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author:("hanil, ghazal")
1.  Etiology and genetic factors in clefts of lip and/or palate reported at children’s hospital, Lahore, Pakistan 
Indian Journal of Human Genetics  2013;19(2):136-143.
The etiology of cleft lip (CL) and/or cleft palate (CP) has been extensively studied in industrialized countries and is suggested to be heterogeneous with increasing evidence that both genetic and environmental factors are operating. To evaluate this assertion in a developing country like Pakistan, a case finding cross-sectional study was completed from 1st July 2010 to 31st May 2011 for 100 cases of CL and/or CP referred to the Genetic Clinic of the Children’s Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. A clinical examination followed by necessary diagnostic work-up was completed for each case. The cause of CL and/or CP was clear in 18% of the children (n = 18). Environmental causes were found in 6 children (four mothers developed hyperthermia during the 2nd month of gestation, one mother was diabetic, and one mother was a known case of epilepsy and took sodium valproate throughout her pregnancy). Six children were suffering from known genetic malformation syndromes (each with Jarcho-Levin syndrome, Oral-Facial-Digital syndrome type XI, Oral-Duplication syndrome, Kabuki syndrome, Fronto-nasal dysplasia and Nager syndrome). Novel chromosomal aberrations were identified in 2 children. In 82% of the children (n = 82) the cause of oro-facial clefts remained unknown. Impact of gender and consanguinity on the development of CL and/or CP was also studied. Prevalence of CP was significantly more among female children as compared to that in males (P < 0.05). Associated anomalies were present in 18% of the cases, anomalies of the craniofacial region being the most common. These findings were compared with regional and international studies.
PMCID: PMC3758717  PMID: 24019612
Associated malformations; cleft lip; cleft palate; consanguinity; etiology
3.  Lymph Nodal Infarction Simulating Acute Appendicitis 
A number of diseases can present as acute right iliac region pain. Lymph node infarction, located adjacent to the cecum, mimicking acute appendicitis in a 13-year-old boy is presented here.
PMCID: PMC3418018  PMID: 22953280
Lymph node infarction;  Acute appendicitis;  Pain right iliac region

Results 1-3 (3)