Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains conserve energy from reductive dechlorination reactions catalyzed by corrinoid-dependent reductive dehalogenase enzyme systems. Dehalococcoides lacks the ability for de novo corrinoid synthesis, and pure cultures require the addition of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) for growth. In contrast, Geobacter lovleyi, which dechlorinates tetrachloroethene to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and the nondechlorinating species Geobacter sulfurreducens have complete sets of cobamide biosynthesis genes and produced 12.9 ± 2.4 and 24.2 ± 5.8 ng of extracellular cobamide per liter of culture suspension, respectively, during growth with acetate and fumarate in a completely synthetic medium. G. lovleyi-D. mccartyi strain BAV1 or strain FL2 cocultures provided evidence for interspecies corrinoid transfer, and cis-DCE was dechlorinated to vinyl chloride and ethene concomitant with Dehalococcoides growth. In contrast, negligible increase in Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA gene copies and insignificant dechlorination occurred in G. sulfurreducens-D. mccartyi strain BAV1 or strain FL2 cocultures. Apparently, G. lovleyi produces a cobamide that complements Dehalococcoides' nutritional requirements, whereas G. sulfurreducens does not. Interestingly, Dehalococcoides dechlorination activity and growth could be restored in G. sulfurreducens-Dehalococcoides cocultures by adding 10 μM 5′,6′-dimethylbenzimidazole. Observations made with the G. sulfurreducens-Dehalococcoides cocultures suggest that the exchange of the lower ligand generated a cobalamin, which supported Dehalococcoides activity. These findings have implications for in situ bioremediation and suggest that the corrinoid metabolism of Dehalococcoides must be understood to faithfully predict, and possibly enhance, reductive dechlorination activities.
In the study of circadian rhythms, it has been a puzzle how a limited number of circadian clock genes can control diverse aspects of physiology. Here we investigate circadian gene expression genome-wide using larval zebrafish as a model system. We made use of a spatial gene expression atlas to investigate the expression of circadian genes in various tissues and cell types. Comparison of genome-wide circadian gene expression data between zebrafish and mouse revealed a nearly anti-phase relationship and allowed us to detect novel evolutionarily conserved circadian genes in vertebrates. We identified three groups of zebrafish genes with distinct responses to light entrainment: fast light-induced genes, slow light-induced genes, and dark-induced genes. Our computational analysis of the circadian gene regulatory network revealed several transcription factors (TFs) involved in diverse aspects of circadian physiology through transcriptional cascade. Of these, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor a (mitfa), a dark-induced TF, mediates a circadian rhythm of melanin synthesis, which may be involved in zebrafish's adaptation to daily light cycling. Our study describes a systematic method to discover previously unidentified TFs involved in circadian physiology in complex organisms.
For most animals whose lives are dependent on the sun, circadian clocks govern their daily behaviors and physiology. In different animals, novel functions under the circadian clock's control can evolve as adaptations to their specific environment. A zebrafish demonstrates a remarkably high level of interplay between external light and its internal circadian clock due to its transparent nature. In a genome-wide study, we identified a large number of circadian oscillating genes as well as genes whose expression is highly sensitive to the light or dark in zebrafish. Our computational analysis of gene regulatory networks revealed a number of transcription factors (TFs) that mediate novel circadian functions. We investigated one example in depth, a key TF that relays the control of the circadian clock to the enzymes synthesizing melanin in a dark-induced pathway thus causing the daily change of pigmentation in zebrafish. This dark-induced circadian melanogenesis can lead to an anticipatory change in zebrafish skin color allowing zebrafish to adapt to its environment. This mechanism allows zebrafish to better evade predators and effectively adjust its daily light-sensitivity in the pigment cells. Our study provides an excellent example of how the circadian clock is adapted in a specific organism to control its behavior, thus enabling evolutionary adaptation to the organism's ecological niche.
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective cytotoxic anticancer drugs used for the treatment of hematological malignancies, as well as a broad range of solid tumors. However, the clinical applications of this drug have long been limited due to its severe dose-dependent toxicities. Therefore, DOX derivatives and analogs have been developed to address this issue. A type of DOX prodrug, cleaved by cathepsin B (Cat B), which is highly upregulated in malignant tumors and premalignant lesions, has been developed to achieve a higher DOX concentration in tumor tissue and a lower concentration in normal tissue, so as to enhance the efficacy and reduce toxicity to normal cells. In this review, we focused on Cat B-cleavable DOX prodrugs and discussed the efficacy of these prodrugs, demonstrated by preclinical and clinical developments.
cancer chemotherapy; cathepsin B; doxorubicin; prodrugs; targeted therapy
Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of prolonged QTc interval among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The retrospective study included 3156 outpatients from the Diabetes Centre, the 306th Hospital of PLA, during the period from September 2003 to June 2010. QT interval was measured manually in the 12-lead conventional electrocardiogram. The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) was calculated using Bazett's formula. Additional demographic and laboratory data were also collected. Potential risk factors of prolonged QTc interval were assessed using multivariable regression. Results. The prevalence of prolonged QTc interval among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes was 30.1%. Height (OR 0.156, 95% CI 0.032~0.748), waist circumference (OR 1.025, 95% CI 1.010~1.040), diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.016, 95% CI 1.007~1.026), postprandial glucose (OR 1.040, 95% CI 1.022~1.059), fasting insulin (OR 1.014, 95% CI 1.003~1.025), and presence of microalbuminuria (OR 1.266, 95% CI 1.033~1.551) were significant risk factors. Conclusions. The prevalence of prolonged QTc interval among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes is high. Risk factors for prolongation of QTc interval were low height, high waist circumference, increasing diastolic blood pressure levels, high postprandial glucose levels, high fasting insulin levels, and presence of microalbuminuria.
Until now the essential transcription factor that determines the epithelial phenotype of breast cancer has not been identified and its role in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor progression remain unclear. Here, by analyzing large expression profiles of human breast cancer cells, we found an extraordinary correlation between the expression of Grainyhead transcription factor Grhl2 and epithelial marker E-cadherin. Knockdown of Grhl2 expression by shRNA in human mammary epithelial cell MCF10A leads to down-regulation of E-cadherin and EMT. Grhl2 is down-regulated in disseminated cancer cells that have undergone EMT, and over-expression of Grhl2 is sufficient to induce epithelial gene expression. Large clinical datasets reveal that expression of Grhl2 is significantly associated with poor relapse free survival and increased risk of metastasis in breast cancer patients. In mouse models, over-expression of Grhl2 significantly promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Further testing of several Grhl2 regulated genes leads to the same conclusions that the tumorigenic and metastatic potentials of tumor cells are linked to epithelial phenotype but not mesenchymal phenotype. In conclusion, our findings indicate that Grhl2 plays an essential role in the determination of epithelial phenotype of breast cancers, EMT and tumor progression.
Breast cancer patients often develop locoregional or distant recurrence years after mastectomy. Understanding the mechanism of metastatic recurrence after dormancy is crucial for improving the cure rate for breast cancer. Here, we characterized a bone metastasis dormancy model to show that aberrant expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), in part dependent on the activity of the NFκB pathway, promotes the transition from indolent micrometastasis to overt metastasis. By interacting with the cognate receptor integrin α4β1, VCAM-1 recruits monocytic osteoclast progenitors and elevates local osteoclast activity. Antibodies against VCAM-1 and integrin α4 effectively inhibit bone metastasis progression and preserve bone structure. These findings establish VCAM-1 as a promising target for the prevention and inhibition of metastatic recurrence in bone.
In response to ionizing irradiation and certain chemotherapeutic agents, dying tumor cells elicit a potent anticancer immune response. However, the potential effect of wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone) on cancer immunogenicity has not been studied. Here we demonstrated for the first time that wogonin elicits a potent antitumor immunity effect by inducing the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) and Annexin A1 to cell plasma membrane as well as the release of high-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) and ATP. Signal pathways involved in this process were studied. We found that wogonin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production causes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, including the phosphorylation of PERK (PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase)/PKR (protein kinase R) and eIF2α (eukaryotic initiation factor 2α), which served as upstream signal for the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, inducing calreticulin (CRT)/Annexin A1 cell membrane translocation. P22/CHP, a Ca2+-binding protein, was associated with CRT and was required for CRT translocation to cell membrane. The releases of HMGB1 and ATP from wogonin treated MFC cells, alone or together with other possible factors, activated dendritic cells and induced cytokine releases. In vivo study confirmed that immunization with wogonin-pretreated tumor cells vaccination significantly inhibited homoplastic grafted gastric tumor growth in mice and a possible inflammatory response was involved. In conclusion, the activation of PI3K pathway elicited by ER stress induced CRT/Annexin A1 translocation (“eat me” signal) and HMGB1 release, mediating wogonin-induced immunity of tumor cell vaccine. This indicated that wogonin is a novel effective candidate of immunotherapy against gastric tumor.
Intracellular processes, including endosomal escape and intracellular release, are efficiency-determining steps in achieving successful gene delivery. It has been found that the presence of acid-labile units in polymers can facilitate endosomal escape and that the presence of reducible units in polymers can lead to intracellular release. In this study, poly(amido amine)s with both bioreducible and acid-labile properties were synthesized to improve gene delivery compared with single-responsive carriers. Transfection and cytotoxicity were evaluated in three cell lines. The complexes of DNA with dual-responsive polymers showed higher gene transfection efficiency than single-responsive polymers and polyethylenimine. At the same time, these polymers were tens of times less cytotoxic than polyethylenimine. Therefore, a polymer that is both reducible and acid-labile is a promising material for efficient and biocompatible gene delivery.
reducible; acid labile; gene delivery; dual-responsive; endosomal escape; intracellular release
Limited data are available on the risk ratios for fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcome from gout and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in non-diabetic individuals.
Nationwide population-based retrospective prospective study with a 5-year follow-up to investigate the association between physician-diagnosed gout and CKD in non-diabetics aged 50 and above who had no pre-existing serious CVD and the subsequent risk of death from CVD. Hazard ratios (HR) of CVD mortality were adjusted for gender, age, smoking- and alcoholism-related diagnoses, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and Charlson’s comorbidity index score.
A case cohort (n=164,463) having gout and a control cohort (n= 3,694,377) having no gout were formed. The prevalence of gout in this study was 4.26% whereas that of gout plus CKD was 8.17%. Male to female ratio among the individuals with gout was 3.2:1. The relative risk (RR) of subsequent cardiovascular mortality between the case and control cohort was 1.71 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.66-1.75). The presence of CKD in nondiabetic subjects with no gout (control group) has a RR of CVD mortality at 3.05 (95% CI, 2.94-3.15). The presence of gout has protective effect on subjects with CKD with a RR of 1.84 (95% CI, 1.71-1.98). As compared with individuals with no gout, the adjusted HR (aHR) for CVD mortality among the individuals with gout was 1.10 (95% CI 1.07-1.13). In a Cox model, when compared with subjects having neither gout nor CKD, the aHR in subjects with no gout but with CKD is 1.76 (95% CI, 1.70-1.82); in subjects with gout but without CKD, 1.10 (1.07-1.13); interestingly, the aHR is attenuated in subjects with concomitant gout plus CKD which is 1.38 (1.29-1.48).
Among non-diabetic individuals aged 50 years or above who had no preceding serious CVD, those with gout were 1.1 times more likely to die from CVD as were individuals without gout. The presence of gout appears to attenuate the risk of subsequent CV mortality in subjects with CKD. Further studies should focus on finding an explanation for the protective effect of gout on CV mortality in patients with CKD.
We report the development of a microdevice for detecting local interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release from primary human leukocytes in real-time. Our microdevice makes use of miniature aptamer-modified electrodes integrated with microfluidics to monitor cellular production of IFN-γ. The aptamer species consists of a DNA hairpin molecule with thiol groups on the 3′-end for self-assembly onto Au electrodes. A redox reporter is covalently attached at the 5′-end for electrochemical sensing. This aptasensor has excellent sensitivity for IFN-γ (<60 pM detection limit) and responds to the target analyte in real-time without additional washing or labeling steps. Aptamer-functionalized electrode arrays are fabricated on glass slides containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel patterns designed to expose glass regions adjacent to electrodes while protecting the remainder of the surface from non-specific adsorption. The micropatterned substrates are integrated with PDMS microfluidic channels and incubated with T-cell-specific antibodies (Ab) (anti-CD4). Upon injection of blood, leukocytes are bound to Ab-modified glass regions in proximity to aptasensors. Cytokine release from captured cells is triggered by mitogenic activation and detected at the aptamer-modified electrodes using square wave voltammetry (SWV). The IFN-γ signal is monitored in real-time with signal appearing as early as 15 min post-stimulation from as few as 90 T-cells. The observed IFN-γ release profiles are used to calculate an initial IFN-γ production rate of 0.0079 pg cell−1 h−1 upon activation. The work described here represents an important step towards development of aptasensors for immune cell analysis and blood-based diagnostics.
Interleukin (IL)-23 and CD4+ T helper-17 (Th17) cells are thought to be critical in the development of psoriasis. Here, we report that IL-23 predominantly stimulated dermal γδT cells to produce IL-17 that led to disease progression. Dermal γδT cells constitutively expressed the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R), RORγt, and various chemokine receptors. IL-17 production from dermal γδT cells was independent of αβT cells. The epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation induced by IL-23 were significantly decreased in T cell receptor δ deficient (Tcrd−/−) and IL-17 receptor deficient (Il17ra−/−) mice but occurred normally in Tcra−/− mice. Imiquimod-induced skin pathology was also significantly decreased in Tcrd−/− mice. Perhaps further promoting disease progression, IL-23 stimulated dermal γδT cell expansion. In psoriasis patients, γδT cells were also greatly increased in affected skin and produced large amounts of IL-17. Thus, IL-23-responsive dermal γδ T cells are the major IL-17 producers in the skin and may represent a novel target for the treatment of psoriasis.
β-Glucans have been shown to function as a potent immunomodulator to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. However, their mechanisms of action are still elusive. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL), a member of the TNF superfamily, binds to its receptor, GITR, on both effector and regulatory T cells, generates a positive co-stimulatory signal implicated in a wide range of T cell functions, which is important for the development of immune responses.
In this study, we found that whole β-glucan particles (WGPs) could activate dendritic cells (DCs) via dectin-1 receptor, and increase the expression of GITRL on DCs in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the increased GITRL on DCs could impair the regulartory T cell (Treg)-mediated suppression and enhance effector T cell proliferation in a GITR/GITRL dependent way. In tumor models, DCs with high levels of GITRL were of great potential to prime cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses and down-regulate the suppressive activity of Treg cells, thereby leading to the delayed tumor progression.
These findings suggest that particulate β-glucans can be used as an immunomodulator to stimulate potent T cell-mediated adaptive immunity while down-regulate suppressive immune activity via GITR/GITRL interaction, leading to a more efficient defense mechanism against tumor development.
The G-403A polymorphism in RANTES gene may be involved in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) through increasing RANTES-mediated leukocyte trafficking and activation. However, studies investigating the relationship between G-403A polymorphism and CAD yielded contradictory and inconclusive results. In order to shed some light on these inconsistent findings, a meta analysis was performed to clarify the role of G-403A polymorphism of RANTES gene in the susceptibility of CAD.
A systemic literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted from their inception to March 23, 2012, to retrieve related studies. In addition, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science was searched, authors of relevant studies were contacted, and reference lists of the included studies and their related citations in PubMed were reviewed for additional pertinent studies.
A total of 8 eligible studies were identified, with a total of 4252 CAD cases and 2150 controls. There was no evidence of significant association between G-403A polymorphism and CAD risk in any genetic model or pairwise comparisons (additive model: OR = 1.046, 95% CI = 0.883–1.239, I2 = 65.9%; recessive model: OR = 1.140, 95% CI = 0.774–1.678, I2 = 53.1%; dominant model: OR = 1.000, 95% CI = 0.820–1.21), I2 = 62.6%; AA vs GG: OR = 1.141, 95% CI = 0.734–1.773, I2 = 61.2%; GA vs GG: OR = 0.993, 95% CI = 0.800–1.232, I2 = 64.6%). Subgroup analysis and meta regression indicated that ethnicity and genotyping method accounted for the significant heterogeneity among studies. In the stratified analysis by ethnic group, G-403A polymorphism was found to be associated with increased CAD risk in Caucasian population whereas its protective role was observed in Asian population in some but not all comparisons.
Data from the current meta-analysis do not support the existence of a relationship between G-403A polymorphism and the development of CAD, and large sample size study employing unified genotyping method is needed to further evaluate the influence of G-403A polymorphism on susceptibility of CAD.
The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.
Bioremediation; Chlorinated alkanes; Dehalogenimonas; Reductive dechlorination; Dehalogenation
METscout (http://metscout.mpg.de) brings together metabolism and gene expression landscapes. It is a MySQL relational database linking biochemical pathway information with 3D patterns of gene expression determined by robotic in situ hybridization in the E14.5 mouse embryo. The sites of expression of ∼1500 metabolic enzymes and of ∼350 solute carriers (SLCs) were included and are accessible as single cell resolution images and in the form of semi-quantitative image abstractions. METscout provides several graphical web-interfaces allowing navigation through complex anatomical and metabolic information. Specifically, the database shows where in the organism each of the many metabolic reactions take place and where SLCs transport metabolites. To link enzymatic reactions and transport, the KEGG metabolic reaction network was extended to include metabolite transport. This network in conjunction with spatial expression pattern of the network genes allows for a tracing of metabolic reactions and transport processes across the entire body of the embryo.
Current pathophysiological theories of schizophrenia highlight the role of altered brain functional and anatomical connectivity. The cognitive division of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC-cd) is a commonly reported abnormal brain region in schizophrenia for its importance in cognitive control process. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional and anatomical connectivity of ACC-cd and its cognitive and clinical manifestation significance in schizophrenia by using the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
Thirty-three medicated schizophrenics and 30 well-matched health controls were recruited. Region-of-interest (ROI)-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) were performed on 30 patients and 30 controls, and 24 patients and 29 controls, respectively. The Pearson correlation was performed between the imaging measures and the Stroop performance and scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), respectively.
Patients with schizophrenia showed significantly abnormal in the functional connectivity and its hemispheric asymmetry of the ACC-cd with multiple brain areas, e.g., decreased positive connectivity with the bilateral putamen and caudate, increased negative connectivity with the left posterior cingulated cortex (PCC), increased asymmetry of connectivity strength with the contralateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The FA of the right anterior cingulum was significantly decreased in patients group (p = 0.014). The abnormal functional and structural connectivity of ACC-cd were correlated with Stroop performance and the severity of the symptoms in patients.
Our results suggested that the abnormal connectivity of the ACC-cd might play a role in the cognitive impairment and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia.
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) depicts the effects of a weak sound preceding strong acoustic stimulus on acoustic startle response (ASR). Previous studies suggest that PPI is influenced by physical parameters of prepulse sound such as intensity and preceding time. The present study characterizes the impact of prepulse tone frequency on PPI.
Seven female C57BL mice were used in the present study. ASR was induced by a 100 dB SPL white noise burst. After assessing the effect of background sounds (white noise and pure tones) on ASR, PPI was tested by using prepulse pure tones with the background tone of either 10 or 18 kHz. The inhibitory effect was assessed by measuring and analyzing the changes in the first peak-to-peak magnitude, root mean square value, duration and latency of the ASR as the function of frequency difference between prepulse and background tones.
Our data showed that ASR magnitude with pure tone background varied with tone frequency and was smaller than that with white noise background. Prepulse tone systematically reduced ASR as the function of the difference in frequency between prepulse and background tone. The 0.5 kHz difference appeared to be a prerequisite for inducing substantial ASR inhibition. The frequency dependence of PPI was similar under either a 10 or 18 kHz background tone.
PPI is sensitive to frequency information of the prepulse sound. However, the critical factor is not tone frequency itself, but the frequency difference between the prepulse and background tones.
It is well known that damage to the peripheral auditory system causes deficits in tone detection as well as pitch and loudness perception across a wide range of frequencies. However, the extent to which to which the auditory cortex plays a critical role in these basic aspects of spectral processing, especially with regard to speech, music, and environmental sound perception, remains unclear. Recent experiments indicate that primary auditory cortex is necessary for the normally-high perceptual acuity exhibited by humans in pure-tone frequency discrimination. The present study assessed whether the auditory cortex plays a similar role in the intensity domain and contrasted its contribution to sensory versus discriminative aspects of intensity processing. We measured intensity thresholds for pure-tone detection and pure-tone loudness discrimination in a population of healthy adults and a middle-aged man with complete or near-complete lesions of the auditory cortex bilaterally. Detection thresholds in his left and right ears were 16 and 7 dB HL, respectively, within clinically-defined normal limits. In contrast, the intensity threshold for monaural loudness discrimination at 1 kHz was 6.5±2.1 dB in the left ear and 6.5±1.9 dB in the right ear at 40 dB sensation level, well above the means of the control population (left ear: 1.6±0.22 dB; right ear: 1.7±0.19 dB). The results indicate that auditory cortex lowers just-noticeable differences for loudness discrimination by approximately 5 dB but is not necessary for tone detection in quiet. Previous human and Old-world monkey experiments employing lesion-effect, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods to investigate the role of auditory cortex in intensity processing are reviewed.
Adjuvant chemotherapy is used as an alternative treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the efficiency of post-pneumonectomy adjuvant chemotherapy in NSCLC has not been clarified. In the present study, patients who benefited from adjuvant chemotherapy with TP/NP/GP were identified. A total of 217 patients who underwent pneumonectomy were identified in this study. Of these, 87 underwent pneumonectomy combined with adjuvant chemotherapy (TP/NP/GP regimen) and 130 underwent pneumonectomy only in the initial management. The primary endpoint of the present study was overall survival. Actuarial survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved the survival rate of patients who underwent left pneumonectomy and in patients with a preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) greater than or equal to 21. Age had no effect on the survival rate of patients with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Post-pneumonectomy adjuvant chemotherapy is an efficient therapy in NSCLC for patients with preoperative FEV1 greater than or equal to 21 or who received left pneumonectomy.
non-small cell lung cancer; pneumonectomy; adjuvant chemotherapy; forced expiratory volume in 1 second
This paper is concerned with variance estimation for statistics that are computed from single recurrent event processes. Such statistics are important in diagnosis for each individual recurrent event process. The proposed method only assumes a semiparametric form for the first-order structure of the processes but not for the second-order (i.e., dependence) structure. The new variance estimator is shown to be consistent for the target parameter under very mild conditions. The estimator can be used in many applications in semiparametric rate regression analysis of recurrent event data such as outlier detection, residual diagnosis as well as robust regression. A simulation study and application to two real data examples are used to demonstrate the use of the proposed method.
Inhomogeneous Point Process; Recurrent Event Process; Robust Regression; Variance Estimation
A highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate aqueous solution catalyzed by in situ synthesized Pd/C with citric acid has been successfully achieved at room temperature. Interestingly, the presence of citric acid during the formation and growth of the Pd nanoparticles on carbon can drastically enhance the catalytic property of the resulted Pd/C, on which the conversion and turnover frequency for decomposition of formic acid/sodium formate system can reach the highest values ever reported of 85% within 160 min and 64 mol H2 mol−1 catalyst h−1, respectively, at room temperature. The present simple, low cost, but highly efficient CO-free hydrogen generation system at room temperature is believed to greatly promote the practical application of formic acid system on fuel cells.
The catalytic subunit of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), is highly active in immortalized cells and more than 90% of human cancer cells, but is quiescent in the majority of normal somatic cells. Thus, the hTERT promoter has been extensively used in targeted cancer gene therapy. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix protein (MP) induces the apoptosis of tumor cells in the absence of other viral components. In our previous studies, we successfully constructed the pVAX-M plasmid from the pVAX plasmid, which expressed wild-type VSV MP (VSV MP is under the control of the CMV promoter) and demonstrated that pVAX-M efficiently suppresses the growth of malignant tumors via the induction of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The present study was designed to construct the plasmid phTERTM (VSV MP is under the control of the hTERT promoter) and investigate whether it had a targeted antitumor effect in nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma. In vitro, A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were treated with NS, Lip-null, etoposide, Lip-pVAX-M or Lip-phTERT-M, and examined for cell viability through MTT assays or for apoptosis by flow cytometry and TUNEL assays. In vivo, A549 human lung carcinoma models in nude mice were established. Mice were treated with 10 4-weekly intravenous administrations of NS, Lip-null, etoposide (2 mg/kg), Lip-pVAX-M or Lip-phTERT-M. Subsequently, Lip-phTERT-M was found to be the most efficient inhibitor of tumor growth and inducer of tumor cell apoptosis when compared with the other groups in vivo and in vitro (P<0.05). Notably, immunohistochemical staining showed that Lip-phTERT-M significantly limited the overexpression of VSV MP to the tumor tissues and reduced VSV MP expression in other organs in comparison with Lip-pVAX-M (P<0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that phTERT-M demonstrates a targeted antitumor effect on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. These observations suggest that phTERT-M gene therapy may be a novel and potent strategy for targeting human lung adenocarcinoma.
vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein; phTERT-M; pVAX-M; apoptosis; targeted antitumor effect
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), is a member of the novel family of endogenous gaseous transmitters, termed “gasotransmitters exhibiting diverse physiological activities, and is generated in mammalian tissues mainly by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) in conjunction with cysteine (aspartate) aminotranferase (CAT). The distributions of these enzymes are species- and tissue-specific. The liver, as the main organ that generates H2S in vivo, functions in biotransformation and metabolism. However, the liver is vulnerable to damage from internal and external factors, including inflammatory mediators, drugs and poisons. The present study evaluated the endogenous CBS-H2S synthesis regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis of hepatic cells. The rat hepatic cell line, BRL, was incubated with LPS for various time periods to establish a cell-damage model. Incubation with LPS resulted in a significant increase in CBS expression and H2S production. It also stimulated apoptosis and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with the CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) or CBS small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased LPS-enhanced H2S production. Notably, apoptosis increased for a short period and then decreased gradually, while the mitochondrial membrane potential demonstrated the opposite trend. These results showed that endogenous CBS-H2S synthesis demonstrated early anti-apoptotic activity and subsequent pro-apoptotic activity in LPS-induced apoptosis. These results suggest a new approach for developing novel drugs for this condition.
cystathionine β-synthase; hydrogen sulfide; apoptosis; lipopolysaccharide; BRL