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1.  Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Therapy: Optimization of Cell Preparation Protocols 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:951512.
Administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an innovative approach for the treatment of a range of diseases that are not curable by current therapies including heart failure. A number of clinical trials have been completed and many others are ongoing; more than 2,000 patients worldwide have been administered with culture-expanded allogeneic or autologous MSCs for the treatment of various diseases, showing feasibility and safety (and some efficacy) of this approach. However, protocols for isolation and expansion of donor MSCs vary widely between these trials, which could affect the efficacy of the therapy. It is therefore important to develop international standards of MSC production, which should be evidence-based, regulatory authority-compliant, of good medical practice grade, cost-effective, and clinically practical, so that this innovative approach becomes an established widely adopted treatment. This review article summarizes protocols to isolate and expand bone marrow-derived MSCs in 47 recent clinical trials of MSC-based therapy, which were published after 2007 onwards and provided sufficient methodological information. Identified issues and possible solutions associated with the MSC production methods, including materials and protocols for isolation and expansion, are discussed with reference to relevant experimental evidence with aim of future clinical success of MSC-based therapy.
doi:10.1155/2014/951512
PMCID: PMC3912818  PMID: 24511552
2.  Global catalogue of microorganisms (gcm): a comprehensive database and information retrieval, analysis, and visualization system for microbial resources 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:933.
Background
Throughout the long history of industrial and academic research, many microbes have been isolated, characterized and preserved (whenever possible) in culture collections. With the steady accumulation in observational data of biodiversity as well as microbial sequencing data, bio-resource centers have to function as data and information repositories to serve academia, industry, and regulators on behalf of and for the general public. Hence, the World Data Centre for Microorganisms (WDCM) started to take its responsibility for constructing an effective information environment that would promote and sustain microbial research data activities, and bridge the gaps currently present within and outside the microbiology communities.
Description
Strain catalogue information was collected from collections by online submission. We developed tools for automatic extraction of strain numbers and species names from various sources, including Genbank, Pubmed, and SwissProt. These new tools connect strain catalogue information with the corresponding nucleotide and protein sequences, as well as to genome sequence and references citing a particular strain. All information has been processed and compiled in order to create a comprehensive database of microbial resources, and was named Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (GCM). The current version of GCM contains information of over 273,933 strains, which includes 43,436bacterial, fungal and archaea species from 52 collections in 25 countries and regions.
A number of online analysis and statistical tools have been integrated, together with advanced search functions, which should greatly facilitate the exploration of the content of GCM.
Conclusion
A comprehensive dynamic database of microbial resources has been created, which unveils the resources preserved in culture collections especially for those whose informatics infrastructures are still under development, which should foster cumulative research, facilitating the activities of microbiologists world-wide, who work in both public and industrial research centres. This database is available from http://gcm.wfcc.info.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-933
PMCID: PMC3890509  PMID: 24377417
Microbial resources; Data management; Data sharing
3.  Effect of aerosol particles generated by ultrasonic humidifiers on the lung in mouse 
Background
Ultrasonic humidifiers silently generate water droplets as a cool fog and produce most of the dissolved minerals in the fog in the form of an aerosolized “white dust.” However, the health effect of these airborne particles is largely unknown. This study aimed to characterize the aerosol particles generated by ultrasonic humidifiers and to investigate their effect on the lung tissue of mice.
Methods
An ultrasonic humidifier was operated with tap water, high-silica water, ultrapure water, or other water types. In a chamber (0.765 m3, ventilation ratio 11.5 m3/hr), male ICR mice (10-week-old) were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol-containing vapor generated by the humidifier. After exposure for 7 or 14 days, lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected from each mouse and examined by microarray, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and light and electron microscopy.
Results
Particles generated from the humidifier operated with tap water had a mass concentration of 0.46 ± 0.03 mg/m3, number concentration of (5.0 ± 1.1) × 104/cm3, and peak size distribution of 183 nm. The particles were phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the lung of mice. Inhalation of particles caused dysregulation of genes related to mitosis, cell adhesion molecules, MHC molecules and endocytosis, but did not induce any signs of inflammation or tissue injury in the lung.
Conclusion
These results indicate that aerosol particles released from ultrasonic humidifiers operated with tap water initiated a cellular response but did not cause severe acute inflammation in pulmonary tissue. Additionally, high mineral content tap water is not recommended and de-mineralized water should be recommended in order to exclude any adverse effects.
doi:10.1186/1743-8977-10-64
PMCID: PMC3922954  PMID: 24359587
4.  Repeating pattern of non-RVD variations in DNA-binding modules enhances TALEN activity 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:3379.
Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) nuclease (TALEN) is a site-specific nuclease, which can be freely designed and easily constructed. Numerous methods of constructing TALENs harboring different TALE scaffolds and repeat variants have recently been reported. However, the functionalities of structurally different TALENs have not yet been compared. Here, we report on the functional differences among several types of TALENs targeting the same loci. Using HEK293T cell-based single-strand annealing and Cel-I nuclease assays, we found that TALENs with periodically-patterned repeat variants harboring non-repeat-variable di-residue (non-RVD) variations (Platinum TALENs) showed higher activities than TALENs without non-RVD variations. Furthermore, the efficiencies of gene disruption mediated by Platinum TALENs in frogs and rats were significantly higher than in previous reports. This study therefore demonstrated an efficient system for the construction of these highly active Platinum TALENs (Platinum Gate system), which could establish a new standard in TALEN engineering.
doi:10.1038/srep03379
PMCID: PMC3843162  PMID: 24287550
5.  Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 1 Plays a Role in the Effect of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation for Heart Failure 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76908.
Transplantation of unfractionated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) repairs and/or regenerates the damaged myocardium allegedly due to secretion from surviving BMCs (paracrine effect). However, donor cell survival after transplantation is known to be markedly poor. This discrepancy led us to hypothesize that dead donor BMCs might also contribute to the therapeutic benefits from BMC transplantation. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that stabilizes nucleosomes, and also acts as a multi-functional cytokine when released from damaged cells. We thus studied the role of extracellular HMGB1 in the effect of BMC transplantation for heart failure. Four weeks after coronary artery ligation in female rats, syngeneic male BMCs (or PBS only as control) were intramyocardially injected with/without anti-HMGB1 antibody or control IgG. One hour after injection, ELISA showed that circulating extracellular HMGB1 levels were elevated after BMC transplantation compared to the PBS injection. Quantitative donor cell survival assessed by PCR for male-specific sry gene at days 3 and 28 was similarly poor. Echocardiography and catheterization showed enhanced cardiac function after BMC transplantation compared to PBS injection at day 28, while this effect was abolished by antibody-neutralization of HMGB1. BMC transplantation reduced post-infarction fibrosis, improved neovascularization, and increased proliferation, while all these effects in repairing the failing myocardium were eliminated by HMGB1-inhibition. Furthermore, BMC transplantation drove the macrophage polarization towards alternatively-activated, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the heart at day 3, while this was abolished by HMGB1-inhibition. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that BMC transplantation upregulated expression of an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the heart at day 3 compared to PBS injection. In contrast, neutralizing HMGB1 by antibody-treatment suppressed this anti-inflammatory expression. These data suggest that extracellular HMGB1 contributes to the effect of BMC transplantation to recover the damaged myocardium by favorably modulating innate immunity in heart failure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076908
PMCID: PMC3799896  PMID: 24204700
6.  High efficiency TALENs enable F0 functional analysis by targeted gene disruption in Xenopus laevis embryos 
Biology Open  2013;2(5):448-452.
Summary
Recently, gene editing with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has been used in the life sciences. TALENs can be easily customized to recognize a specific DNA sequence and efficiently introduce double-strand breaks at the targeted genomic locus. Subsequent non-homologous end-joining repair leads to targeted gene disruption by base insertion, deletion, or both. Here, to readily evaluate the efficacy of TALENs in Xenopus laevis embryos, we performed the targeted gene disruption of tyrosinase (tyr) and pax6 genes that are involved in pigmentation and eye formation, respectively. We constructed TALENs targeting tyr and pax6 and injected their mRNAs into fertilized eggs at the one-cell stage. Expectedly, introduction of tyr TALEN mRNA resulted in drastic loss of pigmentation with high efficiency. Similarly, for pax6, TALENs led to deformed eyes in the injected embryos. We confirmed mutations of the target alleles by restriction enzyme digestion and sequence analyses of genomic PCR products. Surprisingly, not only biallelic but also paralogous, gene disruption was observed. Our results demonstrate that targeted gene disruption by TALENs provides a method comparable to antisense morpholinos in analyzing gene function in Xenopus F0 embryos, but also applies beyond embryogenesis to any life stage.
doi:10.1242/bio.20133855
PMCID: PMC3654262  PMID: 23789092
Eye; Pax6; Pigmentation; TALEN; Tyrosinase; Xenopus laevis
7.  Complete genome sequence of the motile actinomycete Actinoplanes missouriensis 431T (= NBRC 102363T) 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2012;7(2):294-303.
Actinoplanes missouriensis Couch 1963 is a well-characterized member of the genus Actinoplanes, which is of morphological interest because its members typically produce sporangia containing motile spores. The sporangiospores are motile by means of flagella and exhibit chemotactic properties. It is of further interest that members of Actinoplanes are prolific sources of novel antibiotics, enzymes, and other bioactive compounds. Here, we describe the features of A. missouriensis 431T, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 8,773,466 bp genome contains 8,125 protein-coding and 79 RNA genes.
doi:10.4056/sigs.3196539
PMCID: PMC3569393  PMID: 23407331
motile actinomycetes; sporangia; zoospores; motile spores; flagellation; aerobic; Gram-positive; Micromonosporaceae; Actinoplanes; A. missouriensis
8.  Aceticlastic and NaCl-Requiring Methanogen “Methanosaeta pelagica” sp. nov., Isolated from Marine Tidal Flat Sediment 
Among methanogens, only 2 genera, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina, are known to contribute to methanogenesis from acetate, and Methanosaeta is a specialist that uses acetate specifically. However, Methanosaeta strains so far have mainly been isolated from anaerobic digesters, despite the fact that it is widespread, not only in anaerobic methanogenic reactors and freshwater environments, but also in marine environments, based upon extensive 16S rRNA gene-cloning analyses. In this study, we isolated an aceticlastic methanogen, designated strain 03d30qT, from a tidal flat sediment. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Methanosaeta. Unlike the other known Methanosaeta species, this isolate grows at Na+ concentrations of 0.20 to 0.80 M, with an optimum concentration of 0.28 M. Quantitative estimation using real-time PCR detected the 16S rRNA gene of the genus Methanosaeta in the marine sediment, and relative abundance ranged from 3.9% to 11.8% of the total archaeal 16S rRNA genes. In addition, the number of Methanosaeta organisms increased with increasing depth and was much higher than that of Methanosarcina organisms, suggesting that aceticlastic methanogens contribute to acetate metabolism to a greater extent than previously thought in marine environments, where sulfate-reducing acetate oxidation prevails. This is the first report on marine Methanosaeta species, and based on phylogenetic and characteristic studies, the name “Methanosaeta pelagica” sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with type strain 03d30q.
doi:10.1128/AEM.07484-11
PMCID: PMC3346471  PMID: 22344667
9.  Degradation of biodegradable plastic mulch films in soil environment by phylloplane fungi isolated from gramineous plants 
AMB Express  2012;2:40.
To improve the biodegradation of biodegradable plastic (BP) mulch films, 1227 fungal strains were isolated from plant surface (phylloplane) and evaluated for BP-degrading ability. Among them, B47-9 a strain isolated from the leaf surface of barley showed the strongest ability to degrade poly-(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) and poly-(butylene succinate) (PBS) films. The strain grew on the surface of soil-mounted BP films, produced breaks along the direction of hyphal growth indicated that it secreted a BP-degrading enzyme, and has directly contributing to accelerating the degradation of film. Treatment with the culture filtrate decomposed 91.2 wt%, 23.7 wt%, and 14.6 wt% of PBSA, PBS, and commercially available BP polymer blended mulch film, respectively, on unsterlized soil within 6 days. The PCR-DGGE analysis of the transition of soil microbial community during film degradation revealed that the process was accompanied with drastic changes in the population of soil fungi and Acantamoeba spp., as well as the growth of inoculated strain B47-9. It has a potential for application in the development of an effective method for accelerating degradation of used plastics under actual field conditions.
doi:10.1186/2191-0855-2-40
PMCID: PMC3444367  PMID: 22856640
Biodegradable plastic; Leaf surface; Phylloplane fungi; Mulch film; PCR-DGGE
10.  Complete genome sequence of Oscillibacter valericigenes Sjm18-20T (=NBRC 101213T) 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2012;6(3):406-414.
Oscillibacter valericigenes is a mesophilic, strictly anaerobic bacterium belonging to the clostridial cluster IV. Strain Sjm18-20T (=NBRC 101213T =DSM 18026T) is the type strain of the species and represents the genus Oscillibacter Iino et al. 2007. It was isolated from the alimentary canal of a Japanese corbicula clam (Corbicula japonica) collected on a seacoast in Shimane Prefecture in Japan. Phylogenetically, strain Sjm18-20T is closest to uncultured bacteria in digestive tracts, including the enriched cells thought to represent Oscillospira guilliermondii Chatton and Perard 1913. The isolated phylogenetic position and some distinct characteristics prompted us to determine the complete genome sequence. The 4,410,036 bp chromosome and the 60,586 bp plasmid were predicted to encode a total of 4,723 protein-coding genes.
doi:10.4056/sigs.2826118
PMCID: PMC3558957  PMID: 23408234
strict anaerobe; mesophile; valerate-producing; oscillatory motility; alimentary canal; Japanese corbicula clam
11.  Enhancing Repair of the Mammalian Heart 
Circulation research  2007;100(12):1732-1740.
The injured mammalian heart is particularly susceptible to tissue deterioration, scarring, and loss of contractile function in response to trauma or sustained disease. We tested the ability of a locally acting insulin-like growth factor-1 isoform (mIGF-1) to recover heart functionality, expressing the transgene in the mouse myocardium to exclude endocrine effects on other tissues. supplemental mIGF-1 expression did not perturb normal cardiac growth and physiology. Restoration of cardiac function in post-infarct mIGF-1 transgenic mice was facilitated by modulation of the inflammatory response and increased antiapoptotic signaling. mIGF-1 ventricular tissue exhibited increased proliferative activity several weeks after injury. The canonical signaling pathway involving Akt, mTOR, and p70S6 kinase was not induced in mIGF-1 hearts, which instead activated alternate PDK1 and SGK1 signaling intermediates. The robust response achieved with the mIGF-1 isoform provides a mechanistic basis for clinically feasible therapeutic strategies for improving the outcome of heart disease.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.148791
PMCID: PMC3227120  PMID: 17525368
cardiac muscle; insulin-like growth factor-1; regeneration; wound healing
12.  The Escherichia coli K-12 ORFeome: a resource for comparative molecular microbiology 
BMC Genomics  2010;11:470.
Background
Systems biology and functional genomics require genome-wide datasets and resources. Complete sets of cloned open reading frames (ORFs) have been made for about a dozen bacterial species and allow researchers to express and study complete proteomes in a high-throughput fashion.
Results
We have constructed an open reading frame (ORFeome) collection of 3974 or 94% of the known Escherichia coli K-12 ORFs in Gateway® entry vector pENTR/Zeo. The collection has been used for protein expression and protein interaction studies. For example, we have compared interactions among YgjD, YjeE and YeaZ proteins in E. coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. We also compare this ORFeome with other Gateway-compatible bacterial ORFeomes and show its utility for comparative functional genomics.
Conclusions
The E. coli ORFeome provides a useful resource for functional genomics and other areas of protein research in a highly flexible format. Our comparison with other ORFeomes makes comparative analyses straighforward and facilitates direct comparisons of many proteins across many genomes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-470
PMCID: PMC3091666  PMID: 20701780
13.  First Cultivation and Ecological Investigation of a Bacterium Affiliated with the Candidate Phylum OP5 from Hot Springs ▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2008;74(20):6223-6229.
The phylogenetic group termed OP5 was originally discovered in the Yellowstone National Park hot spring and proposed as an uncultured phylum; the group was afterwards analyzed by applying culture-independent approaches. Recently, a novel thermophilic chemoheterotrophic filamentous bacterium was obtained from a hot spring in Japan that was enriched through various isolation procedures. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolate have revealed that it is closely related to the OP5 phylum that has mainly been constructed with the environmental clones retrieved from thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic environments. It appears that the lineage is independent at the phylum level in the domain Bacteria. Therefore, we designed a primer set for the 16S rRNA gene to specifically target the OP5 phylum and performed quantitative field analysis by using the real-time PCR method. Thus, the 16S rRNA gene of the OP5 phylum was detected in some hot-spring samples with the relative abundance ranging from 0.2% to 1.4% of the prokaryotic organisms detected. The physiology of the above-mentioned isolate and the related environmental clones indicated that they are scavengers contributing to the sulfur cycle in nature.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01351-08
PMCID: PMC2570270  PMID: 18776034
14.  Choice of Cell-Delivery Route for Skeletal Myoblast Transplantation for Treating Post-Infarction Chronic Heart Failure in Rat 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(8):e3071.
Background
Intramyocardial injection of skeletal myoblasts (SMB) has been shown to be a promising strategy for treating post-infarction chronic heart failure. However, insufficient therapeutic benefit and occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias are concerns. We hypothesised that the use of a retrograde intracoronary route for SMB-delivery might favourably alter the behaviour of the grafted SMB, consequently modulating the therapeutic effects and arrhythmogenicity.
Methods and Results
Three weeks after coronary artery ligation in female wild-type rats, 5×106 GFP-expressing SMB or PBS only (control) were injected via either the intramyocardial or retrograde intracoronary routes. Injection of SMB via either route similarly improved cardiac performance and physical activity, associated with reduced cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy and fibrosis. Grafted SMB via either route were only present in low numbers in the myocardium, analysed by real-time PCR for the Y-chromosome specific gene, Sry. Cardiomyogenic differentiation of grafted SMB was extremely rare. Continuous ECG monitoring by telemetry revealed that only intramyocardial injection of SMB produced spontaneous ventricular tachycardia up to 14 days, associated with local myocardial heterogeneity generated by clusters of injected SMB and accumulated inflammatory cells. A small number of ventricular premature contractions with latent ventricular tachycardia were detected in the late-phase of SMB injection regardless of the injection-route.
Conclusion
Retrograde intracoronary injection of SMB provided significant therapeutic benefits with attenuated early-phase arrhythmogenicity in treating ischaemic cardiomyopathy, indicating the promising utility of this route for SMB-delivery. Late-phase arrhythmogenicity remains a concern, regardless of the delivery route.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003071
PMCID: PMC2516937  PMID: 18728781
15.  A naturally occurring calcineurin variant inhibits FoxO activity and enhances skeletal muscle regeneration 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2007;179(6):1205-1218.
The calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin (Cn) transduces physiological signals through intracellular pathways to influence the expression of specific genes. Here, we characterize a naturally occurring splicing variant of the CnAβ catalytic subunit (CnAβ1) in which the autoinhibitory domain that controls enzyme activation is replaced with a unique C-terminal region. The CnAβ1 enzyme is constitutively active and dephosphorylates its NFAT target in a cyclosporine-resistant manner. CnAβ1 is highly expressed in proliferating myoblasts and regenerating skeletal muscle fibers. In myoblasts, CnAβ1 knockdown activates FoxO-regulated genes, reduces proliferation, and induces myoblast differentiation. Conversely, CnAβ1 overexpression inhibits FoxO and prevents myotube atrophy. Supplemental CnAβ1 transgene expression in skeletal muscle leads to enhanced regeneration, reduced scar formation, and accelerated resolution of inflammation. This unique mode of action distinguishes the CnAβ1 isoform as a candidate for interventional strategies in muscle wasting treatment.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200704179
PMCID: PMC2140042  PMID: 18086917
16.  Distribution of β-Lactamases in Actinomycetes 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(12):3014-3017.
The distribution of β-lactamase activities in a collection of actinomycete strains was surveyed. Six of 127 strains were found to produce β-lactamase. This low frequency was in contrast to the case with Streptomyces species. The producing strains were not related phylogenetically. MICs of benzylpenicillin did not correlate with β-lactamase production.
PMCID: PMC89606  PMID: 10582901

Results 1-16 (16)