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1.  Exoproteome Profiles of Clostridium cellulovorans Grown on Various Carbon Sources 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2013;79(21):6576-6584.
The cellulosome is a complex of cellulosomal proteins bound to scaffolding proteins. This complex is considered the most efficient system for cellulose degradation. Clostridium cellulovorans, which is known to produce cellulosomes, changes the composition of its cellulosomes depending on the growth substrates. However, studies have investigated only cellulosomal proteins; profile changes in noncellulosomal proteins have rarely been examined. In this study, we performed a quantitative proteome analysis of the whole exoproteome of C. cellulovorans, including cellulosomal and noncellulosomal proteins, to illustrate how various substrates are efficiently degraded. C. cellulovorans was cultured with cellobiose, xylan, pectin, or phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) as the sole carbon source. PASC was used as a cellulose substrate for more accurate quantitative analysis. Using an isobaric tag method and a liquid chromatography mass spectrometer equipped with a long monolithic silica capillary column, 639 proteins were identified and quantified in all 4 samples. Among these, 79 proteins were involved in saccharification, including 35 cellulosomal and 44 noncellulosomal proteins. We compared protein abundance by spectral count and found that cellulosomal proteins were more abundant than noncellulosomal proteins. Next, we focused on the fold change of the proteins depending on the growth substrates. Drastic changes were observed mainly among the noncellulosomal proteins. These results indicate that cellulosomal proteins were primarily produced to efficiently degrade any substrate and that noncellulosomal proteins were specifically produced to optimize the degradation of a particular substrate. This study highlights the importance of noncellulosomal proteins as well as cellulosomes for the efficient degradation of various substrates.
doi:10.1128/AEM.02137-13
PMCID: PMC3811513  PMID: 23956399
2.  Spatial Reorganization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enolase To Alter Carbon Metabolism under Hypoxia 
Eukaryotic Cell  2013;12(8):1106-1119.
Hypoxia has critical effects on the physiology of organisms. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycolytic enzymes, including enolase (Eno2p), formed cellular foci under hypoxia. Here, we investigated the regulation and biological functions of these foci. Focus formation by Eno2p was inhibited temperature independently by the addition of cycloheximide or rapamycin or by the single substitution of alanine for the Val22 residue. Using mitochondrial inhibitors and an antioxidant, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was shown to participate in focus formation. Focus formation was also inhibited temperature dependently by an SNF1 knockout mutation. Interestingly, the foci were observed in the cell even after reoxygenation. The metabolic turnover analysis revealed that [U-13C]glucose conversion to pyruvate and oxaloacetate was accelerated in focus-forming cells. These results suggest that under hypoxia, S. cerevisiae cells sense mitochondrial ROS and, by the involvement of SNF1/AMPK, spatially reorganize metabolic enzymes in the cytosol via de novo protein synthesis, which subsequently increases carbon metabolism. The mechanism may be important for yeast cells under hypoxia, to quickly provide both energy and substrates for the biosynthesis of lipids and proteins independently of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and also to fit changing environments.
doi:10.1128/EC.00093-13
PMCID: PMC3754543  PMID: 23748432
3.  Disclosure of the differences of Mesorhizobium loti under the free-living and symbiotic conditions by comparative proteome analysis without bacteroid isolation 
BMC Microbiology  2013;13:180.
Background
Rhizobia are symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that show a symbiotic relationship with their host legume. Rhizobia have 2 different physiological conditions: a free-living condition in soil, and a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing condition in the nodule. The lifestyle of rhizobia remains largely unknown, although genome and transcriptome analyses have been carried out. To clarify the lifestyle of bacteria, proteome analysis is necessary because the protein profile directly reflects in vivo reactions of the organisms. In proteome analysis, high separation performance is required to analyze complex biological samples. Therefore, we used a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system, equipped with a long monolithic silica capillary column, which is superior to conventional columns. In this study, we compared the protein profile of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 under free-living condition to that of symbiotic conditions by using small amounts of crude extracts.
Result
We identified 1,533 and 847 proteins for M. loti under free-living and symbiotic conditions, respectively. Pathway analysis by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that many of the enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolic pathway were commonly detected under both conditions. The proteins encoded in the symbiosis island, the transmissible chromosomal region that includes the genes that are highly upregulated under the symbiotic condition, were uniquely detected under the symbiotic condition. The features of the symbiotic condition that have been reported by transcriptome analysis were confirmed at the protein level by proteome analysis. In addition, the genes of the proteins involved in cell surface structure were repressed under the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing condition. Furthermore, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) was found to be biosynthesized only in rhizobia under the symbiotic condition.
Conclusion
The obtained protein profile appeared to reflect the difference in phenotypes under the free-living and symbiotic conditions. In addition, KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the cell surface structure of rhizobia was largely different under each condition, and surprisingly, rhizobia might provided FPP to the host as a source of secondary metabolism. M. loti changed its metabolism and cell surface structure in accordance with the surrounding conditions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-13-180
PMCID: PMC3750425  PMID: 23898917
Mesorhizobium loti; Lotus japonicus; Symbiosis; Proteome analysis; Plant-microbe interaction; Monolithic column; Nitrogen fixation; Rhizobase; KEGG
4.  Secretome Analysis of the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Reveals the Tangled Roots of Parasitism and Its Potential for Molecular Mimicry 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e67377.
Since it was first introduced into Asia from North America in the early 20th century, the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has caused the devastating forest disease called pine wilt. The emerging pathogen spread to parts of Europe and has since been found as the causal agent of pine wilt disease in Portugal and Spain. In 2011, the entire genome sequence of B. xylophilus was determined, and it allowed us to perform a more detailed analysis of B. xylophilus parasitism. Here, we identified 1,515 proteins secreted by B. xylophilus using a highly sensitive proteomics method combined with the available genomic sequence. The catalogue of secreted proteins contained proteins involved in nutrient uptake, migration, and evasion from host defenses. A comparative functional analysis of the secretome profiles among parasitic nematodes revealed a marked expansion of secreted peptidases and peptidase inhibitors in B. xylophilus via gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer from fungi and bacteria. Furthermore, we showed that B. xylophilus secreted the potential host mimicry proteins that closely resemble the host pine’s proteins. These proteins could have been acquired by host–parasite co-evolution and might mimic the host defense systems in susceptible pine trees during infection. This study contributes to an understanding of their unique parasitism and its tangled roots, and provides new perspectives on the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067377
PMCID: PMC3689755  PMID: 23805310
5.  Tracing Putative Trafficking of the Glycolytic Enzyme Enolase via SNARE-Driven Unconventional Secretion 
Eukaryotic Cell  2012;11(8):1075-1082.
Glycolytic enzymes are cytosolic proteins, but they also play important extracellular roles in cell-cell communication and infection. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to analyze the secretory pathway of some of these enzymes, including enolase, phosphoglucose isomerase, triose phosphate isomerase, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. Enolase, phosphoglucose isomerase, and an N-terminal 28-amino-acid-long fragment of enolase were secreted in a sec23-independent manner. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-conjugated enolase fragment formed cellular foci, some of which were found at the cell periphery. Therefore, we speculated that an overview of the secretory pathway could be gained by investigating the colocalization of the enolase fragment with intracellular proteins. The DsRed-conjugated enolase fragment colocalized with membrane proteins at the cis-Golgi complex, nucleus, endosome, and plasma membrane, but not the mitochondria. In addition, the secretion of full-length enolase was inhibited in a knockout mutant of the intracellular SNARE protein-coding gene TLG2. Our results suggest that enolase is secreted via a SNARE-dependent secretory pathway in S. cerevisiae.
doi:10.1128/EC.00075-12
PMCID: PMC3416056  PMID: 22753847
6.  Profile of native cellulosomal proteins of Clostridium cellulovorans adapted to various carbon sources 
AMB Express  2012;2:37.
We performed a focused proteome analysis of cellulosomal proteins predicted by a genome analysis of Clostridium cellulovorans [Tamaru, Y., et al.. 2010. J. Bacteriol. 192:901–902]. Our system employed a long monolithic column (300 cm), which provides better performance and higher resolution than conventional systems. Twenty-three cellulosomal proteins were, without purification, identified by direct analysis of the culture medium. Proteome analysis of the C. cellulovorans cellulosome after culture in various carbon sources demonstrated the production of carbon source-adapted cellulosome components.
doi:10.1186/2191-0855-2-37
PMCID: PMC3444338  PMID: 22839966
Clostridium cellulovorans; Cellulosome; Focused proteome analysis; Monolithic column
7.  Putative Role of Cellulosomal Protease Inhibitors in Clostridium cellulovorans Based on Gene Expression and Measurement of Activities▿ 
Journal of Bacteriology  2011;193(19):5527-5530.
This study is the first to demonstrate the activity of putative cellulosomal protease/peptidase inhibitors (named cyspins) of Clostridium cellulovorans, using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae display system. Cyspins exhibited inhibitory activities against several representative plant proteases. This suggests that these inhibitors protect their microbe and cellulosome from external attack by plant proteases.
doi:10.1128/JB.05022-11
PMCID: PMC3187468  PMID: 21784939
8.  Candida albicans Possesses Sap7 as a Pepstatin A-Insensitive Secreted Aspartic Protease 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e32513.
Background
Candida albicans, a commensal organism, is a part of the normal flora of healthy individuals. However, once the host immunity is compromised, C. albicans opportunistically causes recurrent superficial or fatal systemic candidiasis. Secreted aspartic proteases (Sap), encoded by 10 types of SAP genes, have been suggested to contribute to various virulence processes. Thus, it is important to elucidate their biochemical properties for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that how Sap isozymes damage host tissues.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The SAP7 gene was cloned from C. albicans SC5314 and heterogeneously produced by Pichia pastoris. Measurement of Sap7 proteolytic activity using the FRETS-25Ala library showed that Sap7 was a pepstatin A-insensitive protease. To understand why Sap7 was insensitive to pepstatin A, alanine substitution mutants of Sap7 were constructed. We found that M242A and T467A mutants had normal proteolytic activity and sensitivity to pepstatin A. M242 and T467 were located in close proximity to the entrance to an active site, and alanine substitution at these positions widened the entrance. Our results suggest that this alteration might allow increased accessibility of pepstatin A to the active site. This inference was supported by the observation that the T467A mutant has stronger proteolytic activity than the wild type.
Conclusions/Significance
We found that Sap7 was a pepstatin A-insensitive protease, and that M242 and T467 restricted the accessibility of pepstatin A to the active site. This finding will lead to the development of a novel protease inhibitor beyond pepstatin A. Such a novel inhibitor will be an important research tool as well as pharmaceutical agent for patients suffering from candidiasis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032513
PMCID: PMC3287985  PMID: 22384266

Results 1-8 (8)