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1.  Profiling and Identification of Novel Immunogenic Proteins of Staphylococcus hyicus ZC-4 by Immunoproteomic Assay 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(12):e0167686.
Staphylococcus hyicus has caused great losses in the swine industry by inducing piglet exudative epidermitis (EE), sow mastitis, metritis, and other diseases and is a threat to human health. The pathogenesis of EE, sow mastitis, and metritis involves the interaction between the host and virulent protein factors of S. hyicus, however, the proteins that interact with the host, especially the host immune system, are unclear. In the present study, immunoproteomics was used to screen the immunogenic proteins of S. hyicus strain ZC-4. The cellular and secreted proteins of S. hyicus strain ZC-4 were obtained, separated by 2D gel electrophoresis, and further analyzed by western blot with S. hyicus strain ZC-4-infected swine serum. Finally, 28 specific immunogenic proteins including 15 cellular proteins and 13 secreted proteins, 26 of which were novel immunogenic proteins from S. hyicus, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. To further verify their immunogenicity, two representative proteins (acetate kinase [cellular] and enolase [secreted]) were chosen for expression, and the resultant recombinant proteins could react with S. hyicus ZC-4-infected swine serum. In mice, both acetate kinase and enolase activated the immune response by increasing G-CSF and MCP-5 expression, and acetate kinase further activated the immune response by increasing IL-12 expression. Enolase can confer better protection against S.hycius than acetate kinase in mice. For the first time to our knowledge, our results provide detailed descriptions of the cellular and secreted proteins of S. hyicus strain ZC-4. These immunogenic proteins may contribute to investigation and elucidation of the pathogenesis of S. hyicus and provide new candidates for subunit vaccines in the future.
PMCID: PMC5145190  PMID: 27930728
2.  HCN1 Channels Contribute to the Effects of Amnesia and Hypnosis But Not Immobility of Volatile Anesthetics 
Anesthesia and analgesia  2015;121(3):661-666.
HCN1 channels have been identified as targets of ketamine to produce hypnosis. Volatile anesthetics also inhibit HCN1 channels. However, the effects of HCN1 channels on volatile anesthetics in vivo is still elusive. This study uses global and conditional HCN1 knockout mice to evaluate how HCN1 channels affect the actions of volatile anesthetics.
Minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) of isoflurane and sevoflurane that induced immobility (MAC of immobility) and/or hypnosis (MAC of hypnosis) were determined in wild-type (WT) mice, global HCN1 channel knockout mice (HCN1−/−), floxed HCN1 channel gene (HCN1f/f) mice and forebrain-selective HCN1 channel knockout (HCN1f/f: cre) mice. Immobility of mice was defined as no purposeful reactions to tail-clamping stimulus and hypnosis was defined as loss of righting reflex (LORR). The amnestic effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane were evaluated by fear-potentiated startle in these four strains of mice.
All MAC values were expressed as mean ± SEM. For MAC of immobility of isoflurane, no significant difference was found among wild-type, HCN1−/−, HCN1f/f and HCN1f/f: cre mice (all ~1.24-1.29% isoflurane). For both HCN1−/− and HCN1f/f: cre mice, the MAC of hypnosis for isoflurane (each ~1.05% isoflurane) were significantly increased over their nonknockout controls: HCN1−/− vs. wild-type (0.86±0.03%, P<0.001) and HCN1f/f: cre vs. HCN1f/f mice (0.84±0.03%, P<0.001); no significant difference was found between HCN1−/− and HCN1f/f: cre mice. For MAC of immobility of sevoflurane, no significant difference was found among wild-type, HCN1−/−, HCN1f/f and HCN1f/f: cre mice (all ~2.6-2.7% sevoflurane). For both HCN1−/− and HCN1f/f: cre mice, the MAC of hypnosis for sevoflurane (each ~1.90% sevoflurane) was significantly increased over their nonknockout controls: HCN1−/− vs. wild-type (1.58±0.05%, P<0.001) and HCN1f/f: cre vs. HCN1f/f mice (1.56±0.05%, P<0.001). No significant difference was found between HCN1−/− and HCN1f/f: cre mice. By fear-potentiated startle experiments, amnestic effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane were significantly attenuated in HCN1−/− and HCN1f/f: cre mice (both P<0.002 vs. wild-type or HCN1f/f mice). No significant difference was found between HCN1−/− and HCN1f/f: cre mice.
Forebrain HCN1 channels contribute to hypnotic and amnestic effects of volatile anesthetics, but HCN1 channels are not involved in the immobilizing actions of volatile anesthetics.
PMCID: PMC4544830  PMID: 26287296
3.  Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter 
In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.
PMCID: PMC5037672  PMID: 27563887
biosensor; microbial fuel cell; toxicity; signal interference
4.  High Level Expression and Purification of Recombinant Proteins from Escherichia coli with AK-TAG 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(5):e0156106.
Adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli was used as both solubility and affinity tag for recombinant protein production. When fused to the N-terminus of a target protein, an AK fusion protein could be expressed in soluble form and purified to near homogeneity in a single step from Blue-Sepherose via affinity elution with micromolar concentration of P1, P5- di (adenosine—5’) pentaphosphate (Ap5A), a transition-state substrate analog of AK. Unlike any other affinity tags, the level of a recombinant protein expression in soluble form and its yield of recovery during each purification step could be readily assessed by AK enzyme activity in near real time. Coupled to a His-Tag installed at the N-terminus and a thrombin cleavage site at the C terminus of AK, the streamlined method, here we dubbed AK-TAG, could also allow convenient expression and retrieval of a cleaved recombinant protein in high yield and purity via dual affinity purification steps. Thus AK-TAG is a new addition to the arsenal of existing affinity tags for recombinant protein expression and purification, and is particularly useful where soluble expression and high degree of purification are at stake.
PMCID: PMC4877045  PMID: 27214237
5.  Efficacy of a New Blind Insertion Technique of Arndt Endobronchial Blocker for Lung Isolation 
Medicine  2016;95(19):e3687.
This study aimed to find other methods of blind insertion of Arndt endobronchial blocker (AEB) for lung isolation when a fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) is unavailable.
We compared the effectiveness and safety of 3 insertion techniques of AEB: Gum elastic bougie (GEB)-, bougie combined with cricoid displacing (BCD)-, and fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB)-guided insertion. Seventy-eight patients undergoing esophageal procedure and requiring left thoracotomy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: GEB group, BCD group, and FOB group. We recorded the successful placement of AEBs at first attempt, placement time, malposition of AEBs in supine and lateral decubitus position, the bronchus injury score, and other complications.
The successful placement of AEB for the first attempt was 22/26, 25/26, and 26/26 patients in GEB, BCD, and FOB groups, respectively. The placement times in GEB and BCD groups were longer than those in the FOB group (P < 0.05). AEB malposition occurred in 1/26, 2/26, 1/26 patients after lateral decubitus position, and AEBs were repositioned in 5/26, 3/26, 1/26 patients by FOB due to poor lung isolation in GEB, BCD, and FOB groups, respectively. There was no difference for the bronchus injury scores and other complications among 3 groups (P > 0.05).
Bougie and cricoid displacing-guided blind insertion of AEB seems to be a novel method, which is an effective and safe alternative when FOB was unavailable.
PMCID: PMC4902550  PMID: 27175708
6.  Cell cycle specific distribution of killin: evidence for negative regulation of both DNA and RNA synthesis 
Cell Cycle  2015;14(12):1823-1829.
p53 tumor-suppressor gene is a master transcription factor which controls cell cycle progression and apoptosis. killin was discovered as one of the p53 target genes implicated in S-phase control coupled to cell death. Due to its extreme proximity to pten tumor-suppressor gene on human chromosome 10, changes in epigenetic modification of killin have also been linked to Cowden syndrome as well as other human cancers. Previous studies revealed that Killin is a high-affinity DNA-binding protein with preference to single-stranded DNA, and it inhibits DNA synthesis in vitro and in vivo. Here, co-localization studies of RFP-Killin with either GFP-PCNA or endogenous single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA during S-phase show that Killin always adopts a mutually exclusive punctuated nuclear expression pattern with the 2 accessory proteins in DNA replication. In contrast, when cells are not in S-phase, RFP-Killin largely congregates in the nucleolus where rRNA transcription normally occurs. Both of these cell cycle specific localization patterns of RFP-Killin are stable under high salt condition, consistent with Killin being tightly associated with nucleic acids within cell nuclei. Together, these cell biological results provide a molecular basis for Killin in competitively inhibiting the formation of DNA replication forks during S-phase, as well as potentially negatively regulate RNA synthesis during other cell cycle phases.
PMCID: PMC4614363  PMID: 25945611
DNA replication forks; killin; nucleolus; p53; PCNA; RPA
7.  Identification of Powdery Mildew Responsive Genes in Hevea brasiliensis through mRNA Differential Display 
Powdery mildew is an important disease of rubber trees caused by Oidium heveae B. A. Steinmann. As far as we know, none of the resistance genes related to powdery mildew have been isolated from the rubber tree. There is little information available at the molecular level regarding how a rubber tree develops defense mechanisms against this pathogen. We have studied rubber tree mRNA transcripts from the resistant RRIC52 cultivar by differential display analysis. Leaves inoculated with the spores of O. heveae were collected from 0 to 120 hpi in order to identify pathogen-regulated genes at different infection stages. We identified 78 rubber tree genes that were differentially expressed during the plant–pathogen interaction. BLAST analysis for these 78 ESTs classified them into seven functional groups: cell wall and membrane pathways, transcription factor and regulatory proteins, transporters, signal transduction, phytoalexin biosynthesis, other metabolism functions, and unknown functions. The gene expression for eight of these genes was validated by qRT-PCR in both RRIC52 and the partially susceptible Reyan 7-33-97 cultivars, revealing the similar or differential changes of gene expressions between these two cultivars. This study has improved our overall understanding of the molecular mechanisms of rubber tree resistance to powdery mildew.
PMCID: PMC4783915  PMID: 26840302
rubber tree; Oidium heveae; differential gene expression; ESTs
8.  Pyrosequencing Reveals a Core Community of Anodic Bacterial Biofilms in Bioelectrochemical Systems from China 
Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are promising technologies for energy and product recovery coupled with wastewater treatment, and the core microbial community in electrochemically active biofilm in BESs remains controversy. In the present study, 7 anodic communities from 6 bioelectrochemical systems in 4 labs in southeast, north and south-central of China are explored by 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 251,225 effective sequences are obtained for 7 electrochemically active biofilm samples at 3% cutoff level. While Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria are the most abundant classes (averaging 16.0–17.7%), Bacteroidia and Clostridia are the two sub-dominant and commonly shared classes. Six commonly shared genera i.e., Azospira, Azospirillum, Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Geobacter, Pseudomonas, and Rhodopseudomonas dominate the electrochemically active communities and are defined as core genera. A total of 25 OTUs with average relative abundance >0.5% were selected and designated as core OTUs, and some species relating to these OTUs have been reported electrochemically active. Furthermore, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests show that two strains from Acinetobacter guillouiae and Stappia indica, bacteria relate to two core OTUs, are electrochemically active. Using randomly selected bioelectrochemical systems, the study has presented extremely diverse bacterial communities in anodic biofilms, though, we still can suggest some potentially microbes for investigating the electrochemical mechanisms in bioelectrochemical systems.
PMCID: PMC4679932  PMID: 26733958
high-throughput sequencing; microbial community; electrochemically active microorganisms; microbial fuel cells; bioelectrochemical systems; electron transfer
9.  Long-term lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis: A real-life cohort study 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2015;21(46):13087-13094.
AIM: To investigate clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and liver cirrhosis (LC) patients under whole-course management with lamivudine (LAM).
METHODS: This was a retrospective-prospective cohort study based on two nonrandom cohorts of Chinese patients (LAM group and history control group). Two hundred thirty-eight patients with LAM treatment for at least 12 mo under whole-course management were included in the LAM group. The management measures included regular follow-up and timely adjustment of the therapeutic regimen according to drug-resistance and relapse. Two hundred thirty-eight patients with CHB or LC without any antiviral treatment and with follow-up over 12 mo were included in the history control group. The LAM and control group patients were 1:1 matched by propensity score method to ensure both patients were similar in general datum, sex, age, E antigen, and diagnosis. The incidence rates of endpoint events [LC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and death] were compared between the LAM and control groups.
RESULTS: Hepatitis B virus-DNA < 1000 copies per mL rate and rate of alanine transaminase < 1.3 of the upper normal limit in LAM and control groups were 89.1% vs 18.5% (P < 0.05) and 89.8% vs 31.1% (P < 0.05), respectively. Viral breakthrough occurred in 77 patients (32.4%); the one-, three-, and five-year cumulative rates were 6.8%, 33.1%, and 41.3%, respectively. In total, 44.5% (106/238) of patients had once stopped LAM, and 63 (59.4%) of them developed virologic relapse; the relapse rate of patients with and without reaching Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver endpoint criteria were 52.4% and 69.8%, respectively. Six CHB patients in the LAM group developed LC compared to 47 patients in the control group; the three-, and five-year cumulative rates of CHB at baseline of LAM were lower than those of the control group: 0.7% vs 12.0% and 1.8% vs 23.8% (P < 0.01), respectively. The incidence of HCC in CHB at baseline of LAM was lower than that of the control group; the three-, and five-year cumulative rates were 0% vs 3.2% and 1.1% vs 3.2% (P = 0.05), respectively. The incidence of HCC in LC at baseline of LAM was lower than that of the control group: 9.8% (5/51) vs 25.0% (12/48), and the three-, and five-year cumulative rates were 4.5% vs 20.7% and 8.1% vs 37.5% (P < 0.01), respectively. The mortality rate in the LAM group was lower than the control group.
CONCLUSION: Standardized long-term LAM treatment in combination with comprehensive management can reduce the incidence rates of LC and HCC as well as hepatitis B virus-related deaths.
PMCID: PMC4674727  PMID: 26673249
Hepatitis B virus; Lamivudine; Management; Liver cirrhosis; Outcome; Therapy
10.  Impact of Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis in U251 Cell Cycle Arrest in G1 Stage and Caspase Activation 
Most mitochondria-mediated apoptosis has some relevance to the cell cycle, but there is still a lack of investigations about U251 cell cycle in human brain glioma cells. In this study, we aimed to clarify the correlation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with the U251 cell cycle and its influence on apoptosis, through observing the impact of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in U251cell specificity cycle arrest and Caspase activation.
AnnexinV/PI and API were used to label the brain glioma cells for flow cytometry analysis of U251 cell apoptosis and cell cycle. RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to detect Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 activation.
Peripheral blood in stationary phase is not sensitive to apoptosis induction, but U251 cells have obvious apoptosis. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis mainly occurs in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 mRNAs and proteins expression increased significantly after the cells were treated by mitochondrial apoptosis-related gene Bax induction.
Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis is related to the U251 cell cycle with specific G1 stage arrest. Caspase activation occurs in the process of cell apoptosis.
PMCID: PMC4662238  PMID: 26594875
Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial; Caspase Inhibitors; Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases
11.  Novel Self-driven Microbial Nutrient Recovery Cell with Simultaneous Wastewater Purification 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:15744.
Conventional wastewater purification technologies consume large amounts of energy, while the abundant chemical energy and nutrient resources contained in sewage are wasted in such treatment processes. A microbial nutrient recovery cell (MNRC) has been developed to take advantage of the energy contained in wastewater, in order to simultaneously purify wastewater and recover nutrient ions. When wastewater was circulated between the anode and cathode chambers of the MNRC, the organics (COD) were removed by bacteria while ammonium and phosphate (NH4+-N and PO43−-P) were recovered by the electrical field that was produced using in situ energy in the wastewater without additional energy input. The removal efficiencies from wastewater were >82% for COD, >96% for NH4+-N, and >64% for PO43−-P in all the operational cycles. Simultaneously, the concentrations of NH4+ and PO43− in the recovery chamber increased to more than 1.5 and 2.2 times, respectively, compared with the initial concentrations in wastewater. The MNRC provides proof-of-concept as a sustainable, self-driven approach to efficient wastewater purification and nutrient recovery in a comprehensive bioelectrochemical system.
PMCID: PMC4621542  PMID: 26503712
12.  Comparison of subarachnoid anesthetic effect of emulsified volatile anesthetics in rats 
Spinal cord is an important target of volatile anesthetics in particular for the effect of immobility. Intrathecal injection of volatile anesthetics has been found to produce subarachnoid anesthesia. The present study was designed to compare spinal anesthetic effects of emulsified volatile anesthetics, and to investigate the correlation between their spinal effects and general effect of immobility. In this study, halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were emulsified by 30% Intralipid. These emulsified volatile anesthetics were intravenously and intrathecally injected, respectively. ED50 of general anesthesia and EC50 of spinal anesthesia were determined. The durations of general and spinal anesthesia were recorded. Correlation analysis was applied to evaluate the anesthetic potency of volatile anesthetics between their spinal and general effects. ED50 of general anesthesia induced by emulsified halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were 0.41 ± 0.07, 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.11 and 0.78 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively, with significant correlation to their inhaled MAC (R2 = 0.8620, P = 0.047). For intrathecal injection, EC50 of spinal anesthesia induced by emulsified halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were 0.35, 0.27, 0.33 and 0.26 mol/L, respectively, which could be predicted by the product of inhaled MAC and olive oil/gas partition coefficients (R2 = 0.9627, P = 0.013). In conclusion, potency and efficacy of the four emulsified volatile anesthetics in spinal anesthesia were similar and could be predicted by the product of inhaled MAC and olive oil/gas partition coefficients (MAC × olive oil/gas partition coefficients).
PMCID: PMC4313979  PMID: 25674241
Emulsified volatile anesthetics; spinal anesthesia; general anesthesia
13.  Single-dose sufentanil or fentanyl reduces agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children undergoing ophthalmology surgery 
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences  2014;30(5):1059-1063.
Objectives: The trail investigated the effect of small dose sufentanil or fentanyl administrated before the end of surgery in reducing the incidence of emergence agitation after anesthesia with sevoflurane in preschool children undergoing ophthalmology surgery, and the incidence of emergence agitation of sevoflurane anesthesia.
Methods: From September 2011 to January 2012 January, ninety ASA I-II children, aged from 3-7 years, undergoing ophthalmology surgery in West China Hospital, were randomly assigned to three groups to receive intravenous saline, sufentanil 0.1μg/kg or fentanyl 1μg/kg at 20 minutes before the end of the surgery. Children were scored by scoring system for emergence agitation (SSEA), Children’s and Infants’ Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS) score.
Results: The incidence of agitation was 30% in sufentanil group, 36.67% in fentanyl group, and 63.33% in control group. The incidence of sever agitation (SSEA score≥3) was 6.67% in sufentanil group, 23.37% in fentanyl group, and 36.67% in control group. The agitation and pain scores in sufentanil group and fentanyl group were better than those in control group (P<0.05). There was no difference among three groups about time to extubation.
Conclusions: We conclude that the incidence of emergence agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children undergoing ophthalmology surgery is up to 63.33%. The single dose of sufentanil or fentanyl can reduce the emergence agitation in children anesthesized with sevoflurane, with no adverse effects. The effect of sufentanil is better than fentanyl.
PMCID: PMC4163232  PMID: 25225526
Agitation; Anesthesia; Pediatric; Recovery; Sevoflurane; Volatile anesthetics
14.  Effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on the propofol dose requirement and Bispectral Index for loss of consciousness 
Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PH), a new anticholinerigic drug associated with few cardiovascular side effects, was used widely as premedication in China. There is no information on the pharmacodynamic interaction between PH and anesthetics for loss of consciousness (LOC). This study was designed to determine the effects of premedicated PH on the propofol dose requirement for LOC and Bispectral Index (BIS) during target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol. Forty patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups to receive PH (Group PH) or normal saline (Group NS). TCI propofol was administered 30 min after PH or normal saline was given. During study period, BIS value, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and the Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) rating scale were recorded. Predicted effect-site propofol concentrations (Ce) and the total propofol dose were recorded when end-point was achieved. The time to reach end point was also noted. The time to reach LOC was shorter in Group PH than Group NS (p < 0.05). The predicted propofol Ce and consumption based on body weight of each patient were lower in Group PH than Group NS (p < 0.05). BIS values were not significantly changed before propofol infusion, and decreased gradually as propofol Ce increased and were not significantly different when LOC was reached between two groups (p > 0.05). We conclude that premedicated PH reduces the propofol Ce and dose requirement for LOC, but has no effect on BIS.
PMCID: PMC4161574  PMID: 25232414
Penehyclidine hydrochloride; propofol; Bispectral lndex; target-controlled infusion
15.  The p53-Reactivating Small Molecule RITA Induces Senescence in Head and Neck Cancer Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104821.
TP53 is the most commonly mutated gene in head and neck cancer (HNSCC), with mutations being associated with resistance to conventional therapy. Restoring normal p53 function has previously been investigated via the use of RITA (reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis), a small molecule that induces a conformational change in p53, leading to activation of its downstream targets. In the current study we found that RITA indeed exerts significant effects in HNSCC cells. However, in this model, we found that a significant outcome of RITA treatment was accelerated senescence. RITA-induced senescence in a variety of p53 backgrounds, including p53 null cells. Also, inhibition of p53 expression did not appear to significantly inhibit RITA-induced senescence. Thus, this phenomenon appears to be partially p53-independent. Additionally, RITA-induced senescence appears to be partially mediated by activation of the DNA damage response and SIRT1 (Silent information regulator T1) inhibition, with a synergistic effect seen by combining either ionizing radiation or SIRT1 inhibition with RITA treatment. These data point toward a novel mechanism of RITA function as well as hint to its possible therapeutic benefit in HNSCC.
PMCID: PMC4132078  PMID: 25119136
16.  The Quaternary Lidocaine Derivative QX-314 Produces Long-Lasting Intravenous Regional Anesthesia in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99704.
The lidocaine derivative, QX-314, produces long-lasting regional anesthesia in various animal models. We designed this study to examine whether QX-314 could produce long-lasting intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) in a rat model.
IVRA was performed on tail of rats. EC50 (median effective concentration) of QX-314 in IVRA was determined by up-and-down method. IVRA on tail of rats was evaluated by tail-flick and tail-clamping tests. For comparison between QX-314 and lidocaine, 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10/group), respectively receiving 0.5 ml of 0.5% lidocaine, 0.25% QX-314, 0.5% QX-314, 1.0% QX-314, 2.0% QX-314 and normal saline. To explore the role of TRPV1 channel in IVRA of QX-314, 20 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10/group), respectively receiving 0.5 ml of 1% QX-314 and 1% QX-314+75 µg/ml capsazepine. Toxicities of QX-314 on central nervous system and cardiac system were measured in rats according to Racine's convulsive scale and by electrocardiogram, respectively.
QX-314 could produce long-lasting IVRA in a concentration-dependent manner. EC50 of QX-314 in rat tail IVRA was 0.15±0.02%. At concentration of 0.5%, IVRA duration of QX-314 (2.5±0.7 hour) was significantly longer than that of 0.5% lidocaine (0.3±0.2 hour, P<0.001). TRPV1 channel antagonist (capsazepine) could significantly reduce the effect of QX-314. For evaluation of toxicities, QX-314 at doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg did not induce any serious complications. However, QX-314 at dose of 20 mg/kg (1% QX-314 0.5 ml for a rat weighing 250 g) induced death in 6/10 rats.
QX-314 could produce long-lasting IVRA in a concentration-dependent manner. This long-lasting IVRA was mediated by activation of TRPV1 channels. Evaluation of toxic complications of QX-314 confirmed that low but relevant doses of QX-314 did not result in any measurable toxicity.
PMCID: PMC4059684  PMID: 24932639
17.  Combined Effects of TGFB1 +869 T/C and +915 G/C Polymorphisms on Acute Rejection Risk in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93938.
Transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) is involved in the development of acute rejection (AR) episodes in solid organ transplant recipients; and a number of studies have been conducted to investigate the combined effects of human TGF-β1 gene (TGFB1) +869 T/C and +915 G/C polymorphisms on AR risk. However, the results obtained are inconclusive.
Eligible studies that investigated the haplotypic association between TGFB1 +869 T/C and +915 G/C polymorphisms and AR risk were comprehensively searched in the PUBMED, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database. Statistical analyses were performed by using STATA 12.0 and Review Manager 5.0.
Fourteen eligible studies with 565 AR cases and 1219 non-AR cases were included. Overall, a significantly decreased risk was detected in patients carried with intermediate producer (IP) haplotypes (T/C G/C, T/T G/C, and C/C G/G) and/or low producer (LP) haplotypes (C/C G/C, C/C C/C, T/T C/C, and T/C C/C) compared with high producer (HP) haplotypes (T/T G/G and T/C G/G; IP vs. HP: OR = 0.75, 95% CI, 0.58–0.96, P heterogeneity  = 0.238; IP/LP vs. HP: OR  = 0.77, 95% CI, 0.61–0.98, P heterogeneity  = 0.144). In addition, subgroup analysis by transplant types demonstrated a similar association in patients receiving heart transplant (IP vs. HP: OR  = 0.32, 95% CI, 0.14–0.73, P heterogeneity  = 0.790; IP/LP vs. HP: OR  = 0.41, 95% CI, 0.20–0.85, P heterogeneity  = 0.320).
The current meta-analysis and systematic review indicated that recipient TGFB1 HP haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AR in solid organ transplant recipients, particularly patients receiving cardiac allograft.
PMCID: PMC3976347  PMID: 24705444
18.  Trusted Measurement Model Based on Multitenant Behaviors 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:384967.
With a fast growing pervasive computing, especially cloud computing, the behaviour measurement is at the core and plays a vital role. A new behaviour measurement tailored for Multitenants in cloud computing is needed urgently to fundamentally establish trust relationship. Based on our previous research, we propose an improved trust relationship scheme which captures the world of cloud computing where multitenants share the same physical computing platform. Here, we first present the related work on multitenant behaviour; secondly, we give the scheme of behaviour measurement where decoupling of multitenants is taken into account; thirdly, we explicitly explain our decoupling algorithm for multitenants; fourthly, we introduce a new way of similarity calculation for deviation control, which fits the coupled multitenants under study well; lastly, we design the experiments to test our scheme.
PMCID: PMC3985305  PMID: 24987731
19.  Effect of flumazenil on sevoflurane requirements for minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration-awake and recovery status 
Objective: It is controversial that whether the GABA receptors contribute to the hypnotic action of volatile anesthetics. This study was to detect the effect of GABA receptors on the hypnotic action of volatile anesthetics by evaluation of the effect of intravenous flumazenil on sevoflurane minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration–awake (MAC-Awake) and emergence mental status. Methods: This study included two steps. Firstly, 49 healthy patients, aged 20-40 years scheduled for elective surgeries, were randomly assigned to two groups, a flumazenil group (n=24) and a saline group (n=25). The flumazenil group received 0.006 mg/Kg IV, and the control group received the same volume of saline 20 min before induction. The flumazenil group and the control group were compared with regard to MAC-Awake (anesthetic concentration achieving 50% probability of eye opening in response to a verbal command). We used the mask inhalation to measure the MAC-Awake by up-and-down method. The second steps, 60 patients undergoing lower abdomen surgeries were randomly divided into two groups, a experimental group (n=30) and a saline group (n=30). All patients were anesthetized with sevoflurane/sulfentanil. The experimental group received flumazenil at 0.006 mg/Kg IV, and the control group received the same volume of saline at the end of surgery. We recorded the time to awake and extubation. After extubation, the patients’ recovery status was scored with the Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) system in post anesthesia care unit (PACU). Results: The MAC-Awake was 0.65% in the control group and 0.82% in the flumazenil group (p=0.34). After extubation, the recovery time and time to extubation showed no difference between the flumazenil group and the saline group (p>0.05). But the 10 min and 15 min MMSE scores after extubation were better in the flumazenil group than those in the saline group (p<0.05). There was no difference for MMSE scores after 30 min between two groups. Conclusion: We found that an IV flumazenil (0.006 mg/Kg) has no effect on sevoflurane MAC-Awake in humans. A single intravenous injection of flumazenil (0.006 mg/Kg) can partially reverse the hypnotic effect of sevoflurane/sulfentanil but do not contribute to reduction in the time to recovery and extubation.
PMCID: PMC3992407  PMID: 24753762
Flumazenil; sevoflurane; sulfentanil; MAC-awake
20.  Simple strategy of anesthesia for the neonate with tracheoesophageal fistula: a case report 
A 3-day-old neonate, given a diagnosis of esophageal atresia (EA) with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), which is large and just above the carina, was scheduled for TEF repair. Routine anesthetic management focuses on adequate ventilation and avoidance of gastric distension during positive pressure ventilation. Using a balloon-tipped embolectomy catheter or a Fogarty catheter to block the fistula under the guidance of fiberoptic scope has been described. In most of the medical centers, however, the pediatric fiberoptic scope may not be available. We present a case of a newborn undergoing type C EA/TEF repair and describe a simple intra-operative technique that could temporarily occlude the gastroesophageal junction, allowing stable vital signs of patient and definitive repair of the tracheoesophageal fistula.
PMCID: PMC3902279  PMID: 24482727
Esophageal atresia (EA); tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF); repair; occlude; ligation
21.  Inosine Enhances Axon Sprouting and Motor Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81948.
Although corticospinal tract axons cannot regenerate long distances after spinal cord injury, they are able to sprout collateral branches rostral to an injury site that can help form compensatory circuits in cases of incomplete lesions. We show here that inosine enhances the formation of compensatory circuits after a dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord in mature rats and improves coordinated limb use. Inosine is a naturally occurring metabolite of adenosine that crosses the cell membrane and, in neurons, activates Mst3b, a protein kinase that is part of a signal transduction pathway that regulates axon outgrowth. Compared to saline-treated controls, rats with dorsal hemisections that were treated with inosine showed three times as many synaptic contacts between corticospinal tract collaterals and long propriospinal interneurons that project from the cervical cord to the lumbar level. Inosine-treated rats also showed stronger serotonergic reinnervation of the lumbar cord than saline-treated controls, and performed well above controls in both open-field testing and a horizontal ladder rung-walking test. Inosine was equally effective whether delivered intracranially or intravenously, and has been shown to be safe for other indications in humans. Thus, inosine might be a useful therapeutic for improving outcome after spinal cord injury.
PMCID: PMC3846725  PMID: 24312612
22.  Clinical Implications of Girdin Protein Expression in Glioma 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:986073.
Objective. To investigate the expression status of Girdin in glioma and the relationship between Girdin expression and the biological behavior of glioma. Materials and methods. The expression status of Girdin in glioma from 560 cases was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. The relationship between Girdin expression and clinic-pathological parameters as well as prognosis was also studied. Results. The expression of Girdin in high grade glioma was significantly higher than low grade glioma. After universal analysis, the expression of Girdin protein is closely related to KPS score, extent of resection, Ki67 and WHO grade, but it was not related to sex and age. Finally, extent of resection, Ki67 and WHO grade were indentified to be related to the Girdin protein expression in logistic regression. Interestingly, we found that the expression of Girdin is significantly related to the distant metastasis of glioma. After COX regression analysis, KPS score, Extent of resection, Ki67, WHO grade as well as Girdin were observed to be independent prognostic factors. Conclusions. Girdin is differential expressed in the glioma patients and closely related to the biological behavior of Glioma. Finally, Girdin was found to be a strong predictor for the post-operative prognosis.
PMCID: PMC3826315  PMID: 24288520
23.  Correction of image distortions in endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on two-axis scanning MEMS mirrors 
Biomedical Optics Express  2013;4(10):2066-2077.
A two-axis scanning microelectromechanical (MEMS) mirror enables an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system to perform three-dimensional endoscopic imaging due to its fast scan speed and small size. However, the radial scan from the MEMS mirror causes various distortions in OCT images, namely spherical, fan-shaped and keystone distortions. In this paper, a new method is proposed to correct all of three distortions presented in OCT systems based on two-axis MEMS scanning mirrors. The spherical distortion is corrected first by directly manipulating the original spectral interferograms in the phase domain, followed by Fourier transform and three-dimensional geometrical transformation for correcting the other two types of distortions. OCT imaging experiments on a paper with square ink printed arrays and a glass tube filled with milk have been used to validate the proposed method. Distortions in OCT images of flat or curved surfaces can all be effectively removed.
PMCID: PMC3799666  PMID: 24156064
(110.4500) Optical coherence tomography; (230.4685) Optical microelectromechanical devices; (100.6890) Three-dimensional image processing
24.  catena-Poly[[[2-(1,3-thia­zol-4-yl)-1H-benzimidazole]­manganese(II)]-μ-oxalato] 
In the title compound, [Mn(C2O4)(C10H7N3S)]n, the MnII cation is chelated by one 2-(1,3-thia­zol-4-yl)-1H-benzimidazole ligand and two oxalate anions in a distorted N2O4 octa­hedral geometry. Two independent oxalate anions are located on individual inversion centers and bridge the MnII cations into a polymeric chain running along [101]. The thia­zole ring is approximately coplanar with the benzimidazole ring system [dihedral angle = 4.19 (9)°]. In the crystal, classical N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the polymeric chains into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture.
PMCID: PMC3884504  PMID: 24427009
25.  Case scenario about TEE: Patient with dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy 
A 42-year-old woman, who presented with DCM (American Society of Anesthesia, ASA class IV), suffered from gallstone for years, and was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Echocardiography demonstrated a severely dilated left ventricle with global hypokinesia and reduction of left ventricular systolic function, ejection fraction (EF) 34% with mild mitral regurgitation and severe tricuspid regurgitation. After intubation, a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe was inserted. When the IAP was gradually ascended to 14 mmHg during the laparoscopy, EF fell to 19% and the systolic pressure fell to 78 mmHg and TEE showed severely poor wall motion. But the central venous pressure (CVP) still showed about 4 mmHg throughout the whole procedure. After decreasing the IAP to 10 mmHg, we adjusted the rate of pacemaker to 70 times per minute then the systolic pressure was kept at around 100 mmHg, and the diastolic pressure was kept at 60 mmHg. EF was 30% after the reduction of IAP and the adjusting of the heart rate set. TEE is a helpful monitor in anesthesia management of patients with DCM during noncardiac surgery and CVP is useless especially for the procedure with severe hemodynamic effects.
PMCID: PMC3809262  PMID: 24353604
Dilated Cardiomyopathy; Pneumoperitoneum; Transesophageal Echocardiography; Central Venous Pressure

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