Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a post-transcriptional mechanism to generate diverse mRNA transcripts with different 3′UTRs from the same gene. In this study, we systematically searched for the APA events with differential expression in public mouse microarray data. Hundreds of genes with over-represented differential APA events and the corresponding experiments were identified. We further revealed that global APA differential expression occurred prevalently in tissues such as brain comparing to peripheral tissues, and biological processes such as development, differentiation and immune responses. Interestingly, we also observed widespread differential APA events in RNA-binding protein (RBP) genes such as Rbm3, Eif4e2 and Elavl1. Given the fact that RBPs are considered as the main regulators of differential APA expression, we constructed a co-expression network between APAs and RBPs using the microarray data. Further incorporation of CLIP-seq data of selected RBPs showed that Nova2 represses and Mbnl1 promotes the polyadenylation of closest poly(A) sites respectively. Altogether, our study is the first microarray meta-analysis in a mammal on the regulation of APA by RBPs that integrated massive mRNA expression data under a wide-range of biological conditions. Finally, we present our results as a comprehensive resource in an online website for the research community.
Red cell distribution width (RDW) has been recognized as a novel marker for several cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between RDW levels and the presence of isolated coronary artery ectasia (CAE).
We studied 414 subjects including 113 patients with isolated CAE (Group A), 144 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, group B) and 157 angiographically normal controls (group C). Baseline clinical characteristics and laboratory findings including RDW were compared among three groups.
The levels of RDW were significantly higher in group A and B compared with that in group C (12.97 ± 1.4 and 12.88 ± 1.0 vs 12.34 ± 0.9, p = 0.020) while no difference was found between CAE and CAD (p = 0.17). Additionally, the levels of CRP were also higher in patients with CAE and CAD compared with normal controls (0.26 ± 0.14 mg/L, 0.31 ± 0.27 mg/L vs 0.20 ± 0.06 mg/L, p = 0.04). The multivariate analysis indicated that RDW and CRP were the independent variables most strongly associated with the presence of isolated CAE and CAD. There was a positive correlation between levels of RDW and CRP in patients with isolated CAE (γ=0.532, p = 0.001).
Our data suggested that RDW may be a useful marker and independent predictor for the presence of isolated CAE.
Red cell distribution width; Coronary artery ectasia; Coronary artery disease; C-reactive protein
Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid mainly extracted from Rhizoma Coptidis and has been shown to possess a potent inhibitory activity against bacterial. However, the role of berberine in anti-bacterial action has not been extensively studied.
The animal model was established to investigate the effects of berberine on bacterial and LPS infection. Docking analysis, Molecular dynamics simulations and Real-time RT-PCR analysis was adopted to investigate the molecular mechanism.
Treatment with 40 mg/kg berberine significantly increased the survival rate of mice challenged with Salmonella typhimurium (LT2), but berberine show no effects in bacteriostasis. Further study indicated that treatment with 0.20 g/kg berberine markedly increased the survival rate of mice challenged with 2 EU/ml bacterial endotoxin (LPS) and postpone the death time of the dead mice. Moreover, pretreatment with 0.05 g/kg berberine significantly lower the increasing temperature of rabbits challenged with LPS. The studies of molecular mechanism demonstrated that Berberine was able to bind to the TLR4/MD-2 receptor, and presented higher affinity in comparison with LPS. Furthermore, berberine could significantly suppressed the increasing expression of NF-κB, IL-6, TNFα, and IFNβ in the RAW264.7 challenged with LPS.
Berberine can act as a LPS antagonist and block the LPS/TLR4 signaling from the sourse, resulting in the anti-bacterial action.
This work aimed to synthesize a cathepsin B (CTSB)-cleavable tumor-targeting prodrug peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) and study the in vivo efficacy and toxicities on an animal model of gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC).
PDOX was synthesized using doxorubicin (DOX) attaching to a CTSB-cleavable dipeptide Ac-Phe-Lys and a para-amino-benzyloxycarbonyl (PABC) spacer. PC model was established by injecting VX2 tumor cells into the gastric sub-mucosa of 40 rabbits, which then were randomized into 4 groups: the Control (n = 10) without treatment, the HIPEC (n = 10) receiving cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the PDOX (n = 10) and the DOX (n = 10) receiving systemic chemotherapy with PDOX 50.0 mg/kg or DOX 5.0 mg/kg, respectively, after CRS + HIPEC.
The median overall survivals (OS) were 23.0 d (95% CI: 19.9 d - 26.1 d) in the Control, 41.0 d (36.9 d - 45.1 d) in the HIPEC, 65.0 d (44.1 d - 71.9 d) in the PDOX, and 58.0 d (39.6 d - 54.4 d) in the DOX. Compared with the Control, the OS was extended by 70% in the HIPEC (p < 0.001) and further extended by 40% in the DOX (p = 0.029) and by 58% in the PDOX (p = 0.021), and the PC severity was decreased in the HIPEC and further decreased in the PDOX and DOX. Animals receiving DOX treatment showed hematological toxicities with marked reduction of white blood cells and platelets, as well as cardiac toxicities with significant increases in creatine kinase mb isoenzyme, evident myocardium coagulation necrosis, significant nuclear degeneration, peri-nucleus mitochondria deletion, mitochondria-pyknosis, and abnormal intercalated discs. But these toxicities were not evident in the PDOX.
PDOX is a newly synthesized tumor-targeting prodrug of DOX. Compared with DOX, PDOX has similar efficacy but reduced hematological and cardiac toxicities in treating rabbit model of gastric PC.
Peritoneal carcinomatosis; Gastric cancer; Peptide doxorubicin; Cytoreductive surgery; Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy
A new water-soluble polysaccharide (longan polysaccharide 1 (LP1)) was extracted and successfully purified from Dimocarpus longan pulp via diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-300 HR gel chromatography. The chemical structure was determined using Infrared (IR), gas chromatography (GC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The results indicated that the molecular weight of the sample was 1.1 × 105 Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that LP1 was composed of Glc, GalA, Ara and Gal in a molar ratio of 5.39:1.04:0.74:0.21. Structural analysis indicated that LP1 consisted of a backbone of →4)-α-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-d-GalpA-(1→4)-α-d-Glcp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→ units with poly saccharide side chains composed of →2)-β-d-Fruf-(1→2)-l-sorbose-(1→ attached to the O-6 position of the α-d-Glcp residues. In vitro experiments indicated that LP1 had significantly high antitumor activity against SKOV3 and HO8910 tumor cells, with inhibition percentages of 40% and 50%, respectively. In addition, LP1 significantly stimulated the production of the cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ), increased the activity of murine macrophages and enhanced B- and T-lymphocyte proliferation. The results of this study demonstrate that LP1 has potential applications as a natural antitumor agent with immunomodulatory activity.
structure; antitumor activity; immunomodulatory activity; polysaccharide; Dimocarpus longan pulp
Alpha-fetoprotein not only serves as a diagnostic marker for liver cancer, but also posses a variety of biological functions. However, the role of Alpha-fetoprotein on tumor angiogenesis and cell invasion remains incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate if Alpha-fetoprotein can regulate the major angiogenic factors and matrix metalloproteinases in human liver cancer cells. Alpha-fetoprotein silencing was achieved by Stealth RNAi. Expression of Alpha-fetoprotein was examined by a full-automatic electrochemistry luminescence immunity analyzer. Expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2, MMP-9, and MMP-2 was examined by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Angiogenesis was detected by in vitro angiogenesis assay kit. Silencing of Alpha-fetoprotein led to an increased apoptosis, which was associated with a decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinases-2/9. These results suggest that Alpha-fetoprotein may play a regulatory role on angiogenesis and cell invasion during liver cancer development.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gasotransmitter in mammals. Despite physiological changes induced by exogenous H2S donor NaHS to plants, whether and how H2S works as a true cellular signal in plants need to be examined. A self-developed specific fluorescent probe (WSP-1) was applied to track endogenous H2S in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots in site. Bioimaging combined with pharmacological and biochemical approaches were used to investigate the cross-talk among H2S, nitric oxide (NO), and Ca2+ in regulating lateral root formation. Endogenous H2S accumulation was clearly associated with primordium initiation and lateral root emergence. NO donor SNP stimulated the generation of endogenous H2S and the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme responsible for endogenous H2S synthesis. Scavenging H2S or inhibiting H2S synthesis partially blocked SNP-induced lateral root formation and the expression of lateral root-related genes. The stimulatory effect of SNP on Ca2+ accumulation and CaM1 (calmodulin 1) expression could be abolished by inhibiting H2S synthesis. Ca2+ chelator or Ca2+ channel blocker attenuated NaHS-induced lateral root formation. Our study confirmed the role of H2S as a cellular signal in plants being a mediator between NO and Ca2+ in regulating lateral root formation.
Fluorinated Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigens were synthesized efficient from chemically produced fluorinated monosaccharides using a highly efficient one-pot two-enzyme chemoenzymatic approach containing a galactokinase and a D-galactosyl-β1–3-N-acetyl-D-hexosamine phosphorylase. These fluorinated T-antigens were further sialylated to form fluorinated ST-antigens using a one-pot two-enzyme system containing a CMP-sialic acid synthetase and an α2–3-sialyltransferase.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D has been shown to promote lymph node metastasis in several cancers. Although generally overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, its role in nodal dissemination of this cancer is unclear. To clarify the role of VEGF-D and the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the function of VEGF-D using a mouse xenograft model of ovarian cancer.
Human ovarian serous adenocarcinoma SKOV3 cells were transfected with VEGF-D recombinant plasmid DNA, or with control vectors. The cells were injected subcutaneously into the footpads of nude mice. Tumor growth was evaluated weekly. Draining lymphatics were observed grossly with Evan’s blue lymphangiography. Tumoral lymphatics were delineated with both Evan’s blue and LYVE-1 immunostaining. Tumor metastases to lymph nodes were evaluated by H&E and CA125/CD40 staining. Expression of VEGF-D in primary tumors and levels of CA125 in involved lymph nodes were examined by immunohistochemistry. Tumor cell apoptosis was analyzed by Hoechst dyeing.
Mice bearing VEGF-D overexpressing xenografts showed a significantly higher rate of lymph node metastasis and markedly greater tumor volume compared with the controls. The functional lymphatic vessels were denser and enlarged in marginal and central tumor portions. Additionally, higher CA125 expression was observed in the involved lymph nodes. Mice bearing VEGF-D overexpressing xenografts also exhibited a markedly lower apoptotic index compared with the controls.
Our data demonstrate the important role of VEGF-D in promoting lymph node metastasis by increasing tumor lymphangiogenesis, stimulating draining lymphatic vessel formation, and enhancing tumor invasiveness. Our findings show that VEGF-D can be a promising therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
Ovarian carcinoma; VEGF-D; Metastasis; Lymphangiogenesis; Xenograft
Some aspects of the neighborhood built environment may influence residents’ physical activity, which in turn, affects their health. This study aimed to develop an urban built environment evaluation tool and conduct necessary reliability and validity tests.
A 41-item urban built environment scan tool was developed to objectively assess the neighborhood built environment features related to physical activity. Six neighborhoods in Hangzhou were selected from three types of administrative planning units. A pair of auditors independently assessed all of the 205 street segments at the same time. Half of the segments (n = 104) were audited twice by the same auditor after a two-week time interval. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing the audits of paired observers, while intra-rater reliability was evaluated by comparing an auditor’s repeated assessments of the same segments. The construct validity was tested using factor analysis.
The inter-rater reliability for most items was above 0.8. The intra-rater reliability for most items was above 0.4, and was lower than corresponding inter-rater reliability. Six factors were extracted by factor analysis and the factor loading matrix showed good construct validity.
The CUBEST is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to assess the physical activity-related built environment in Hangzhou, and potentially other cities in China.
Environmental scan; Physical activity; Reliability; Validity
The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is still a serious threat to the swine industry. However, the pathogenic mechanism of HP-PRRSV remains unclear. We infected host porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) with the virulent HuN4 strain and the attenuated HuN4-F112 strain and then utilized fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to screen for intracellular proteins that were differentially expressed in host cells infected with the two strains. There were 153 proteins with significant different expression (P<0.01) observed, 42 of which were subjected to mass spectrometry, and 24 proteins were identified. PAM cells infected with the virulent strain showed upregulated expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), and proteasome subunit alpha type 6 (PSMA6), which were downregulated in cells infected with the attenuated strain. The upregulation of PKM2 provides sufficient energy for viral replication, and the upregulation of HSPB1 inhibits host cell apoptosis and therefore facilitates mass replication of the virulent strain, while the upregulation of PSMA6 facilitates the evasion of immune surveillance by the virus. Studying on those molecules mentioned above may be able to help us to understand some unrevealed details of HP-PRRSV infection, and then help us to decrease its threat to the swine industry in the future.
Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing the rejection of solid organ transplants. The efficacy of tacrolimus shows considerable variability, which might be related to genetic variation among recipients. We conducted a retrospective study of 240 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus as immunosuppressive drug. The retrospective data of all patients were collected for 40 days after transplantation. Seventeen SNPs of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR were identified by the SNaPshot assay. Tacrolimus blood concentrations were obtained on days 1–3, days 6–8 and days 12–14 after transplantation, as well as during the period of the predefined therapeutic concentration range. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to examine the effect of genetic variation on the tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C0/D) at different time points. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions of patients who achieved the target C0 range in the different genotypic groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. After correction for multiple testing, there was a significant association of C0/D with CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C at different time points after transplantation. The proportion of patients in the IL-10 rs1800871-TT group who achieved the target C0 range was greater (p = 0.004) compared to the IL-10 rs1800871-CT and IL-10 rs1800871-CC groups at week 3 after transplantation. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4 *1G, CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C and IL-10 rs1800871 C>T might be potential polymorphisms affecting the interindividual variability in tacrolimus metabolism among Chinese renal transplant recipients.
Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) often develop liver metastases, in which case surgery is considered the only potentially curative treatment option. However, liver surgery is associated with a risk of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, which is thought to promote the growth of colorectal liver metastases. The influence of IR-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) elevation in the process still is unknown. To investigate the role of TNF-α in the growth of pre-existing micrometastases in the liver following IR, we used a mouse model of colorectal liver metastases. In this model, mice received IR treatment seven days after intrasplenic injections of colorectal CT26 cells. Prior to IR treatment, either TNF-α blocker Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α, which could inhibit IR-induced TNF-α elevation, was administered by intraperitoneal injection.
Hepatic IR treatment significantly promoted CT26 tumor growth in the liver, but either Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α pretreatment reversed this trend. Further studies showed that the CT26 + IR group prominently increased the levels of ALT and AST, liver necrosis, inflammatory infiltration and the expressions of hepatic IL-6, MMP9 and E-selectin compared to those of CT26 group. Inhibition of TNF-α elevation remarkably attenuated the increases of these liver inflammatory damage indicators and tumor-promoting factors.
These findings suggested that inhibition of TNF-α elevation delayed the IR-enhanced outgrowth of colorectal liver metastases by reducing IR-induced inflammatory damage and the formation of tumor-promoting microenvironments. Both Enbrel and low-dose TNF-α represented the potential therapeutic approaches for the protection of colorectal liver metastatic patients against IR injury-induced growth of liver micrometastases foci.
Colorectal cancer; Liver metastases; Ischemia-reperfusion; TNF-α; Enbrel
We show for the first time that signaling through the TLR4/TRIF pathway plays a critical role in allogeneic bone marrow cell (BMC) rejection. This appears to be unique to BMC as organ allografts are rejected mainly via MyD88 signaling. Using T or T/B cell-deficient mice, we found that BMC allorejection occurred early before T cell activation and was T and B cell-independent, suggesting an effector role for innate immune cells in BMC rejection. We further demonstrated the innate immune signaling in BMC allorejection by showing superior engraftment in mice deficient in TRIF or TLR4 but not MyD88 or TLR3. The restored cytotoxicity in TRIF deficient recipients transferred with wildtype F4/80+ or NK1.1+ cells suggests TRIF signaling dependence on macrophages or NK cells in early BMC rejection. Production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TRIF relevant chemokine MCP-1 was significantly increased early after bone marrow transplantation. In vivo specific depletion of macrophages or NK innate immune cells in combination with anti-CD154/rapamycin resulted in additive-enhanced allogeneic engraftment. The requirement for irradiation was completely eliminated when both macrophages and NK cells were depleted in combination with anti-CD154/rapamycin to target T and B cells, supporting the hypothesis that two barriers involving innate and adaptive immunity exist in mediating rejection of allogeneic BMC. In summary, our results clearly demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for innate immunity in BMC allorejection via signaling through a unique MyD88-independent TLR4/TRIF mechanism. These findings may have direct clinical impact on strategies for conditioning recipients for stem cell transplantation.
TLR4; TRIF; bone marrow transplantation; innate immunity
In this paper, the potential sensitivity in Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was investigated in frequency modulation (FM) and heterodyne amplitude modulation (AM) modes. We showed theoretically that the minimum detectable contact potential difference (CPD) in FM-KPFM is higher than in heterodyne AM-KPFM. We experimentally confirmed that the signal-to-noise ratio in FM-KPFM is lower than that in heterodyne AM-KPFM, which is due to the higher minimum detectable CPD dependence in FM-KPFM. We also compared the corrugations in the local contact potential difference on the surface of Ge (001), which shows atomic resolution in heterodyne AM-KPFM. In contrast, atomic resolution cannot be obtained in FM-KPFM under the same experimental conditions. The higher potential resolution in heterodyne AM-KPFM was attributed to the lower crosstalk and higher potential sensitivity between topographic and potential measurements.
Heterodyne amplitude modulation; Frequency modulation; Kelvin probe force microscopy
On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 conducted a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 ± 120 meters from the asteroid's surface. The highest-resolution image, with a resolution of better than 3 meters, reveals new discoveries on the asteroid, e.g., a giant basin at the big end, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, and direct evidence of boulders and regolith, which suggests that Toutatis may bear a rubble-pile structure. Toutatis' maximum physical length and width are (4.75 × 1.95 km) ±10%, respectively, and the direction of the +z axis is estimated to be (250 ± 5°, 63 ± 5°) with respect to the J2000 ecliptic coordinate system. The bifurcated configuration is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis, which is composed of two lobes (head and body). Chang'e-2 observations have significantly improved our understanding of the characteristics, formation, and evolution of asteroids in general.
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is one of the main causes of severe pulmonary hypertension. However, despite treatment (pulmonary endarterectomy), in approximately 15–20% of patients, pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure continue to increase. To date, little is known about the changes that occur in gene expression in CTEPH. The identification of genes associated with CTEPH may provide insight into the pathogenesis of CTEPH and may aid in diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we analyzed the gene expresion profiles of pulmonary artery endothelial cells from 5 patients with CTEPH and 5 healthy controls using oligonucleotide microarrays. Bioinformatics analyses using the Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG databases were carried out to identify the genes and pathways specifically associated with CTEPH. Signal transduction networks were established to identify the core genes regulating the progression of CTEPH. A number of genes were found to be differentially expressed in the pulmonary artery endothelial cells from patients with CTEPH. In total, 412 GO terms and 113 pathways were found to be associated with our list of genes. All differential gene interactions in the Signal-Net network were analyzed. JAK3, GNA15, MAPK13, ARRB2 and F2R were the most significantly altered. Bioinformatics analysis may help gather and analyze large amounts of data in microarrays by means of rigorous experimental planning, scientific statistical analysis and the collection of complete data. In this study, a novel differential gene expression pattern was constructed. However, further studies are required to identify novel targets for the diagnosis and treatment of CTEPH.
chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; gene; microarray; Gene Ontology; signaling pathway
The first outbreak of H5N1 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus associated with several human deaths occurred in 1997 in Hong-Kong, China. While H5N1 virus infection in poultry workers has been studied in some detail, little is known about the environmental risk factors of the H5 avian influenza virus infection in China.
A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the environmental load of H5 viruses in poultry-contaminated environments and to explore potential risk factors associated with infection in poultry workers between October 2010 and March 2012. Serum and environmental samples were collected in Zhejiang province, China. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was used to analyze human sera for antibodies against H5N1 virus [A/Hubei/1/2010 (H5N1) and A/Anhui/1/2005 (H5N1)]. All participants were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire to collect information on exposure to poultry. H5 Avian influenza virus in the environmental samples was detected by real time RT-PCR.
One hundred and five of 3,453 environmental samples (3.0%) tested positive for H5 avian influenza virus. Fifty-five of 1,169 subjects (4.7%) tested seropositive for anti-H5N1 antibodies. A statistically significant difference in H5 virus detection rate was found among the different environments sampled (<0.001), with the highest showed in live bird markets (68.6%). Detection rate varied according to the source of samples, sewage (9.5%), drinking water (19.0%), feces (19.0%), cage surface (25.7%), and slaughtering chopping boards (15.2%), respectively. Direct or close contact with poultry (OR =5.20, 95% CI, 1.53-17.74) and breeding numerous poultry (OR =3.77, 95% CI, 1.72-8.73) were significantly associated with seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza virus A (H5N1).
The number of birds bred more than 1,000 and direct or close contact with poultry in the workplace or the environment would be a potential risk of H5N1 infection.
Avian influenza virus; occupational exposure; risk factors; environment
Obesity is associated with unfavorable alternations in plasma lipid profile and a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disorders. Proprotein convestase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic low lipoprotein density receptor (LDLR) protein. However, the relationship between PCSK9 concentration and lipid profile in an obesity condition has less been investigated.
To examine the changes of plasma PCSK9 concentration in a rat model fed with high fat diet (HFD) and its correlation to lipid profile, body weight and ageing.
Twenty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups, control group (fed with normal pellet for 4 weeks), and high-fat diet group (fed with 3% cholesterol enrich diet for 4 weeks). Blood samples of rats were obtained before and at days 14, 21, and 28 in both groups. The body weight, plasma metabolic parameters (glucose, lipid profile) and PCSK9 were determined at indicated time points.
The body weights were significantly increased in rats fed with HFD compared to that in rats with normal pellets at day 28. Additionally, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in rat fed with HFD were also higher than that in rats fed with control diet while decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were found in rats with HFD at day 28. More interesting, there were no differences of plasma PCSK9 concentrations as well as hepatic expression of LDLR between the two groups at day 28.
Although the body weight and LDL-C were significantly increased in rats fed with HFD at 4 weeks, there were no differences of changes in plasma PCSK9 concentration and LDLR expression of liver tissue in both groups at baseline and day 28, suggesting that dyslipidemia in the rat model with HFD appears not to be associated with PCSK9-LDLR pathway but ageing.
PCSK9; High fat diet; Dyslipidemia; Ageing
In a commonly accepted model, in response to stimuli, bacterial histidine kinases undergo a conformational transition between an active and inactive form. Structural information on histidine kinases is limited. By using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), we demonstrate an exchange between two conformational populations of histidine kinase ExsG that are linked to different levels of kinase activity. ExsG is an atypical signaling protein that incorporates an uncommon histidine kinase catalytic core at the C terminus preceded by an N-terminal “receiver domain” that is normally associated with the response regulator proteins in two-component signal transduction systems. IM-MS analysis and enzymatic assays indicate that phosphorylation of the ExsG receiver domain stabilizes the “compact” form of the protein and inhibits kinase core activity; in contrast, nucleotide binding required for kinase activity is associated with the more open conformation of ExsG.
•Conformational states of a histidine kinase demonstrated with IM-MS•Phosphorylation of an N-terminal regulatory domain stabilizes compact conformation•Conformational states are correlated with kinase activity
Wojnowska et al. used ion mobility-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the exchange between two conformational populations of hexameric histidine kinase ExsG. The “open” and “closed/compact” conformations were correlated to the kinase activity and under phosphorylation dependent regulation.
This study aims to compare the efficiency of APACHE IV with that of MELD scoring system for prediction of the risk of mortality risk after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A retrospective cohort study was performed based on a total of 195 patients admitted to the ICU after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) between February 2006 and July 2009 in Guangzhou, China. APACHE IV and MELD scoring systems were used to predict the postoperative mortality after OLT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow C statistic were used to assess the discrimination and calibration of APACHE IV and MELD, respectively. Twenty-seven patients died during hospitalization with a mortality rate of 13.8%. The mean scores of APACHE IV and MELD were 42.32 ± 21.95 and 18.09 ± 10.55, respectively, and APACHE IV showed better discrimination than MELD; the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for APACHE IV and MELD were 0.937 and 0.694 (P < 0.05 for both models), which indicated that the prognostic value of APACHE IV was relatively high. Both models were well-calibrated (The Hosmer-Lemeshow C statistics were 1.568 and 6.818 for APACHE IV and MELD, resp.; P > 0.05 for both). The respective Youden indexes of APACHE IV, MELD, and combination of APACHE IV with MELD were 0.763, 0.430, and 0.545. The prognostic value of APACHE IV is high but still underestimates the overall hospital mortality, while the prognostic value of MELD is poor. The function of the APACHE IV is, thus, better than that of the MELD.
AIM: To investigate the effect of antiviral therapy with nucleoside analogs in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis and esophageal varices.
METHODS: Eligible patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and esophageal varices who consulted two tertiary hospitals in Beijing, China, the Chinese Second Artillery General Hospital and Chinese PLA General Hospital, were enrolled in the study from January 2005 to December 2009. Of 117 patients, 79 received treatment with different nucleoside analogs and 38 served as controls. Bleeding rate, change in variceal grade and non-bleeding duration were analyzed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify factors related to esophageal variceal bleeding.
RESULTS: The bleeding rate was decreased in the antiviral group compared to the control group (29.1% vs 65.8%, P < 0.001). Antiviral therapy was an independent factor related to esophageal bleeding in multivariate analysis (HR = 11.3, P < 0.001). The mean increase in variceal grade per year was lower in the antiviral group (1.0 ± 1.3 vs 1.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.003). Non-bleeding duration in the antiviral group was prolonged in the Kaplan-Meier model. Viral load rebound was observed in 3 cases in the lamivudine group and in 1 case in the adefovir group, all of whom experienced bleeding. Entecavir and adefovir resulted in lower bleeding rates (17.2% and 28.6%, respectively) than the control (P < 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively), whereas lamivudine (53.3%) did not (P = 0.531).
CONCLUSION: Antiviral therapy delays the progression of esophageal varices and reduces bleeding risk in HBV-related cirrhosis, however, high-resistance agents tend to be ineffective for long-term treatment.
Nucleoside analog; Esophageal variceal bleeding; Hepatitis B virus; Cirrhosis; Resistance; Entecavir; Lamivudine; Adefovir
Small RNAs are widespread in plants and animals. They largely include microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and they play key roles in gene and chromatin regulations. Here we describe in detail the method for an effective construction of the recently developed short tandem target mimic (STTM) technology to block small RNA functions in plants and animals. STTM is a powerful technology complementing the previous target mimic (TM) in plants and the miRNA sponge, as well as the recently defined endogenous competing RNA (CeRNA) in animals. We expect STTM will not only be effective in blocking small RNA functions in plants but will also become a popular approach in animals.
Small RNA; miRNA; miR165/166; miR-30d; Short tandem target mimic (STTM); Target mimic; miRNA sponge; CeRNA
Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted exclusively by adipocytes that plays an important role in the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the ability of adiponectin to stimulate chicken preadipocyte differentiation and its effect on cellular signaling pathways associated with adipocyte differentiation. Data showed that over-expression of adiponectin inhibited adipocyte differentiation and the expression of adipogenic marker gene, while activated the expression of lipolytic marker gene. Meanwhile, adiponectin led to activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)/activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) signaling pathway and down-regulation of target of rapamycin (TOR)/p70 S6 Kinase signaling pathway. Furthermore, the activation of p38 MAPK/ATF-2 signaling pathway was blocked by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB253580, whereas adiponectin had a synergistic effect on the suppression of TOR/p70 S6 Kinase signaling pathway with the TOR inhibitor rapamycin. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the ability of adiponectin to inhibit chicken preadipocyte differentiation, which depends on the p38 MAPK/ATF-2 and TOR/p70 S6 Kinase pathways.
In the title molecule, C29H29N5, the indole ring systems are essentially planar, with maximum deviations of 0.020 (2), 0.023 (2) and 0.016 (2) Å. The dihedral angles formed between the mean planes of the three indole ring systems are 38.08 (7), 89.64 (8) and 58.28 (8)°. In the crystal, molecules are connected by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. An intramolecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond is also observed.