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1.  A Novel Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Glycoside Hydrolase from Ustilago esculenta Functions in β-1,3-Glucan Degradation 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2012;78(16):5682-5689.
A glycoside hydrolase responsible for laminarin degradation was partially purified to homogeneity from a Ustilago esculenta culture filtrate by weak-cation-exchange, strong-cation-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Three proteins in enzymatically active fractions were digested with chymotrypsin followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis, resulting in the identification of three peptide sequences that shared significant similarity to a putative β-1,3-glucanase, a member of glucoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) from Sporisorium reilianum SRZ2. A gene encoding a laminarin-degrading enzyme from U. esculenta, lam16A, was isolated by PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the S. reilianum SRZ2 β-1,3-glucanase gene. Lam16A possesses a GH16 catalytic domain with an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor peptide. Recombinant Lam16A fused to an N-terminal FLAG peptide (Lam16A-FLAG) overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae exhibited hydrolytic activity toward β-1,3-glucan specifically and was localized both in the extracellular and in the membrane fractions but not in the cell wall fraction. Lam16A without a GPI anchor signal peptide was secreted extracellularly and was not detected in the membrane fraction. Membrane-anchored Lam16A-FLAG was released completely by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These results suggest that Lam16A is anchored in the plasma membrane in order to modify β-1,3-glucan associated with the inner cell wall and that Lam16A is also used for the catabolism of β-1,3-glucan after its release in the extracellular medium.
PMCID: PMC3406117  PMID: 22685137
2.  Characterization of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (LeHex20A), a member of glycoside hydrolase family 20, from Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom) 
AMB Express  2012;2:29.
We purified and cloned a β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, LeHex20A, with a molecular mass of 79 kDa from the fruiting body of Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom). The gene lehex20a gene had 1,659 nucleotides, encoding 553 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis indicated that LeHex20A belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 20, and homologues of lehex20a are broadly represented in the genomes of basidiomycetes. Purified LeHex20A hydrolyzed the terminal monosaccharide residues of β-N-acetylgalactosaminides and β-N-acetylglucosaminides, indicating that LeHex20A is a β-N-acetylhexosaminidase classified into EC The maximum LeHex20A activity was observed at pH 4.0 and 50°C. The kinetic constants were estimated using chitooligosaccharides with degree of polymerization 2-6. GH20 β-N-acetylhexosaminidases generally prefer chitobiose among natural substrates. However, LeHex20A had the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for chitotetraose, and the Km values for GlcNAc6 were 3.9-fold lower than for chitobiose. Furthermore, the enzyme partially hydrolyzed amorphous chitin polymers. These results indicate that LeHex20A can produce N-acetylglucosamine from long-chain chitomaterials.
PMCID: PMC3430601  PMID: 22656067
β-N-acetylglucosaminide; Chitin; Fungal cell wall; Glycoside hydrolase family 20; Basidiomycete
3.  Characterization of a Cellobiohydrolase (MoCel6A) Produced by Magnaporthe oryzae▿ †  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2010;76(19):6583-6590.
Three GH-6 family cellobiohydrolases are expected in the genome of Magnaporthe grisea based on the complete genome sequence. Here, we demonstrate the properties, kinetics, and substrate specificities of a Magnaporthe oryzae GH-6 family cellobiohydrolase (MoCel6A). In addition, the effect of cellobiose on MoCel6A activity was also investigated. MoCel6A contiguously fused to a histidine tag was overexpressed in M. oryzae and purified by affinity chromatography. MoCel6A showed higher hydrolytic activities on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PSC), β-glucan, and cellooligosaccharide derivatives than on cellulose, of which the best substrates were cellooligosaccharides. A tandemly aligned cellulose binding domain (CBD) at the N terminus caused increased activity on cellulose and PSC, whereas deletion of the CBD (catalytic domain only) showed decreased activity on cellulose. MoCel6A hydrolysis of cellooligosaccharides and sulforhodamine-conjugated cellooligosaccharides was not inhibited by exogenously adding cellobiose up to 438 mM, which, rather, enhanced activity, whereas a GH-7 family cellobiohydrolase from M. oryzae (MoCel7A) was severely inhibited by more than 29 mM cellobiose. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of cellobiose on hydrolytic activities using MoCel6A and Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase (TrCel6A), which were prepared in Aspergillus oryzae. MoCel6A showed increased hydrolysis of cellopentaose used as a substrate in the presence of 292 mM cellobiose at pH 4.5 and pH 6.0, and enhanced activity disappeared at pH 9.0. In contrast, TrCel6A exhibited slightly increased hydrolysis at pH 4.5, and hydrolysis was severely inhibited at pH 9.0. These results suggest that enhancement or inhibition of hydrolytic activities by cellobiose is dependent on the reaction mixture pH.
PMCID: PMC2950481  PMID: 20709852

Results 1-3 (3)