising from the posterior wall of the stomach found. It was exogastric as well as endogastric in location. Biopsy report was suggestive of mature teratoma.
PMCID: PMC3418022  PMID: 22953284
Gastric teratoma;  Endogastric tumor;  Exogastric tumour
9.  Intralobar pulmonary sequestration masquerading as congenital lobar emphysema 
Intrapulmonary sequestrations are quite uncommon in pediatric age group. The preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration is not possible in most of the cases. A 2-year-old boy presented with recurrent episodes of chest infections and respiratory distress. A preoperative diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema was made on the basis of chest radiograph and computed tomography scan. At operation, an intralobar pulmonary sequestration was found. The sequestration cyst was excised with uneventful recovery.
PMCID: PMC3047767  PMID: 21430842
Congenital lobar emphysema; pediatric age group; pulmonary sequestration
12.  Isolated Terminal Myelocystocele: A Rare Spinal Dysraphism 
Terminal myelocystocele is a rare spinal dysraphism that present as lumbosacral mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for preoperative diagnosis. A 2.5 months old female baby presented with lumbosacral skin covered mass. There were no associated neurological deficits. MRI of the lesion suggested two cysts, one of which was continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. At operation terminal myelocystocele was found with tethering of the spinal cord. Untethering of the spinal cord and repair of the myelocystocele performed with uneventful recovery.
PMCID: PMC3418015  PMID: 22953270
Terminal myelocystocele; Spinal dysraphism; Myelomeningocele
13.  Cystic Hygroma: An Overview 
Cystic hygromas are the cystic variety of lymphangioma, common locations being cervico-facial regions and axilla. Respiratory distress, recurrent infections or cosmetic reasons are the main indications of the treatment. The ideal treatment is complete surgical excision; however, there is a gradual conversion towards sclerosant therapy. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the various problems encountered during the management of these lesions.
PMCID: PMC3047730  PMID: 21430825
Cystic hygroma; surgical excision; bleomycin; complications
15.  Enteroscrotal Fistula: A Rare Complication of Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia  
Inguinal hernia is a frequent surgical condition encountered of pediatric age group. It may get incarcerated and at times strangulated requiring prompt intervention. However if lesion is not treated timely a host of complications may occur. Enteroscrotal fistula is one such rare complication that may follow such discourse. We report a case of 25-days old male neonate who presented with enteroscrotal fistula due to incarcerated right inguinal hernia. Patient was explored through abdomen and the involved part of ileum was resected and ileo-ileal anastomosis performed.
PMCID: PMC3417997  PMID: 22953264
Strangulated inguinal hernia; Enteroscrotal fistula; Neonate
16.  Immature Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Tumour 
Gastric teratomas are very rare tumours in children. They usually present with a palpable mass in the upper abdomen. We report a case of gastric teratoma in one and half month old male infant who presented with a palpable mass in abdomen, extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components. CT scan delineated calcifications in the mass. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. The mass was excised completely with seromuscular layer of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be grade-3 immature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the origin of teratoma in addition to its immature variety prompted us to report the case.
PMCID: PMC3417998  PMID: 22953260
Gastric teratoma; Immature teratoma; Infant
17.  Partial Avulsion of Common Bile Duct and Duodenal Perforation in a Blunt Abdominal Trauma  
Complete or partial avulsion of common bile duct is a very rare injury following blunt abdominal trauma in children. A 7-year old boy presented to ER following blunt abdominal trauma by a moving motorcycle. X ray abdomen revealed free air under diaphragm and CT scan showed pancreatic contusion injury. At operation anterior wall of common bile duct (CBD) along with a 2mm rim of duodenal tissue on either side of anterior wall of CBD were found avulsed from the duodenum. The avulsed portion of CBD and duodenum were reanastomosed and a tube cholecystostomy performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery.
PMCID: PMC3418003  PMID: 22953262
Common bile duct; Avulsion; Blunt abdominal truama;  Duodenal perforation
18.  Shock: A presentation of enteric fever 
PMCID: PMC2938520  PMID: 20931000
21.  Multiple associated anomalies in a single patient of duodenal atresia: a case report 
Cases Journal  2008;1:215.
Duodenal atresia is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. It is associated with other congenital anomalies like Down's syndrome, annular pancreas etc.
Case presentation
We present a case of a two days old male baby presented to us with bilious vomiting since birth. It was associated with Down's syndrome, Annular pancreas and Malrotation.
Duodenal atresia is associated with other congenital anomalies but more than one congenital anomalies in a single patient is very rare.
PMCID: PMC2569030  PMID: 18837988
22.  Comparison of Transvaginal Sonography and Saline Contrast Sonohysterography in Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: Correlation with Hysteroscopy and Histopathology 
Transvaginal ultrasound is used conventionally as initial investigation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding but saline contrast sonohysterography is a better technique to reliably distinguish focal from diffuse endometrial lesions. This study was performed to compare the ability of transvaginal ultrasonography and saline infusion sonohysterography as initial modality for the diagnosis of endometrial abnormalities in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.
Patients and Methods:
In a prospective study, 100 women with abnormal uterine bleeding were submitted to sequential examination by transvaginal ultrasound, and sonohysterography. The presence of focal endometrial lesions and the type of lesion (endometrial hyperplasia, polyp, submucous myoma, or malignancy) were noted. Predictive values were calculated by correlating the results with final diagnosis reached by hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy.
The sonohysterography had 92.9% sensitivity and 89.7% specificity compared to 71.4% sensitivity and 67.7% specificity achieved by transvaginal sonography. There was 91% agreement between saline contrast sonohysterography and hysteroscopy as compared to 69% for TVS (p = 0.002). The diagnostic performance of sonohysterography for 3 main endometrial abnormalities (i.e. endometrial hyperplasia, polyps and submucous myoma) was better than transvaginal sonography. The best results were seen in cases of submucous myoma where sensitivity and specificity of sonohysterography reached to 100% as compared to TVS (61.55 and 97.7% respectively).
Our results have substantiated that sonohysterography is a better tool than transvaginal sonography for the assessment of endometrial intra-cavity lesions. By providing accurate differentiation between focal and diffuse endometrial lesions, it can help in decision making regarding selection of cases for hysteroscopy and directed biopsy. We recommend that saline contrast sonohysterography should be used as an initial investigation in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding.
PMCID: PMC3068651  PMID: 21475448
Ultrasound; transvaginal sonography; sonohysterography; hysteroscopy; abnormal uterine bleeding

Results 1-22 (22)