Local relapse of tumors after radiation therapy remains a challenge in oncology. To devise rational approaches for preventing this relapse, we have to improve our understanding of how new vessels form in previously irradiated tumors. We propose that tumor regrowth after local irradiation is dependent on blood vessel formation by local endothelial cells without the need for recruitment of endothelial precursor cells from distant nonirradiated tissues or bone marrow. We also suggest that infiltrating myeloid bone marrow–derived cells promote survival of local endothelial cells during the early period after irradiation and angiogenesis during the later stage of tumor regrowth, both via paracrine mechanisms.
Addition of multiple molecularly targeted agents to the existing armamentarium of chemotherapeutics and radiotherapies represents a significant advance in the management of several advanced cancers. In certain tumor types with no efficacious therapy options, these agents have become the first line of therapy, e.g., sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma or bevacizumab in recurrent glioblastoma. Unfortunately, in many cases, the survival benefits are modest, lasting only weeks to a few months. Moreover, they may not show benefit in patients with localized disease (i.e., in adjuvant setting). Recent studies have provided increasing evidence that activation of the chemokine CXCL12 (SDF1α) pathway is a potential mechanism of tumor resistance to both conventional therapies and biological agents via multiple complementary actions: (i) by directly promoting cancer cell survival, invasion and the cancer stem/tumor-initiating cell phenotype; (ii) by recruiting “distal stroma” (i.e., myeloid bone marrow-derived cells) to indirectly facilitate tumor recurrence and metastasis; and (iii) by promoting angiogenesis directly or in a paracrine manner. Here, we discuss recent preclinical and clinical data that support the potential use of anti-CXCL12 agents (e.g., AMD3100, NOX-A12 or CCX2066) as sensitizers to currently available therapies by targeting the CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL12/CXCR7 pathways.
Tumor neovascularization and growth may be promoted by recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), which include endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) and “vascular modulatory” myelomonocytic (CD11b+) cells. BMDCs may also drive tumor re-growth after certain chemotherapeutic and vascular disruption treatments. In this study, we evaluated the role of BMDC recruitment in breast and lung carcinoma xenograft models after local irradiation (LI). We depleted the bone marrow by including whole body irradiation (WBI) of 6Gy as part of a total tumor dose of 21Gy, and compared the growth delay with the one achieved after LI of 21Gy. In both models, including WBI induced longer tumor growth delays. Moreover, including WBI increased lung tumor control probability by LI. Exogenous delivery of BMDCs from radiation-naïve donors partially abrogated the WBI effect. Myeloid BMDCs, primarily macrophages, rapidly accumulated in tumors after LI. Intratumoral expression of SDF-1α, a chemokine that promotes tissue retention of BMDCs, was noted 2 days after LI. Conversely, treatment with an inhibitor of SDF-1α receptor CXCR4 (AMD3100) with LI significantly delayed tumor re-growth. However, when administered starting from 5 days post-LI, AMD3100 treatment was ineffective. Lastly, with restorative bone marrow transplantation of Tie2-GFP-labeled BMDC population we observed an increased number of monocytes but not EPCs in tumors that recurred following LI. Our results suggest that an increase in intratumoral SDF-1α triggered by local irradiation recruits myelomonocyte/macrophage which promote tumor re-growth.
SDF1alpha; irradiation; tumor; relapse; CXCR4; BMDCs
Inflammatory pathways may mediate preparation of the “metastatic soil” in the lungs. Some of these pathways—activation and/or the recruitment of certain inflammatory cells—might depend on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) activity. Thus, blocking the activity of VEGFR1 (or the interaction with its ligands) has emerged as a potential anti-metastasis strategy to target not only angiogenesis and cancer cell survival and migration, but also the recruitment of tumor growth-promoting bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs). However, inhibition of VEGFR1 activity by blocking antibodies or by genetic deletion of the tyrosine kinase domain neither prevented nor changed the rate of spontaneous metastasis formation after surgical removal of primary tumors. Thus, development of VEGFR1-targeted agents should be pursued in selected tumors (e.g., by identifying cancers that depend on VEGFR1 signaling for survival) or in specific combination therapies. Preventing metastasis will likely require identification and blockade of additional or alternative pro-inflammatory pathways that mediate the priming of the metastatic soil and the growth of micro-metastases.
Intravital imaging techniques have provided unprecedented insight into tumor microcirculation and microenvironment. For example, these techniques allowed quantitative evaluations of tumor blood vasculature to uncover its abnormal organization, structure and function (e.g., hyper-permeability, heterogeneous and compromised blood flow). Similarly, imaging of functional lymphatics has documented their absence inside tumors. These abnormalities result in elevated interstitial fluid pressure and hinder the delivery of therapeutic agents to tumors. In addition, they induce a hostile microenvironment characterized by hypoxia and acidosis, as documented by intravital imaging. The abnormal microenvironment further lowers the effectiveness of anti-tumor treatments such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. In addition to these mechanistic insights, intravital imaging may also offer new opportunities to improve therapy. For example, tumor angiogenesis results in immature, dysfunctional vessels—primarily caused by an imbalance in production of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors by the tumors. Restoring the balance of pro- and anti-angiogenic signaling in tumors can “normalize” tumor vasculature and thus, improve its function, as demonstrated by intravital imaging studies in preclinical models and in cancer patients. Administration of cytotoxic therapy during periods of vascular normalization has the potential to enhance treatment efficacy.
intravital microscopy; angiogenesis; lymphangiogenesis; tumor; stromal cells; micro-environment; vascular normalization
Preclinical and clinical evidence shows that antiangiogenic agents can decrease tumor vessel permeability and interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in a process of vessel “normalization.” The resulting normalized vasculature has more efficient perfusion, but little is known about how tumor IFP and interstitial fluid velocity (IFV) are affected by changes in transport properties of the vessels and interstitium that are associated with antiangiogenic therapy. By using a mathematical model to simulate IFP and IFV profiles in tumors, we show here that antiangiogenic therapy can decrease IFP by decreasing the tumor size, vascular hydraulic permeability, and/or the surface area per unit tissue volume of tumor vessels. Within a certain window of antiangiogenic effects, interstitial convection within the tumor can increase dramatically, whereas fluid convection out of the tumor margin decreases. This would result in increased drug convection within the tumor and decreased convection of drugs, growth factors, or metastatic cancer cells from the tumor margin into the peritumor fluid or tissue. Decreased convection of growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), would limit peritumor hyperplasia, and decreased VEGF-A would limit angiogenesis in sentinel lymph nodes. Both of these effects would reduce the probability of lymphatic metastasis. Finally, decreased fluid convection into the peritumor tissue would decrease peritumor edema associated with brain tumors and ascites accumulation in the peritoneal or pleural cavity, a major complication with a number of malignancies.
Although oncolytic viral vectors show promise for the treatment of various cancers, ineffective initial distribution and propagation throughout the tumor mass often limit the therapeutic response. A mathematical model is developed to describe the spread of herpes simplex virus from the initial injection site.
The tumor is modeled as a sphere of radius R. The model incorporates reversible binding, interstitial diffusion, viral degradation, and internalization and physiologic parameters. Three species are considered as follows: free interstitial virus, virus bound to cell surfaces, and internalized virus.
This analysis reveals that both rapid binding and internalization as well as hindered diffusion contain the virus to the initial injection volume, with negligible spread to the surrounding tissue. Unfortunately, increasing the dose to saturate receptors and promote diffusion throughout the tumor is not a viable option: the concentration necessary would likely compromise safety. However, targeted modifications to the virus that decrease the binding affinity have the potential to increase the number of infected cells by 1.5-fold or more. An increase in the effective diffusion coefficient can result in similar gains.
This analysis suggests criteria by which the potential response of a tumor to oncolytic herpes simplex virus therapy can be assessed. Furthermore, it reveals the potential of modifications to the vector delivery method, physicochemical properties of the virus, and tumor extracellular matrix composition to enhance efficacy.
Intravital microscopy has provided unprecedented insights into tumor pathophysiology, including angiogenesis and the microenvironment. Tumor vasculature shows an abnormal organization, structure, and function. Tumor vessels are leaky, blood flow is heterogeneous and often compromised. Vascular hyperpermeability and the lack of functional lymphatic vessels inside tumors causes elevation of interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumors. These abnormalities form physiological barriers to the delivery of therapeutic agents to tumors and also lead to a hostile microenvironment characterized by hypoxia and acidosis, which hinders the effectiveness of anti-tumor treatments such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. In addition, host-tumor interactions regulate expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, resulting in pathophysiological characteristics of the tumor. On the other hand, in a physiological setting, angiogenic vessels become mature and form long-lasting functional units. Restoring the balance of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in tumors may “normalize” tumor vasculature and thus improve its function. Administration of cytotoxic therapy during the vascular normalization would enhance its efficacy.
Intravital microscopy; angiogenesis; lymphangiogenesis; tumor; stromal cells; micro-environment; tumor dormancy
The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect has been a key rationale for the development of nanoscale carriers to solid tumors. As a consequence of EPR, nanotherapeutics are expected to improve drug and detection probe delivery, have less adverse effects than conventional chemotherapy, and thus result in improved detection and treatment of tumors. Physiological barriers posed by the abnormal tumor microenvironment, however, can hinder the homogeneous delivery of nanomedicine in amounts sufficient to eradicate cancer. To effectively enhance the therapeutic outcome of cancer patients by nanotherapeutics, we have to find ways to overcome these barriers. One possibility is to exploit the abnormal tumor microenvironment for selective and improved delivery of therapeutic agents to tumors. Recently, we proposed a multistage nanoparticle delivery system as a potential means to enable uniform delivery throughout the tumor and improve the efficacy of anticancer therapy. Here, we describe the synthesis of a novel multistage nanoparticle formulation that shrinks in size once it enters the tumor interstitial space to optimize the delivery to tumors as well as within tumors. Finally, we provide detailed experimental methods for the characterization of such nanoparticles.
Lymphatic metastasis is a critical determinant of cancer prognosis. Recently, several lymphangiogenic molecules such as vafscular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and -D were identified. However, the mechanistic understanding of lymphatic metastasis is still in infancy. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in regulating blood vessel growth and function as well as lymphatic vessel function. NOS expression correlates with lymphatic metastasis. However, causal relationship between NOS and lymphatic metastasis has not been documented. To this end, we first show that both VEGF receptor-2 and -3 stimulation activate eNOS in lymphatic endothelial cells and that NO donors induce proliferation and/or survival of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells in a dose dependent manner. We find that an NOS inhibitor L-NMMA blocked regeneration of lymphatic vessels. Using intravital microscopy that allows us to visualize the steps of lymphatic metastasis, we show that genetic deletion of eNOS as well as NOS blockade attenuates peritumor lymphatic hyperplasia of VEGF-C-overexpressing T241 fibrosarcomas and decreases the delivery of metastatic tumor cells to the draining lymph nodes. Genetic deletion of eNOS in the host also leads to a decrease in T241 tumor cell dissemination to the lymph nodes and macroscopic lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma. These findings indicate that eNOS mediates VEGF-C induced lymphangiogenesis and, consequently, plays a critical role in lymphatic metastasis. Our findings explain the correlation between NOS and lymphatic metastasis seen in a number of human tumors and open the door for potential therapies exploiting NO signaling to treat diseases of the lymphatic system.
nitric oxide; lymphangiogenesis; lymphatic metastasis; intravital microscopy; VEGF-C
We have developed a physiologically-based mathematical model, with parameters derived from published experimental data, to simulate the regulatory effects of the leptin pathway on murine energy homeostasis. Model outcomes are consistent with data reported in the literature, and reproduce key characteristics of the energy regulatory system, including compensatory responses that counteract changes in body weight, and the failure of this ability when the leptin pathway is disrupted. Our model revealed the possibility of multiple steady states for body weight. It also provided a unified theoretical framework for two historically antagonistic hypotheses regarding body weight regulation (“set-point” vs. “settling point”). Finally, our model has identified potential avenues for future investigations.
Blood vessels are required for a tumor to grow and functional lymphatic vessels are required for it to disseminate to lymph nodes. In an attempt to eradicate both the primary tumor and its lymphatic metastasis, we targeted both blood and lymphatic vessels using two different vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 and -3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), cediranib and vandetanib. We found that while both cediranib and vandetanib slowed the growth rate of primary tumors and reduced blood vessel density, neither agent was able to prevent lymphatic metastasis when administered after tumor cells had seeded the lymph node. However, when administered during tumor growth, cediranib reduced the diameters of the draining lymphatic vessels, the number of tumor cells arriving in the draining lymph node and the incidence of lymphatic metastasis. On the other hand, vandetanib had minimal effect on any of these parameters, suggesting that vandetanib did not effectively block VEGFR-3 on lymphatic endothelial cells in our animal model. Collectively, these data indicate that the response of lymphatic vessels to a TKI can determine the incidence of lymphatic metastasis, independent of TKI's effect on blood vessels.
lymphangiogenesis; lymphatic metastasis; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; intravital microscopy
A solid tumor forms an organ-like entity comprised of neoplastic cells and non-transformed host stromal cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. Similar to normal tissues, blood vessels nourish cells residing in tumors. However, unlike normal blood vessels, tumor vasculature has abnormal organization, structure, and function. Tumor vessels are leaky and blood flow is heterogeneous and often compromised. Vascular hyperpermeability and the lack of functional lymphatic vessels inside tumors cause elevation of interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumors. Each of these abnormalities forms a physiological barrier to the delivery of therapeutic agents to tumors. Furthermore, elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure increases fluid flow from the tumor margin into the peri-tumor area and may facilitate peri-tumor lymphatic hyperplasia and metastasis. Abnormal microcirculation in tumors also leads to a hostile microenvironment characterized by hypoxia and acidosis, which hinder the effectiveness of anti-tumor treatments such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. In addition, host-tumor interactions regulate expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors and hence contribute to their imbalance and resulting pathophysiological characteristics of the tumor. Restoration of pro- and anti-angiogenic balance in tumors may “normalize” tumor vasculature and thus improve its function. Indeed, anti-angiogenic treatments directly targeting angiogenic signaling pathways as well as indirectly modulating angiogenesis show normalization of tumor vasculature and microenvironment at least transiently in both preclinical and clinical settings. Combination of cytotoxic therapy and anti-angiogenic treatment during the vascular normalization exhibits synergistic effect.
Angiogenesis; lymphangiogensis; tumor; stromal cells; vascular endothelial growth factor; microenvironment; hypoxia; acidosis; interstitial fluid pressure; metastasis
Blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and the developmentally related lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) create complementary, yet distinct vascular networks. Each endothelial cell type interacts with flowing fluid and circulating cells, yet each vascular system has evolved specialized gene expression programs and thus both cell types display different phenotypes. BECs and LECs express distinct genes that are unique to their specific vascular microenvironment. Tumors also take advantage of the molecules that are expressed in these vascular systems to enhance their metastatic potential. We completed transcriptome analyses on primary cultured LECs and BECs, where each comparative set was isolated from the same individual. Differences were resolved in the expression of several major categories, such as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), cytokines, and cytokine receptors. We have identified new molecules that are associated with BECs (e.g., claudin-9, CXCL11, neurexin-1, neurexin-2, and the neuronal growth factor regulator-1) and LECs (e.g., claudin-7, CD58, hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1 (HAPLN1), and the poliovirus receptor-related 3 molecule) that may lead to novel therapeutic treatments for diseases of lymphatic or blood vessels, including metastasis of cancer to lymph nodes or distant organs.
Lymphangiogenesis; microarray; LEC; BEC; endothelial
To investigate the hypothesis that MRI derived diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion (MRP) parameters are sensitive image biomarkers for monitoring early antiangiogenic effects and predicting progression free survival (PFS) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
In this phase II clinical trial, 23 of 34 patients were included in the imaging and circulating biomarker study. DWI and MRP were performed at the baseline and at 2-weeks after initiation of sunitinib. The imaging protocol included an axial DWI sequence using b values of 50, 400 and 800 sec/mm2, and MRP using a series of coronal 3D-VIBE following 20 ml of Gd-DTPA at 2 ml/sec. These parameters were compared with clinical outcome and PFS at 6-months. Correlation between changes in MRI parameters and plasma biomarkers was also evaluated.
After 2-week of sunitinib, substantial Ktrans changes in HCC were observed from median baseline value 2.15 min−1 to 0.94 min−1 (P = 0.0001) with increases in median apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from 0.88 × 10-3 mm2/s to 0.98 × 10-3 mm2/s (P = 0.0001). Tumor size remained unchanged by RECIST and mRECIST (both P > 0.05). Patients who showed larger drop in Ktrans and Kep at 2 weeks correlated with favorable clinical outcome, and higher baseline Ktrans and larger drop in EVF correlated with longer PFS (all P < 0.05). There was a significant association between a decrease in sVEGFR2 and the drop in Ktrans and Kep (P = 0.044, P = 0.030), and a significant and borderline association between decrease in TNF-α and the drop in Ktrans and Kep, respectively (P = 0.051, P = 0.035).
In HCC, MRP may be a more sensitive biomarker in predicting early response and PFS following sunitinib than RECIST and mRECIST.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Antiangiogenic treatment; Image biomarker; Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI; Diffusion-weighted imaging; Circulating biomarker
Recent evidence has demonstrated that endothelial-specific growth factors affect the development of apparently unrelated organs and cells. Expanding this evidence further, new findings in this issue of the JCI show that neurotrophic factors can affect neovascularization. Neurotrophic factors achieve proangiogenic effects not only by directly affecting endothelial cells, but also by recruiting hematopoietic precursors. Further understanding of the biology of angiogenic factors, as well as of the function of hematopoietic cells in tissue neovascularization, will lead to improved therapeutic strategies for the treatment of diseases ranging from ischemia to cancer.
Paracrine signaling via platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB), expressed by endothelial cells, and its receptor PDGFR-β, expressed by pericytes, plays a central role in blood vessel maturation. A new study reveals that it is not just the presence of PDGFB, but how it is presented to pericytes, that determines the quality of the endothelium-pericyte interaction.
The failure of the cellular immune response to stop solid tumor growth has been the subject of much research. Although the mechanisms for tumor evasion of immune response are poorly understood, one viable explanation is that tumor-killing lymphocytes cannot reach the tumor cells in sufficient quantity to keep the tumor in check. Recently, the use of bifunctional antibodies (BFAs) has been proposed as a way to direct immune cells to the tumor: one arm of the antibody is specific for a known tumor-associated antigen and the other for a lymphocyte marker such as CD3. Injecting this BFA should presumably result in cross-linking of lymphocytes (either endogenous or adoptively transferred) with tumor cells, thereby enhancing therapy. Results from such an approach, however, are often disappointing — frequently there is no benefit gained by using the BFA. We have analyzed the retargeting of endogenous effector cells by BFA using a physiologically based whole-body pharmacokinetic model that accounts for interactions between all relevant species in the various organs and tumor. Our results suggest that the design of the BFA is critical and the binding constants of the antigen and lymphocyte binding epitopes need to be optimized for successful therapy.
bifunctional antibody; lymphocyte; trafficking; mathematical model; tumor localization
The mechanisms by which tumors are able to evade cellular immune responses are still largely unknown. It is likely, however, that the initial recruitment of lymphocytes to tumor vessels is limited by cell retention in normal tissue, which results in a low flux of these cells into the tumor vasculature. We grew MCaIV (mouse mammary carcinoma) tumors in the leg of SCID mice and injected 111In-oxine-labeled, primed T lymphocytes directed against the tumor intravenously. The systemic distribution of cells in normal organs was similar between mice injected with primed and control lymphocyte populations, except for a delayed clearance of primed lymphocytes from the lungs. Kinetics of lymphocyte localization to the tumor were identical between the primed and control lymphocyte populations. Splenectomy before the injection of primed lymphocytes increased delivery of cells to the lungs and liver after 1 hour with no significant improvement in tumor localization. Within 24 to 168 hours after injection, localization of cells in the liver of splenectomized mice was higher than in the control group. However, no significant difference in tumor localization was observed between groups. A physiologically based compartmental model of lymphocyte distribution predicted the compartmental sequestration and identified model parameters critical for experimental planning and therapeutic optimization.
lymphocyte; trafficking; pharmacokinetic; mathematical model; tumor
Parabiosis—conjoined surgery to provide a shared circulation between two mice—has been previously developed to study the hematopoietic system. This protocol describes the use of parabiosis for efficient transplantation of skin from a transgenic to a wild-type mouse. It can be used to study the role of stromal cells in a spontaneous model of distant cancer dissemination (metastasis). We have recently shown that primary tumor-derived stromal cells may facilitate metastasis by providing a provisional stroma at the secondary site. Studying the role of primary tumor–derived stroma cells requires methods for distinguishing and targeting stromal cells originating from the primary tumor versus their counterparts in the metastatic site. Parabiosis may also be used, taking advantage of the shared circulation between the parabiosed mice, to study tumor metastasis from one parabiont to another, or to investigate the role of circulating inflammatory cells or stem cells. Studying the role of stromal cells in metastasis using this model typically takes up to 11 weeks.
The role of stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment has been extensively characterized. We and others have shown that stromal cells may participate in several steps of the metastatic cascade. This protocol describes an isolated tumor perfusion model that enables studies of cancer and stromal cell shedding. It could also be used to study the effects of therapies interfering with the shedding of tumor cells or fragments, circulating (stem) cells or biomarkers. Primary tumors are grown in a microenvironment in which stromal cells express GFP ubiquitously. Tumors are implanted orthotopically or can be implanted ectopically. As a result, all tumor-associated stromal cells express GFP. This technique can be used to detect and study the role of stromal cells in tumor fragments within the circulation in mice. Studying the role of stromal cells in circulating tumor fragments using this model may take 2–10 weeks, depending on the growth rate of the primary tumor.
Stromal cells have been studied extensively in the primary tumor microenvironment. In addition, mesenchymal stromal cells may participate in several steps of the metastatic cascade. Studying this interaction requires methods to distinguish and target stromal cells originating from the primary tumor versus their counterparts in the metastatic site. Here we illustrate a model of human tumor stromal cell—mouse cancer cell coimplantation. This model can be used to selectively deplete human stromal cells (using diphtheria toxin, DT) without affecting mouse cancer cells or host-derived stromal cells. Establishment of novel genetic models (e.g., transgenic expression of the DT receptor in specific cells) may eventually allow analogous models using syngeneic cells. Studying the role of stromal cells in metastasis using the model outlined above may take 8 weeks.
Inflammatory and angiogenic biomarkers were measured in androgen deprivation therapy–treated and control groups of men with prostate cancer. Significantly higher concentrations of some inflammatory biomarkers were found in the treatment group.
Angiogenesis and inflammation are both important to the pathogenesis of malignancies. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer causes drastic hormonal changes that alter both disease and host factors. We measured inflammatory and angiogenic biomarkers in ADT-treated and control groups of men with prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods.
Baseline and 12-week plasma samples were collected from 37 ADT-naïve men with locally advanced or recurrent prostate cancer. Of those, 23 initiated ADT with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and 14 served as nontreatment controls. Samples were tested for a panel of angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers.
The treatment group had significantly higher concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and stromal cell–derived factor (SDF)-1α. None of the angiogenic biomarkers were significantly different between the groups at baseline. Among patients with a short prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (<6 months), the proangiogenic factor basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was lower at baseline. In the treatment group, plasma placental growth factor (PlGF) increased and IL-6 decreased after 12 weeks of ADT. Moreover, the treatment group continued to have significantly higher concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers IL-1β, IL-8, and SDF-1α as well as bFGF than controls.
These men were characterized by elevations in several traditional markers of aggressive disease and also by higher levels of several inflammatory biomarkers. Although ADT decreased IL-6 levels, IL-1β, IL-8, and SDF-1α remained significantly higher than in controls. The role of these biomarkers should be further explored.
The last decade has seen dramatic technological advances in the field of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. These advances have driven commercialization and clinical adoption in ophthalmology, cardiology, and gastrointestinal cancer screening. Recently an array of OCT-based imaging tools developed for preclinical intravital cancer imaging applications have yielded exciting new capabilities to probe and monitor cancer progression and response in vivo. Here, we review these results, forecast the future of OCT for preclinical cancer imaging and discuss its exciting potential to translate to the clinic as a tool for monitoring cancer therapy.